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ISSN 0007-1 595 

Bulletin of the 

British Ornithologists' Club 

Ed/ted hy 
DrJ. F. MOlW l9St 

Volume 109 No. 1 

March 1989 


Wednesday, 5 April 1989 at 6.15 p.m. for 7 p.m. in the Senior Com- 
mon Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, S.W.7, Dr Algirdas 
Knystautas will speak on "Birds of the Soviet Union". Those wishing 
to attend should send their acceptance with a cheque for £5 per person 
to reach the Hon. Secretary at 2 Chestnut Lane, Sevenoaks, Kent 
TNI 3 3AR by first post on Wednesday, 22 March 1989, if possible*. 

Dr Knystautas from Vilnius, Lithuania, USSR is a leading Soviet 
ornithologist, whose work has covered all parts of the USSR, and 
has a wide knowledge of the Soviet avifauna, including endemic 
species. He will illustrate his address with slides and his 
photography is of a very high standard. His last book published in 
London came out in 1987 and his next, with the same title as his 
address to the Club on this occasion, is to be published a year 

Tuesday, 9 May 1989 at 6.15 p.m. for 7 p.m. at the same place, Dr 
R. A. F. Cox will speak on "North Sea Birds". Those wishing to attend 
should send their acceptance with a cheque for £5 per person to reach the 
Hon. Secretary (address above) by first post on Tuesday, 25 April 1989, if 

Dr Cox has been Vice-Chairman and Secretary of the North Sea 
Bird Club and has an extensive knowledge of the vast increase 
in information on birds in the North Sea resulting from the 
exploration and development of the oil resources there 

Tuesday, 13 June 1989 at 6.15 p.m. for 7 p.m. at the same place, the 
Revd. T. W. Gladwin will speak on "Birds around Lake Erie". Those 
wishing to attend should send their acceptance with a cheque for £5 per 
person to reach the Hon. Secretary (address above) by first post on 
Tuesday, 30 May, if possible*. 

Mr Gladwin will concentrate particularly on the breeding birds 
of some of the habitats special to the area and on the migration 
patterns, which have been much studied in that area of Canada. 

Tuesday, 25 July 1989 at the same place, Dr Margaret Carswell will 
speak on "The Uganda Atlas of Birds". 

Dr Carswell lived and worked in Uganda 1968-1987 and is 
senior author of the Uganda Atlas. 

Tuesday, 26 September 1989 at the same place, in conjunction with the 
West African Ornithological Society, Mr Roger Beecroft will speak on 
"Birds in the Sahara". 

Tuesday, 28 November 1989 at the same place, Dr P. J. Jones will 
speak on "The migration strategies of Palaearctic migrants in 
West Africa in relation to Sahelian drought". 

*It will be possible to take acceptances up to the weekend before a Meet- 
ing, but Members are asked to accept by 14 days before a Meeting, if they 
possibly can. 

Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Bulletin of the 


Vol. 1 09 No. 1 Published: 30 March 1 989 


Meetings. In 1988, 9 meetings were held at which we were very 
pleased to welcome as speakers not only eminent ornithologists from this 
country but also Dr David Nettleship, Dr Clive Elliott and Dr Gerard 
Morel, who were on brief visits to England. More meetings were held 
than in any year since 1964. Additions to those customarily held in alter- 
nate months through the year were arranged partly to take advantage of 
very short visits to this country by distinguished scientists from overseas 
for them to speak and partly because of the wish of members for more 
meetings, as evidenced by increased attendances. Meetings were held in 
the Senior Common Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, South 
Kensington, except for the January meeting, which opened with the 
showing of 2 films lasting an hour by Dr Nettleship in the Lecture 
Theatre of the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, 
followed by a hot supper in the Senior Common Room, Imperial College 
and an address afterwards. The December meeting was arranged in 
collaboration with the Ornithological Society of the Middle East, who 
kindly made the arrangements for the speaker and for the projection of the 
1 6 mm sound film. The total of attendances in the year of Club members 
and their guests was 387, which (excluding meetings in earlier years held 
jointly with the British Ornithologists' Union, which have now been 
replaced by meetings held by the Union in its sole name) is the largest 
number for over 50 years. 

Club business. The Committee met 6 times in 1988. Representations 
were made that the decision to cease research work in the Sub-Department 
of Ornithology of the British Museum (Natural History) should be 
reversed, but no favourable response was forthcoming. The Club was 
elected to membership of the Association of Learned and Professional 
Society Publishers. It was decided to complete the editorial set of bound 
volumes of the Bulletin by having 50 of the most recent years' issues 
bound. New Rules were approved at the Annual General Meeting on 10 
May 1 988 and the Objects and Rules will be printed with the Index to Vol. 
108 of the Bulletin. Up to Vol. 68 (1947-1948), the Objects and Rules, the 
lists of Officers, List of Members, List of Authors and Index to Scientific 
Names were printed together, every year. Since then, the Objects and 
Rules have been printed from time to time and the List of Members only 
in Vols. 69, 74 and 79 (1959). The British Ornithologists' Union agreed to 
mark the names of Club members in their Lists of Members of 1979 and 
1982 and it has now been felt that an up-to-date list of Club members 
would be of value. 

Report of the Committee 2 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Deaths. It is with very great regret that the Committee reports the 
deaths in the past year of W. H. Phelps, Jnr. member 1953-1988, L. J. 
Turtle, member 1925-1988 and T. W. Twiggs, member 1972-1988. 
William Phelps, the distinguished Neotropical ornithologist, was joint 
author of 2 major works on the birds of Venezuela and, with his late 
father, established a superb bird museum and library. Mr Turtle con- 
tinued an active interest in birds throughout his long life. News was 
received also of the death in 1987 of F. Haverschmidt, member 1965- 
1987, well-known for his work on birds in the Caribbean and South 
America and author of a number of papers in the Bulletin. 

Membership. In 1988 there were 40 new members, and 4 members, 
who were in arrears at the end of 1987, paid up to date. There were 10 
resignations for 1988 and 23 failed to pay their subscriptions in the year. 
Paid-up membership at the year end was 578 (352 with U.K. addresses, 
226 with overseas addresses), an increase of 8 in the year and a record 
number. 23 Members were struck off, not having paid their subscriptions 
for 1987 nor 1988. 

Bulletin sales. Non-member subscriptions to the Bulletin were 2 
fewer than a year before at 147 (19 U.K., 128 overseas). We are most 
grateful to Mrs F. E. Warr for the work she has done in cataloguing the 
stock of Bulletin back numbers and for dealing with back number sales, in 
addition to which she has assisted with the separates for authors of papers 
in the Bulletin. The reproduction of scarce back numbers has continued. 

Finance. The accounts for 1988 are not yet available. They will be 
tabled at the Annual General Meeting and published afterwards in the 
Bulletin. Members wanting copies before that meeting should notify the 
Honorary Treasurer. 

The Bulletin this year has enlarged to over 200 pages thanks to the 
continuing high standard of submissions and to the continuing strong 
membership and buoyant finances. Out of 51 papers published, 22(43%) 
were on Systematics and Taxonomy, from the Indian and Atlantic 
Oceans, Italy, many countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the Gulf of Guinea, 
Madagascar, Somalia, Israel, Siberia, China, the Philippines, Hawaii and 
Brazil. It is therefore an unhappy decision of the Trustees of the British 
Museum (Natural History) to decree the abandonment of any research 
by its staff in the Sub-Department of Ornithology at Tring. The new 
Director, Dr Neil Chalmers, supports the decision and is on record as 
saying (The Guardian, 8 November 1988) "... given its finite resources 
the Museum thinks that the most exciting research developments that its 
own staff should be getting involved in are not, at the moment, in 
ornithological taxonomy. They are in other areas" and mentions DNA as 
a whole new dimension to their work. "It will give a further handle on the 
relationships between the groups in our collection" — but apparently not 
in ornithology. Why? 

Systematics and Taxonomy in birds are highly actively pursued 
throughout the world, as this volume demonstrates, and it can only be 
deplored that Ornithology has once again, after perhaps some 130 years 
or more, been made the Cinderella of the Natural Sciences, having so 
often in the past given the lead in new approaches to these important 

BOC Annual General Meeting Agenda 3 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

The move to new Printers has been smooth and the Club is grateful 
to The Dorset Press for producing what was for them a new journal so 
co-operatively and in its old guise. 


The 1989 Annual General Meeting of the British Ornithologists' Club 
will be held in the Senior Common Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial 
College, London S.W.7 at 6 p.m. on Tuesday, 9 May 1989. 


1. Minutes of the 1988 Annual General Meeting (see Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 
108: 152, 154) and of the Special General Meeting held on 7 February 

2. Report of the Committee and Accounts for 1988 

3 . The Bulletin 

4. The election of Officers. The Committee proposes that: — 

(a) Mr R. E. F. Peal be elected Chairman (vice the Revd. G. K. 
McCulloch, who is ineligible for re-election) 

(b) Mr J. H. Elgood be elected Vice-Chairman (vice Mr D. Griffin, 
who is ineligible for re-election) 

(c) Mrs A. M. Moore be elected Honorary Secretary (vice Mr R. E. F. 

(d) Mrs D. M. Bradley be re-elected Honorary Treasurer 

(e) Mr D. Griffin be elected a Member of the Committee (vice Mr 
J. H. Elgood) 

(f) Mr S.J. Farnsworth be elected a Member of the Committee in the 
event of Mrs A. M. Moore being elected Honorary Secretary 

5 . An v other business of which notice shall have been given in accordance 
with Rule (12). 

By Order of the Committee 

The seven hundred and eighty-third Meeting of the Club was held in the Senior Common 
Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, London SW7 on Tuesday, 8 November 1988 
at 7 pm. The attendance was 34 Members and 25 guests. 

Members present were: Revd. G. K. McCulloch (Chairman), M. A. Adcock, Dr J. S. 
Ash, Miss H. Baker, P. J. Belman, J. H. R. Boswall, Mrs D. M. Bradley, D. R. Calder, 
S. J. W. Coles, Dr N. J. Collar, I. D. Collins, P. J. Conder, Dr H. Q. P. Crick, J. H. 
Elgood, J. H. Fanshawe, S. J. Farnsworth, A. Gibbs, H. S. Gibbons, Revd. J. M. 
Gladwin, B. Gray, D. Griffin, Dr M. G. Kelsey, R. H. Kettle, Dr F. R. Lambert, 
Dr J. F. Monk, Mrs A. Moore, R. G. Morgan, Mrs M. N. Muller, R. E. F. Peal, R. E. 
Sharland, X. H. F. Stone, A. R. Swash, A. R. Tanner, and Dr D. H. Thomas. 

Guests present were: Mrs B. E. Adcock, Dr R. J. Baker, Mrs J. Bull, P. Bull, D. 
Couzens, C. Gibbons, Mrs M. C. Gibbons, Mrs J. M. Gladwin, A. Gretton, Mrs S. 
Griffin, X. K. Krabbe, A. J. Holcombe, Mrs B. J. Holcombe, Lt-Cdr W. Houghton, Mrs 
I. McCulloch, P. J. Moore, Dr Gerard J. Morel, Dr M. -Yvonne Morel, Mrs E. Peal, I. 
Proud, R. Ranft, Mrs G. Swash, I. Thomas, Shunji Usui and A. Valle. 

Dr Gerard J. Morel spoke on "Paradoxical Sahel: rich wetlands surrounded with arid 
bush steppe". His address follows. 

G.J. Morel 4 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Paradoxical Sahel: rich wetlands surrounded 
with arid bush steppe* 

by Gerard J. Morel 

The Sahel can be described as a belt several hundred km wide, lying south 
of the Sahara, its southern margin abutting against the sudanian broad- 
leaved, dry savannah. It thus occupies the latitudes between 15° and 
17°N, and is therefore within the Tropics. From the naturalist's point of 
view, however, the Sahel is more aptly defined by the rainfall, on which 
plants and animals so closely depend. The average Sahelian rainfall is 
300 mm a year, with large variations: from 100 mm (or even less) to 
600 mm. It is worth pointing out that a rainfall of 300 mm is about half 
that of the Normandy coast — and, I suppose, the British coast opposite as 
well, both of which are reputedly quite humid; but the Sahelian rains only 
occur mainly during 2 months, August and September, often in violent 
and inadequate downpours. Consequently, the Sahelian creatures, Man 
included, have to put up with insufficient rain and, above all, with 9 or 10 
rainless months, conditions which are made even worse by evaporation 
which takes toll of 1 cm of water a day on average. The occurrence of the 
rains at a fixed date — even if these rains are very light in certain years — has 
strongly influenced the ecological solutions evolved by living organisms 
in order to survive. Birds, indeed, at least those species breeding during 
the rains, prepare themselves for breeding well in advance of the rains. 

The trees, which are mostly thorny, hardly reach 10 m in the least dry 
places and are nowhere dense enough to constitute woodland — except in 
the rivers' valleys. The main genera are Acacia and Balanites, which put 
on new foliage during the short rainy season, while at the same time a 
grass layer, c. 50 cm high, grows rapidly and a short-lived and abundant 
insect life flourishes. The seeds produced by the grass layer fall on the 
ground and remain there, available until the next rains, of which the 
numerous seed-eating bird and mammal species take advantage. It is also 
worth observing that this temporary peak occurs as the Palaearctic 
migrants undertake their autumn migration over the Sahara. 

The Sahel, nevertheless, in contrast to any other country, does not 
depend solely on the local rains. Its most salient features are the 2 large 
rivers, the Senegal and Niger, which are not fed by the scanty Sahelian 
rains, but by tributaries which catch their water far away in the Fouta 
Djallon mountain range of Guinea. These rivers have a seasonal regime 
and annually flood very large expanses of lowlands, quite independently 
of the local rains. The inundation zones are made up of an intricate system 
of temporary rivers, marshes and ponds which produce wild rice, water- 
lilies, reedbeds etc, the rapid and unrelenting evaporation creating mud- 
flats suitable for such as waders. The flood is also the time for most species 
of fish to spawn; but by the end of the flood, as the water grows shallower 
and many ponds are isolated, many small fish are unable to escape and are 
then an easy prey for fish-eating species. Thick woodlands of a particular 

*Based on a talk to the British Ornithologists' Club meeting on 8 November 1988. 

G.J. Morel 5 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Acacia, A. nilotica, grow on some floodable, clayish soils; being the only 
genuine woodlands in this latitude, they play an important role in the 
general ecology. 

The Sahel is thus comprised of 2 strongly different eco-systems which 
operate in near independence. 

What sorts of birds are to be found in such a contrasted and trying 
environment? Naturally, species closely adapted to aridity and species 
associated with wetlands, will be present; but the outstanding character 
of the Sahel bird fauna, taken as a whole, is the number of migrants, 
both Palaearctic and Afrotropical which are included, because migrants 
respond strongly to seasonal climates. In the list of northern Senegal 
birds are some 150 Palaearctic species I have identified out of a total of 
370 species (the coastal species, but not the true marine species, being 
included); the Palaearctic migrants thus account for 40% of this list. 
However high this percentage may appear, it does not give a real idea of its 
actual impact, because the population of several Palaearctic species (e.g. 
ducks) largely outnumbers that of the equivalent native species. 

The Bush Steppe 

This is the typical Sahel, relentlessly dry for 9 continuous months. Three 
main groups of birds which inhabit, at least temporarily, this steppe, can 
be distinguished. 

Sedentary species, so called, although they are more or less nomadic: 
Helmeted Guinea-fowl Numida meleagris, Senegal Parrot Poicephalus 
senegalus, Long-tailed Parakeet Psittacula krameri, Chestnut-bellied 
Sand-grouse Pterocles exustus, Temminck's Courser Cursorius 
feminine kii, Chestnut-backed Finch-lark Eremopterix leucotis, and several 
African warblers (Eremomela, Sylvietta . . .). 

Afrotropical migrants, including both short and long-range migrants. 
Amongst them: Denham's Bustard Otis denhami (a very large bird), 
Bronze-winged Courser Cursorius chalcopterus, a sand-grouse, a bee- 
eater, and several cuckoos and kingfishers. Some migrants have their 
breeding quarters farther south, in a more wooded region and come north 
only for the off-season; but several species (White-throated Bee-eater 
Merops albicollis, several cuckoos) come to the Sahel in order to breed 

Palaearctic migrants, which will be elaborated on later. 

In actual fact, since many Afrotropical species are nomadic or migratory 
and since all the Palaearctic birds are migratory, the Sahel population is 
ceaselessly changing in the species' efforts to cope with seasonal and 
variable resources. We have some figures on this population, obtained 
through monthly censuses carried out in an intensively studied plot. 

The maximum total number of birds per hectare occurs during the 
rainy season and coincides with the autumn passage of the Palaearctic 
migrants, in September-October: this maximum is 5.5-10 birds/hectare; 
and the minimum, which occurs in May-June, at the end of the dry season 
(when all the Palaearctic species have left) is 1-1.5 birds/hectare. The 
ratio of 1 0: 1 between the maximum and minimum is large, yet the density 
of the total population is low, even at the maximum of 1 birds in the rainy 

G.J. Morel 6 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

season. These figures, however, are somewhat different for several large 
sized species which were not regularly censused: the larger bustards, the 
Ground Hornbill Bucorvus abyssinicus, the Helmeted Guinea-fowl, the 
Ostrich Strutkio camelus are not included in our figures, because of their 
irregular distribution. 

On a more general basis, it is easy to realize that the gap between the 
maximum and the minimum has to be filled by migratory birds, either 
Palaearctic or Afrotropical. 

Two sorts of Palaearctic migrants are observed on the bush steppe: 
those that are only on passage and winter farther south, and those that 
actually winter in the steppe. 

The passage migrants have not received much attention; for example the 
Cuckoo Cuculus canorus, Golden Oriole O. oriolus, several warblers and 
Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana, after crossing the Sahara in the 
autumn, remain some time in the Sahel, obviously in order to make 
some recovery. Now, the Sahel in autumn offers, depending on the 
rains, uncertain resources and this variable, unreliable situation is likely 
to influence the progress of the migrants, so that their sojourn is 
unpredictable from year to year. 

The wintering visitors in the Sahel have been the subject of many 
studies — yet rarely long term ones — in order to determine which factors 
are responsible for their fluctuations and, for some of them, their decline. 
But it is difficult to disentangle and estimate the different factors at work 
in the survival of migrants wintering in the Sahelian bush steppe such as, 
for instance, Common Quail C. coturnix, Wryneck Jynx torquilla, 
Hoopoe Upupa epops, Woodchat Shrike Lanius senator, Tawny pipit 
Anthus campestris, Redstart Ph. phoenicurus, Wheatear Oe. oenanthe and 
Whitethroat Sylvia communis. Chiffchaffs Phylloscopus collybita winter in 
the riverine vegetation of the valley, not in the steppe itself. 

Several ornithologists (R. E. Moreau in particular and more recently 
K. Curry-Lindhal) have attempted to analyze the conditions met by the 
migrants in this steppe and have wondered why and how migrants could 
survive at all in this sort of habitat. Although it is not relevant here to raise 
again these questions, I can make a few comments: the density of the 
wintering Palaearctic species is very low, which makes any discussion, 
e.g. on competition and niche saturation, very risky. Also, besides some 
arid land species (e.g. Wheatear, Bonelli's Warbler Phylloscopus bonelli), 
the others (e.g. Redstart, Wryneck, Whitethroat, Blackcap Sylvia 
atricapilla) winter also, and in larger numbers, in the much richer habitat 
of the valleys and we may wonder whether the Sahelian steppe is not a 
second choice habitat to which any surplus of migrants is forced to retreat, 
but this is pure speculation. 

The River Valley and the Wetlands 

From this survey of the bush steppe and its sparse population, we 
can, within walking distance, go over to the valley. There, thousands of 
hectares of lowlands and pans are watered, not only by the small rains, but 
by an enormous volume of water flowing from Guinea. The resulting 
cornucopia provides several categories of food. 

G.jf. Morel 7 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 


Most species offish spawn when the lowlands are flooded, where they find 
the new grass, seeds and insects. Then, the fry meet several fates: many 
small fish are caught in ponds, isolated by the falling water levels, but the 
rest are able to reach the river or more or less permanent marshes. From 
the birds' point of view, the most significant fish are those that can be 
captured regularly. Some quantitative data are available and they are 
impressive; they can compare with the richest waters in other parts of the 

Undoubtedly, the most conspicuous and important fish consumers are 
White Pelicans Pelecanus onocrotalns, whose numbers in the Senegal delta 
are somewhere about 5000 and which breed there. During their several 
months stay, with an average daily intake of 1 kg offish per bird, we can 
accept a consumption of at least 5 tons a day for this species. 

In the heron family, Egrets, Squacco Ardeola ralloides and Night 
Herons N. nycticorax reproduce in mixed colonies with Long-tailed Shag 
Phalacrocorax africaniis, African Darter Anhinga rufa and Wood /. ibis 
and Sacred Ibises Threskiornis aethiopicus, from the outset of the flood, 
catching fish in the shallow waters; several thousands of nests have been 
censused. Other less conspicuous species take their share of fish: 
kingfishers, gulls and terns. Even rather clumsy species fish whenever it is 
easy, the White Stork C. ciconia for instance. 

These fish consumers have several characteristics in common. Because 
their food supply undergoes big fluctuations, they are migratory, either 
towards the Palaearctic or within the continent. Pelicans, for example, 
wander in search of plentiful food from northern to southern Senegal, 
northward along the Mauritanian coast and probably eastward also to 
Mali and perhaps farther east to Chad. 

Several of these species breed in colonies, all more or less vulnerable to 
predation. The pelicans, owing to their conspicuousness and the length of 
their breeding cycle, need very secure islets together with an abundant 
supply of fish; they are thus often compelled to travel considerable dis- 
tances, up to 100 km, to obtain their food. The colonies of herons and 
cormorants are often raided by poachers and the trees on which they nest 
{Acacia nilotica) are felled for charcoal. 

The consumption of such vast quantities offish, even though most are 
of small size, raises the question of competition with Man, himself an 
important and ruthless fish consumer. The sharp decline of several fish- 
eating bird species in regions where fisheries have been developed (Cape 
of Good Hope) is a good example. In the Sahel, either in the Senegal or 
Niger valleys, although the locals fish actively, such competition does not 
seem an immediate threat: small fish are usually ignored. But agricultural 
developments, which generally put an end to natural flooding, heavily 
disturb the breeding cycle of the fish and of their predators. Man's 
ultimate remedy, disastrous for birds, is fish-farming. 


The sudden swarming of invertebrates during the rainy season is all too 
familiar to those who have lived in the tropics, if only for the profusion of 
unpleasant little creatures. The consumption of insects by birds is much 

G.J. Morel 8 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

more widespread than that of fish — undoubtedly because it involves less 
fundamental adaptations, but also because insects are found everywhere, 
in water, soil, vegetation and in the air. Accordingly, the predators of 
insects, both Palaearctic and Tropical, are very varied. Many species have 
a mixed diet and take also fish, seeds and amphibians, so that variety is 
further increased. 

The largest population of insectivorous birds are found near the river. 
Among those from the Palaearctic, several species or groups are of 
particular interest for example, sandpipers and stints, Garganey Anas 
querqnedula and Pintail A. acuta, which number hundreds of thousands, 
all of which, though waterbirds, have a mixed diet. Several insectivorous 
passerines are also important insect consumers. The most noticeable are 
Sand Martins R. riparia, White M . alba and Yellow Wagtails M. flava 
and the warblers which inhabit the riverine vegetation (e.g. Whitethroat, 
Blackcap, ChifTchaff). All the Palaearctic migrants, with a few exceptions, 
such as the Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur, eat insects to some extent. 


The production of wild seeds (Graminaceae, water-lilies) is sufficiently 
large to have prompted Man to harvest them, as I myself witnessed some 
years ago. The yield of certain grasses (Panicum, Echichloa) is 200 or 300 
kilos per hectare, whereas Sorghum, without fertilizer or irrigation, does 
little better. 

Seeds are eaten by both Palaearctic and African species. Amongst the 
Palaearctic species are Garganey, Pintail (also partly insectivorous), and 
Ruffs Philomachus pugnax, whose population, in the region of millions is 
partial to rice-fields, where they pick up the spilled grain, Black-tailed 
Godwit L. limosa and, during the spring passage, millions of Turtle 

The Afrotropical ducks are far less numerous than the Palaearctic ones 
and, of course, there are practically no tropical waders. 

But one of the major seed-consumers is an African passerine, the Red- 
billed Quelea Q. quelea, which is the most numerous bird in the continent, 
breeding in colonies with hundreds of thousands of nests. I counted on a 
single Acacia raddiana c. 1200 nests. The nestlings are fed both seeds 
and insects and the adults roam the lowlands in search of grass seeds. 
Unfortunately for these little birds, and for Man, it is a small step from 
wild seeds to cereals, and agricultural projects are precisely developed 
(for obvious reasons) in the Sahel valleys, where granivorous birds are 
most abundant. 


Fruit is the only food category which is not really plentiful and, interest- 
ingly, none is produced during the rains. 

In conclusion, I hope the above points underline, as I intended, the 
contrasts observed in the Sahel between the rich wetlands and the arid 
bush steppe. I have also emphasized the fundamental variability of the 
Sahel as a whole, seasonally and annually, and its main consequence, 

D. Parish & S. Ardseungnurn 9 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

namely the enormous and temporary surplus which can be utilized only 
by immigrant populations, to such a point that, equally paradoxically, 
several Palaearctic bird species greatly outnumber the local ones, 
especially in the Sahelian wetlands. 

The sharp contrast between wetlands and arid steppe, between the 
dry season and the short rainy season, the unpredictable variability of 
the climate (in certain years the rains fail almost completely) have all 
contributed to the evolution of the migratory birds, study of which has 
fascinated so many ornithologists and whose evolutionary adaptations are 
still under constant and active pressure. 

From the ornithologist's point of view, the study of migrations, and 
particularly the migration over north and western Africa, because it raises 
so many challenging questions, is certainly one of the most stimulating, 
but also one of the most difficult. Without seeming over-pessimistic, I can 
say that when one thinks one has discovered at last a solution to a problem 
in this field, the next season often brings one contradiction, and one has to 
go back to the birds and study them again; but this is the rule of one's 
favourite game, ornithology. 

Swinhoe's Storm Petrel Oceanodroma monorhis; 
a species new for Thailand 

by Duncan Parish & Surapol Ardseungnurn 

Received 1 7 March 1988 

On 18 October 1985 the corpse of a small, dark, petrel was found in Ban 
Da To Village, 10 km east of Pattani Town, on the east coast of the Thai 
Peninsula in South Thailand (6°55'N, 1 01 °20'E). The bird was discovered 
by the authors during a joint survey of Pattani Bay by interwader (The 
East Asia Pacific shorebird Study Programme) and Prince of Songkla 
L niversity (PSU). The bird, which appeared very fresh, was found on a 
pile of rubbish next to a house, 20 m from the shore of the Bay. According 
to the villagers, the bird had been accidentally caught the previous night 
in a net set for fish in the bay. 


A small, all-dark petrel with a forked tail. Overall plumage dark brown 
with a pale brown bar across the greater wing coverts. The basal parts of 
the outer 6 or 7 (depending on wing) primaries had white shafts, but this 
would probably not be visible in the field. Soft parts were all black. The 
following measurements were made: wing 156 mm (unflattened), 
161mm (maximum-chord); outer tail feathers 70 mm; central tail 
feathers 57 mm; tarsus 24 mm; culmen 1 5 mm; bill tip to tail tip 1 95 mm; 
wingspan 480 mm. 

There are 7 species of all-dark petrels with forked tails: Swinhoe's 
Storm Petrel Oceanodroma monorhis, Matsudaira's Storm Petrel 
Oceanodroma matsudairae, Markham's Storm Petrel Oceanodroma 
markhami, Tristram's Storm Petrel Oceanodroma tristrami, the dark- 
rumped form of Leach's Storm Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa chapmani, 

D. Parish & S. Ardseungnum 10 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 


Morphometric measurements (mm) of Swinhoe's Storm Petrel Oceanodroma monorhis and 

the dark-rumped form of Leach's Storm Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa chapmani 


A'lean (range) 


Mean (Range) 



Total length 


150.1 (148-152) 




156 161 





Data on monorhis from Cramp & Simmons (1977) and measurements taken from specimens 
in the Zoological Reference Collection of the National University of Singapore. Data on 
chapmani (from Baja California) from W. R. P. Bourne. 

Ashy Storm Petrel Oceanodroma homochroa and Black Storm Petrel 
Oceanodroma melania. 

Matsudaira's and Tristram's Storm Petrels are larger than the bird in 
question (total length 250 mm/wingspan 560 mm). Tristram's also differs 
in having a more obvious diagonal upperwing bar, deeper fork to the tail, 
and usually, bluer or greyer cast to the plumage. Matsudaira's has a 
distinctive white patch on the distal portion of the upperwing, caused by 
the white shafts of all the outer primaries. Markham's and Black Storm 
Petrels are similar in plumage, but are larger (total length 230 mm/ 
wingspan 490 mm). The plumage of the Ashy Storm Petrel is blackish- 
grey, not black as in the Pattani bird. 

This leaves Swinhoe's Petrel and the dark-rumped form of Leach's 
Petrel. The latter normally occurs on the eastern, while the former occurs 
on the western side of the Pacific (Harrison 1983). 

By comparing the measurements of the Pattani bird with those of 
chapmani and monorhis (Table 1) it is concluded that the species found 
was Swinhoe's Storm Petrel. It is too long in the wing and tarsus and too 
short in the tail for chapmani. 


Swinhoe's Storm Petrel breeds in the NW Pacific May— August and 
migrates to the Indian Ocean. The precise migration route is not known, 
but is possibly through the Sunda Strait to the Indian Ocean. In Thailand 
there have been no previous records (P. D. Round). In Peninsular 
Malaysia/Singapore it has been collected in small numbers in the Malacca 
Straits and off Singapore in September— November and April and May 
(Medway & Wells 1976). There have been 2 recent records from the east 
coast of Peninsular Malaysia: D. M. Simpson observed 30 in a flock 4 km 
off theTerengganu coast near to Kertehon21 September 1982; D. Diskin 
observed one on 18 September 1983 heading SW between Rawa and 
Tioman Islands in Pahang State (Wells, D. R. in prep.). The most recent 
record in Singapore was of a bird observed on 7 October 1984 in outer 
Singapore Harbour by H. A. Buck (Hails, in prep.). Van Marie & Voous 
(1988) quote 4 records from Sumatran waters, all between Singapore and 
the Sunda Strait (between Java and Sumatra). In Borneo, it is considered 
an occasional visitor (Smythies 1981) with single records in Sabah 

B. Wood 1 1 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

(January) and Sarawak (September). There is only one record for Hong 
Kong waters, June 1961 (Chalmers 1986). 


Although there are very few published records for countries bordering 
the South China Sea, this is probably due to the difficulties involved in 
observing and identifying Swinhoe's Storm Petrel. The local fishermen 
in Pattani Bay claimed to be familiar with this species, but this may be due 
to confusion, since the Barn Swallow Hirudo rustica has the same local 
name and is a common migrant in the area. Southward movement down 
the east coast of the Malay Peninsula would be consistent with a migration 
route from the NW Pacific to the Indian Ocean via the South China Sea 
and the Sunda Strait. Further observations of this species are therefore to 
be expected, particularly from boats in the South China Sea. 


The survey was conducted in conjunction with Prince of Songkla University with financial 
assistance from interwader and the International Council for Bird Preservation. Frank 
Lambert obtained measurements of specimens in the Zoological Reference Collection of 
NUS. Crawford Prentice, David Wells and Dr J. F. Monk made useful comments on the 
manuscript. Dr W. R. P. Bourne provided useful additional measurements of O. monorhis 
and O. leucorhoa chapmani. 


Chalmers, M. L. 1986. Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Hong Kong. Hong Kong Bird 

Watching Society. 
Cramp, S. & Simmons, K. E. L. (Eds) 1977. The Handbook of the Birds of the Western 

Palearctic. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press. 
Hails, C.J. (in prep.) The Birds of Singapore : an annotated check-list. British Ornithologists' 

Harrison, P. 1983. Seabirds — an Identification Guide. Croome Helm. 
Van Marie, J. G. & Voous, K. H. 1988. The Birds of Sumatra : an annotated check-list. British 

Ornithologists' Union. 
Medwav, Lord & Wells, D. R. 1976. The Birds of the Malay Peninsula. Vol. V. H. F. & 

G. Witherby. 
Smythies, B. E. 1981. The Birds of Borneo. 3rd ed. Sabah Society, Kota Kinabalu. 
Wells, D. R. (in prep.). Bird Report Peninsula Malaysia : 1982 and 1983. 

Addresses: Duncan Parish, International Coordinator Asian Wetland Bureau, IPT, 
Universiti Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Surapol 
Ardseungnurn, Biology Department, Faculty of Science & Technology, Prince of 
Songkla University, Pattani 94000, Thailand. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Biometrics, iris and bill colouration, and moult 
of Somali forest birds 

by Brian Wood 

Received 21 March 1988 

Although the dimensions and weight attained by individual birds are 
probably the consequence of a host of conflicting selection pressures, to 

B. Wood 12 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

some extent they reflect both their evolutionary history and their 
immediate ecology. Our understanding of the influence of environment 
on morphology is likely to improve as data become available from more 
and more populations which may inhabit environments that differ subtly 
from one another. Whilst we know that quite striking size and weight 
differences may occur between locations only a few hundred kilometres 
apart (Moreau 1944, Britton 1977, Hanmer 1978), the overall picture is 
far from complete for any one species. Regrettably, some populations 
may be eliminated before any data can be obtained, as their habitats are 
destroyed during the course of 'development'. Data from populations at 
the edge of a species' range are often most enlightening, since relative 
isolation and slightly atypical environmental conditions can produce 
strik- ing morphological responses, perhaps eventually leading to specia- 
tion. If we are ever to come near to attaining a complete understanding of 
how species have reacted to their environment, it is vital that data are 
collected from as many populations as possible whilst the opportunity 
still exists. 

Study site, materials and methods 

Riverine forest was once extensive throughout the valleys of the 
Shabeelle and Jubba rivers in Somalia (Pichi-Sermoli 1957). It has 
now been cleared almost entirely along the Shabeelle and only 2 size- 
able blocks remain in the Jubba valley, totalling about 400 ha 
(Madgwick et al. 1988). The forest depends upon the river for its 
existence, both as a source of ground-water and for the creation of suit- 
able regeneration niches by periodic flooding. Riverine forest rarely 
extends more than c. 300 m either side of the river and has a varied 
structure and species composition, but is mostly evergreen, with a canopy 
height of 20 m or more, often with a dense understorey (Madgwick 
in press). 

As part of the Somalia Research Project, the bird community of the 
remaining blocks of riverine forest, situated near to Hangoodle (01°05'N, 
42°36'E), was surveyed during August and early September 1986. Mist 
nets were used to capture c. 500 individual birds, which were measured, 
weighed (to the nearest 0-1 g for birds weighing less than 50 g, and to the 
nearest 1 g for heavier birds). Information was also collected on all birds 
in moult (recorded by the method indicated by Ginn & Melville 1 983). All 
birds were ringed, either with plastic colour rings or metal rings supplied 
by the East African Natural History Society, and released. Many were 
subsequently recaptured, enabling estimates of population size and range 
to be made (Wood in press). 

There are few previous records from Somalia of many of the species 
recorded in this survey of the Jubba forests. It is apparent that most have 
a very localised distribution within the country (Ash & Miskell 1983). 
Unless the recent very rapid clearance of riverine forest is halted, there is a 
real risk that this bird community could disappear from Somalia within 
the next few years. Its continued existence is also threatened by spraying 
with insecticide to eradicate tsetse fly and by the imminent construction 
of a dam upstream, near Baardhere. 

B. Wood 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Biometrics of birds caught in riverine forest, southern Somalia 


Accipiter badius 
Accipiter minullus 
Accipiter tachiro 
Turtur chalcospilos 
Turtur tympanistria 
Turtur tympanistria 
Turtur tympanistria 
Ciccaba icoodfordi 
Glaucidium capense 
Apaloderma narina 
Ispidina picta 
Halcyon albiventris 
Halcyon senegaloides 
Phoenicidus purpureas 
Indicator variegatus 
Campethera abingoni 
Dicrurus ludzvigii 
Turdoides squamulatus 
Andropadus importunus 
Chlorocichla flaviventris 
Xicator chloris 
Phyllastrephus strepitans 
Cercotrichas quadrivirgata 
Cossypha heuglini 
Cossypha natalensis 
Apalis melanocephala 
Camaroptera brachyura 
yiuscicapa caerulescens 
Platysteira peltata 
Platysteira peltata 
Erythrocercus holochlorus 
Tersiphone ziridis 
Tersiphone viridis 
Trochocercus cyanomelas 
Trochocercus cyanomelas 
Trochocercus cyanomelas 
Dryoscopus cubla 
Laniarius ferrugineus 
Anthreptes collaris 
Anthreptes collaris 
Anthreptes collaris 
Xectarinia amethystina 
Xectarinia olivacea 
Xectarinia olivacea 
Xectarinia veroxii 
Ploceus bicolor 
























































































































































































8 + . 
































'> ; ; 













































The weights and wing length (maximum chord, Svensson 1984) of all 
birds at the time of their original capture are summarised in Table 1 . 
Recapture weights have not been included as all recaptures were within a 
few days of original capture and consequently weights may have been 
influenced by handling and ringing. As was to be expected, there was 

B. Wood 


Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

7 ■ 

• • 

• • • 

• • 
• • 

• • 

• • 




• • 




Figure 1 . The weights of male and female Olive Sunbirds Nectarinia olivacea at time of 
capture in southern Somalia. Both sexes show a tendency to increase progressively in weight 
throughout the day. 

Figure 2. The number of birds 
caught (open histogram) and 
recaptured (shaded) in riverine 
forest in southern Somalia 
throughout the day. 

evidence for diurnal weight increases, particularly for species caught 
often (Fig. 1), but no corrections to the recorded weights have been made 
to allow for this. Most species were caught throughout the day, or equally 
often in the evening as in the early morning (Fig. 2), so little bias will have 
been introduced by the lack of correction. Where weights differ from 

B. Wood 15 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

those of other populations of the same species, this is discussed in the 
systematic list which follows. Comparisons have been made with pub- 
lished weights from Liberia (Colston & Curry-Lindahl 1986), Ghana 
(Greig-Smith & Davidson 1977), Nigeria (Jones 1984), Kenva (Britton 
1970, 1972, 1977, Karr 1976a, Mann 1985). Tanzania (Moreau 1944), 
Zambia (Britton & Dowsett 1969, Peirce 1984), Mozambique (Hanmer 
1978, 1980), Malawi (Hanmer 1978, 1980, Johnson 1985), Zimbabwe 
(Earle 1981) and South Africa (Biggs et al. 1979). 

Several birds were also captured and ringed in degraded riverine forest 
at Balcad (02°20'N, 45°32'E) on the Shabeelle River on 19/20 September. 
Where relevant, details of these birds have also been included. 

Species accounts 

SHIKRA Accipiter badius 

Both birds captured were replacing their first secondary and were in the 
middle of tail moult. This begins with feathers 1 (centre) and 3, with 2 and 
6 being the last to be replaced. No contour moult was occurring. Both 
were considerably heavier (207, 218 g) than a sample of 56 birds from 
South Africa (range 75—158 g). 

LITTLE SPARROWHAWK Accipiter minulliis 

One of the 2 birds caught (7 Aug) was in full wing and tail moult, but 
was not moulting contour features; scores: primaries = 39, secondaries = 
30, tail = 44. 

EMERALD-SPOTTED WOOD DOVE: Tlirtur chalcospilos 

The single bird caught (5 Aug) was completing moult of wing and tail 
and was in mid contour moult. 

TAMBOURINE DOVE Turtur tympanistria 

Nine of the 16 birds were in moult. Timing of moult was very 
variable, with 3 birds in early wing moult (4 Aug— 5 Sep) and 3 having 
completed primary moult but still in mid secondary moult. Tail moult 
was beginning in those in primary moult, but was completed or nearly so 
in others. Body moult was found at all stages. Male weights were signifi- 
cantly greater than those from Liberia, and both sexes were rather heavier 
than a small sample from East Africa (Britton 1970), but weighed almost 
the same as Tanzanian birds. 

BARRED OWLET Glaucidium capense 

One of 4 birds was beginning contour moult and replacing secondaries 
(score=19 on 2 Sep). Somali birds had wing lengths (mean 138mm) 
greater than those reported from Liberia (male 118, 2 females average 
128 mm) but were considerably lighter (mean 106 g) than 5 birds from 
South Africa (average 129.4 g). 

NARINAS TROGON Apaloderma narina 

Six of 7 birds w T ere completing moult (Fig. 3). Tail moult begins at 3 or 
4 and ends at 1 and 6. Contour moult coincides with primary moult. 
Somali weights (mean 55 g) were considerably less than birds from 
Liberia (3 males, average 68.8 and one female 70.3 g) and one male from 
Zambia (72.0 g). 

B. Wood 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 








, • 

• • 




• • 

N O R T 



Figure 3. Primary moult scores of selected species caught in riverine forest. Horizontal bars 
indicate the periods of netting at Shoonto south (SS), Barako Madow (BM), Shoonto north 
(SN) and Balcad (BC). 

PYGMY KINGFISHER Ispidina picta 

Six of 21 birds were in active primary moult, as were 3 caught at Balcad 
on the Shabeelle on 19-20 Sep (Fig. 3). Rectrices were either old or up to 
mid-moult; contour moult was at all stages. This roughly coincides with 
the timing of the moult of immatures in Nigeria (Jones 1 984) but is about 
4 months later than in Malawi (Hanmer 1 980), where moult appears to be 
protracted. Weights (mean 10.8 g) were significantly less than Nigerian 
birds (mean 12.4 g at 1 1°50'N), very much lighter than wet-season birds 
from Zambia (mean 14.3 g) and also much lighter than Malawi birds. 
They are close to weights from Ghana in the wet season (adult mean 
1 1 .4 g, juvenile mean 10-6 g, at 9°1 5'N) and of birds collected in Liberia (8 
males mean 9.7, 6 females 11.1). 

BROWN-HOODED KINGFISHER Halcyon albiventris 

Three adults were in mid moult of primaries in early Aug and the 
fourth adult had suspended primary moult at score = 30. All 3 were 
beginning contour moult, and tail moult varied from about 1/3 to 2/3 
completed. Three immatures caught in early Sep had all suspended pri- 
mary moult (scores = 1 5 to 25). Mean wing length was less (94. 1 mm) and 
weight lighter (44.2 g) than birds from Mozambique and Malawi (wing 
96-108 mm, weight 48—68 g), where moult occurs 6 months out of phase 
with moult recorded in Somalia. 

GREEN WOOD-HOOPOOE Phoenicnlus purpureus 

The single bird caught was in mid tail moult and had begun primary 


Three out of 15 were in active primary moult late Aug/early Sep. One 
had suspended primary moult at score =15. Contour moult had begun in 
2 birds. 

B. Wood 17 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

SQUARE-TAILED DRONGO Dicrurus ludwigii 

Five out of 8 were in active primary moult (scores = 17 to 41). These 
5 and one other were in active tail, secondary and contour moult. 
Mean weight (25.7 g) was considerably lighter than 2 birds from Liberia, 
rather less than ones from Tanzania and very similar to weights in 

SCALY BABBLER Turdoides squamulatus 

One out of 5 was in active regular primary moult (score = 28 on 5 Sep) 
and contour moult. Two more had irregular moult of primaries and 

ZANZIBAR SOMBRE GREENBUL Andropadus importanus 

Six out of 10 were in primary moult in early Sep (scores = 22 to 44). One 
caught at Balcad on 20 Sep had suspended moult at score = 10. Weights 
were very similar to birds from the coast of Kenya (Britton 1972). 

NICATOR Nicator chloris 

One was undergoing a complete moult when caught on 17 Aug 
(primary score = 32). 

NORTHERN BROWNBUL Phyllastrephus strepitans 

Twenty-four out of 45 were moulting. Twenty-one were in active 
primary moult (Fig. 3). Ten had a regular moult of secondaries and tail, 
and most were replacing contour plumage. Tail moult was irregular in the 
other moulting birds. Britton (1972) sexed some Kenyan birds on wing 
length. Somali birds also appear to be separable on this character, with a 
wing length of 81 mm bisecting our sample exactly (one bird indetermi- 
nate). Iris colour varied, usually being recorded as pale stone or as brown/ 
reddish-brown, but colour did not clearly correspond with size or sex 
(Fig. 4), although all the heaviest males and several of the largest females 
had brown or reddish-brown irises. Iris colour may be related to domi- 
nance status or could merely be a dimorphism that is not related to other 

EASTERN BEARDED SCRUB ROBIN Cercotrichas quadrivirgata 

Of 20 birds caught, 3 had almost completed moult (primary scores = 45 
to 55) on 16—19 Aug and a fourth bird had irregular moult of some 
primaries and secondaries. One of the 4 was completing contour moult. 

WHITE-BROWED ROBIN CHAT Cossypha heiiglini 

The 2 birds caught had weights (30.7, 33.6 g) that were intermediate 
between those of birds from coastal and western Kenya but closer to the 
former. They were lighter than most Zambian birds. 

GREY-BACKED CAMAROPTERA Camaroptera brachyura 

Four out of 31 were completing tail moult, 2 were completing contour 
moult and 1 had almost completed primary moult (score = 47). All others 
caught appeared to have fresh wings but rather abraded tails. Weights 
(mean 8.7 g) were similar to 3 birds from southern Kenya (mean 8.9 g) but 
were lighter than birds from all other locations in Africa, including coastal 
Kenya (average of 65 birds, 9.29 g). 

B. Wood 

Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 








8 ? O D Q| 




o □ 


O C© D 


D O 


AA ▲ 

~~~~ r - ° - 

□ "— — 
Ad m 


▲ DA 



A D 

A A 



2 2 

2 6 


3 4 

Figure 4. The relationship 
between wing length, weight 
and iris colour for probable 
male (circles) and female 
(triangles) Northern Brown- 
buls Phyllastrephus strepitans 
in southern Somalia. Solid 
symbols are for birds with 
brown or reddish-brown 
irises, open symbols for birds 
with pale stone coloured 
irises. The iris colour of birds 
represented by open square 
symbols was not recorded. 


BLACK-THROATED WATTLE-EYE Platysteira peltata 

Seven out of 8 birds had some moult. Six were beginning contour 
moult, 1 was in active regular primary moult (score = 21 on 18 Aug) and 6 
were replacing tail and secondary feathers. 

LITTLE YELLOW FLYCATCHER Erythrocercus holochlorus 

One bird caught and 3 seen in the field all had flesh-pink bills, not black 
as illustrated in Williams & Arlott (1980). 

PARADISE FLYCATCHER Terpsiphone viridis 

Out of 14 birds caught, 2 were beginning contour moult and primary 
moult (4 and 10 Sep) and 2 were replacing some secondaries. None was in 
tail moult. Weights (<$ mean 11.3, $ mean 10.2 g) were less than those 
from Liberia, western Kenya, Malawi and Zambia and also less than most 
birds from Ghana. 

CRESTED FLYCATCHER Trockocercus cyanomelas 

Sixteen out of 23 were in moult. Fifteen showed various stages of 
primary moult (Fig. -3), mostly with concurrent centrifugal tail moult. 
Fourteen were undergoing contour moult. Weights (meancJ 10.2, mean? 
10.1 g) were similar to 3 birds from southern Kenya. 


One adult female was undergoing primary moult (score = 3 8 on 1 Sep) 
and one immature was beginning contour moult. 

B. Wood 

2 5- 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Figure 5. Wing length of Olive Sun- 
birds Nectarinia olivacea in southern 

C 1 

wing chord (mm) 

COLLARED SUNBIRD Anthreptes collaris 

Two out of 18 were beginning primary moult (scores = 2 and 16 on 4 
and 10 Sep). Weights (mean c? 6.2, mean 9 5.9 g) were lighter than birds 
from Liberia, Zambia and western and coastal Kenya. 

OLIVE SUNBIRD Nectarinia olivacea 

Of 103 birds caught, 5 were beginning moult at the end of the survey 
period. Two had started primary moult (scores = 6, 11 on 7, 10 Sep) and 
4 were beginning contour moult. Birds were not sexed at the time of 
capture, as both sexes have yellow pectoral tufts in Somalia. However, 
subsequent analysis of wing lengths enabled all birds to be sexed, males 
having wings 56 mm or longer and females 54 mm or less (Fig. 5). Both 
weights (mean $ 7.7, mean? 7.1 g) and wing lengths (mean $ 58.6, mean 9 
52.6 mm) are substantially greater in western Kenya (average weight 
10.76 g, average wing length 62.96 mm of 42 unsexed birds). Weights are 
also less than in Liberia, coastal Kenya and substantially less than birds in 
Zimbabwe at all times of year. 

MOUSE-COLOURED SUNBIRD Nectarinia veroxii 

The single bird caught was in primary moult (score = 14 on 6 Sep) and 
was beginning contour moult. 

DARK-BACKED WEAVER Ploceus bicolor 

Early in the survey 8 birds out of 26 were in moult. Four were complet- 
ing primary moult but 2 were midway through (scores = 23, 27 on 4, 5 
Aug). Tail moult was ending in these latter 2 and 1 other, and all 3 were 
completing contour moult. Iris and bill colour varied considerably, and 
appears to be related to size (Fig. 6). Most heavy or long-winged birds had 
irises described as very dark brown, brown or dark hazel, whilst the 
remainder had brick red or dark brick irises. All had bluish-white bills 

B. Wood 



® ° 

o o oo o o o 



3 4 3 6 3 8 

weight (9) 

Bull.B.O.C. 1989 K)9(l) 

Figure 6. The relationship between 
wing length, weight, iris colour and 
bill colour of Dark-backed Weavers 
Ploceus bicolor in southern Somalia. 
Solid symbols indicate birds with very 
dark brown, brown or dark hazel irises, 
open symbols represent birds with 
brick red or dark red irises. Symbols 
encircled are birds with yellow-horn 
bills (probably immature). 

except 3 light or short-winged birds with brown irises. These had yellow- 
horn or yellow-grey bills and may have been immatures. 

Discussion and conclusions 

Insects, which form a major part of the diet of many of the bird species 
caught in the Jubba forest, are likely to be most abundant during the wet 
season and insectivores are most likely to breed at that time. In southern 
Somalia there are 2 wet seasons each year; the longest and most predict- 
able 'gu' rains fall from April to June, and there is usually a less reliable 
'dayr' wet season October/November. The most severe dry season lasts 
from December to March ('jilaal'). 

More than half all bird species evidently moult during the less severe 
dry season from July to September ('haggai'), but there are considerable 
differences in timing between species. In Uganda, where there are 2 sub- 
stantial wet seasons each year, Camaroptera brachyura breeds twice each 
year and many birds can be found in moult in all months except April/ 
May, when they breed. Moult is also often suspended during breeding 
September/October (Fogden & Fogden 1979). The few records of moult- 
ing birds in the Jubba suggest that here camaropteras moult early in the 
'haggai' dry season, having probably bred during the 'gu' rains. 

Cercotrichas quadrivirgata also moults early in the 'haggai', but most 
other species will still be moulting at the end of the 'haggai'. Indicator 
variegatus , Turdoides squamulatus and several flycatcher species have a 
particularly late moult. Surprisingly, none of the many Cossypha 
natalensis caught was in moult, although several juveniles were netted, 
which suggests that they breed during the 'gu' rains. Perhaps they moult 
very early, at the end of these rains, or not until the 'dayr' rains, when 
conditions for moult may be more favourable. 

B.Wood 21 Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Where weights recorded in this study differ significantly from weights 
elsewhere in Africa, they are almost always lighter in the Jubba. As the 
study sites lie at just over 1°N and only a few metres above sea level, low 
weights were perhaps to be expected. Birds are likely to be bigger and 
weigh more where temperatures are lower, a pattern which has been 
described for several species in East Africa that occur at both coastal and 
much higher inland localities (Moreau 1944, Britton 1977, Hanmer 

Other factors will select for small body size. Perrins (1970) suggested 
that small females will be able to begin breeding earlier following a 
seasonal increase in food supplies. In a situation where 2 short favourable 
seasons occur each year, during which breeding may be attempted, 
Downhower (1976) has found that only the smaller individuals are able to 
breed successfully if the favourable season is particularly short. Selection 
for small body size will be particularly strong for females, leading to a 
possible sexual size dimorphism. 

Several species recorded from the Jubba are noticeably size dimorphic, 
with females being the smaller sex. This is quite commonly the case in 
African forest passerines (Dowsett 1983), but many more data are 
required before we can know if the degree of size dimorphism varies 
between populations. In southern Somalia the 2 wet seasons each year are 
both of short duration and may be very unreliable, thus selecting for small 
individuals that are able quickly to attain breeding condition. There are 
several cases where the weights of birds from the Jubba are lighter than 
birds almost everywhere else in Africa, except for some recorded in 
northern Ghana (Greig-Smith & Davidson 1977). The forest species 
which occur there are also likely to be dependent on narrow strips of 
gallery forest, along the watercourses. Small individuals could be 
favoured because conditions are as seasonally variable there as they are 
along the Jubba. 


The data presented here were collected as part of a survey of the remaining riverine forest in 
the Jubba Valley by the Somalia Research Project 1986. This was financially supported by 
numerous organisations and individuals, fully acknowledged in our final report. Particular 
thanks are due to major sponsors: The Royal Society, University of London, Royal 
Geographical Society, British Ecological Society and The Augustine Trust. In Somalia, the 
cooperation and support of the National Range Agency is gratefully acknowledged. The 
Overseas Development Administration's forestry project provided vehicles and other vital 
support, without which the work would have been impossible. 


Ash, J. S. & Miskell, J. E. 1983. Birds of Somalia: their habitat, status and distribution. 

Scopus, special supplement No. 1 . 
Biggs, H. C, Kemp, A. C, Mendelsohn, H. P. & Mendelsohn, J. M. 1979. Weights of 

southern African raptors and owls. Durban Mus. Novit. 12, 73—81 . 
Britton, P. L. 1970. Some non-passerine bird weights from East Africa. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 

Britton, P. L. 1972. Weights of African bulbuls (Pycnonotidae). Ostrich 43: 23^-2. 
Britton, P.L.I 977. Weights of birds in western and coastal Kenya: a comparison. Scopus 1 : 

Britton, P. L. & Dowsett, R. J. 1969. More bird weights from Zambia. Ostrich 40: 55-60. 
Colston, P. R. & Curry-Lindahl, K. 1986. The Birds of Mount Nimba, Liberia. British 

Museum (Natural History). 

J. MUkoi sky 22 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Downhower, J. F. 1976. Darwin's finches and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in body 

size. Nature 263: 558-563. 
Dowsett, R. J. 1983. Sexual size dimorphism in some montane forest passerines from south- 
central Africa. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 103: 59-64. 
Earle, R. A. 1981. Weights of Southern African Sunbirds. Durban Mus. Novit. 13: 1 40. 
Fogden, M. P. L. & Fogden, P. M. 1979. The role of fat and protein reserves in the annual 

cycle of the Grey-backed Camaroptera in Uganda (Aves: SyKiidae).^. Zool. Lond. 189: 

Fry, C. H. 1970. Migration, moult and weights of birds in northern Guinea savanna in 

Nigeria and Ghana. Ostrich supplement 8: 239-263. 
Ginn, H. B. & Melville, D. S. 1983. Moult in Birds. BTO Guide No. 19, Tring. 
Greig-Smith, P. W. & Davidson, N. C. 1977. Weights of West African savanna birds. Bull. 

Brit. Orn. CI. 97: 96 99. 
Hanmer, D. B. 1978. The effects of latitude and altitude on bird weights. Scopus 2: 35-39. 
Hanmer, D. B. 1980. Mensural and moult data of eight species of kingfisher from 

Mocambique and Malawi. Ostrich 51: 129-150. 
Johnson, D. W. 1985. Weight, moult, and breeding condition of some Malawi birds. Ostrich 

Jones, P. J. 1984. The status of the pygmy kingfisher Ceyx picta in northeastern Nigeria. 

Malimbusb: 11-14. 
Karr, J. R. 1976. Weights of African birds. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 96: 92-96. 
Karr, J. R. 1976. Within- and between-habitat avian diversity in African and Neotropical 

lowland habitats. Ecol. Monog. 46(3). 
Madgwick, J. In press. Somalia's threatened forests. Oryx. 
Madgwick, J., Maunder, M., Varty, N. & Wood, B. 1988. Somalia Research Project: an 

ecological study of the remaining areas of riverine forest in the Jubba valley, southern 

Somalia. [Unpubl.] 172 pp. 
Mann, C. F. 1985. An avifaunal study in Kakamega Forest, Kenya, with particular 

reference to species diversity, weight and moult. Ostrich 56: 236-262. 
Moreau, R. E. 1944. Some weights of African and of wintering Palaearctic birds. Ibis 86: 

Okia, N. O. 1976. Birds of the understorey of lake-shore forests on the Entebbe Peninsula, 

Uganda. Ibis U 8: 1-13. 
Peirce, M. A. 1984. Weights of birds from Balmoral, Zambia. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 104: 

Perrins, C. M. 1970. The timing of birds breeding seasons. Ibis 112: 242—255. 
Pichi-Sermolli, R. E. G. 1957. Una carta geobotanica deU'Africaorientale (Eritrea, Etiopia, 

Somalia). Webbia 13: 15-132. 
Svensson, L. 1984. Identification Guide to European Passerines. 3rd Ed. Stockholm. 
Williams, J. G. & Arlott, N. 1980. A Field Guide to the Birds of East Africa. Collins. 
Wood, B. In press. A mist netting study of birds in riverine forest, Somalia. Ring & Migr. 

Address: Dr B. Wood, Ecology and Conservation Unit, Department of Biology, University 
College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Note on the osteology and taxonomic position 
of Salvadori's Duck Salvadorina waigiuensis 
(Aves: Anseridae [Anatidae]). 

by jfiri Mlikovsky 

Received 31 March 1988 

Salvadori's Duck Salvadorina waigiuensis is an enigmatic bird of New 
Guinea mountain streams and lakes (Kear 1975), whose taxonomic 

Jf. Mh'kovsky 23 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

relations are even less known than its life habits. It was originally 
described in a separate genus, Salvadorina, by Rothschild & Hartert 
(1894). Mayr (1931) reevaluated their data, added brief comments on the 
osteology of Salvadorina and synonymised subsequently that genus with 
Anas. All subsequent monographs and lists of the waterfowl (e.g. 
Delacour 1956, von Boetticher & Grummt 1965, Johnsgard 1978, 1979, 
Kolbe 1984) followed Mayr's (1931) opinion. No further taxonomic 
study of Salvadorina has been undertaken. 

I was recently able to obtain for study 2 partial skeletons of this duck 
from the Natural History Museum of Humboldt University in Berlin, 
East Germany (NKMB 0/874 and 0/876) which were collected in New 
Guinea in 1928 by Ernst Mayr and first described by himself shortly 
thereafter (Mayr 1931). Salvadori's Duck was not studied by either Ver- 
heyen (1953, 1955) or Woolfenden (1961) in their treatises on waterfowl 
osteology because of the scarcity of skeletons of Salvadorina in museum 
collections (none was reported by Wood & Schnell 1986). In view of this, 
it nevertheless seems useful to present here the relevant observations, in 
spite of their incompleteness. The present paper itself is a contribution to 
my long-term study of the taxonomy and evolution of the waterfowl. 


The following bones of Salvadorina zcaigiuensis were available for 
study: 4 coracoids, 4 scapulae, proximal parts of 4 humeri, 2 sterna, 2 
furculae and a pelvis. In general appearance these bones resemble those of 
dabbling ducks (Anatini) more than those of any other waterfowl tribe 
(see also Mayr 1931), but possess some highly specific features. The 
humerus of Salvadorina differs from that of Anas in having the head 
only slightly undercut by the capital groove and the pneumatic fossa 
ovaloid and very small. In the last 2 characters Salvadorina resembles 
Malacorhynchns (see Woolfenden 1961). The coracoid of Salvadorina 
resembles that of Anas and differs from that of diving tribes in having the 
angle between the axis of the head and the plane of the dorsal surface very 
small. The Scapula of Salvadorina differs from that of anas in having a 
knoblike process on the acromion, causing the anterior edge between the 
acromion and the glenoid facet to be concave. In this character 
Salvadorina agrees with the diving ducks. The furcula of Salvadorina 
differs from that of Anas in having the claviculae compressed, and the 
furcular process minute. The latter character Salvadorina shares with 
Hymenolaimus and various diving ducks (see Woolfenden 1961). The 
sternum of Salvadorina resembles that of Anas, particularly in having a 
ventral manubrial spine present, 7 costal facets, and in being relatively 
narrow. The narrowest width between the costal margins in relation to 
the maximum length of the sternum is 0.382 and 0.395, respectively, in 
the 2 study specimens. The pelvis of Salvadorina resembles that of 
Anas, especially in being rather broad. The ratio of the least width of the 
acetabula to the maximum length of the pelvis is 0.291; in Hymenolaimus 
it is 0.296 (Woolfenden 1961). 

These differences argue strongly against the inclusion of Salvadorina 
in Anas {contra Mayr 1931), but give no usable clues as to its taxonomic 
re-allocation. It is noteworthy, however, that at least 2 other duck genera 

J. Mlikovsky 24 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

occupy a similar taxonomic position, viz. Hymenolaimus from the moun- 
tains of New Zealand (Kear 1973) and Malacorhynchus from southeastern 
Australia and New Zealand (Frith 1 967, Olson 1 977). It might be specu- 
lated that these 3 aberrant, but otherwise Anas-\\ke, genera are remains of 
an early radiation of the sub-family Anatinae (to which they undoubtedly 
belong) and that they stand closer to each other than to any other modern 
waterfowl tribe. Their general resemblance to the Anatini sensu stricto 
may well be misleading and does not necessarily imply true phylogenetic 
relationships. The constituents of Anatini form a morphologically 
generalised duck tribe (cf. Woolfenden 1961) which has become a 
taxonomic 'wastebasket' in which generally duck-like, but otherwise 
obscure genera are placed (cf. Mlikovsky 1983a, 1987). 

It may thus be concluded (1) that Salvadori's Duck should not be 
included in the genus Anas and deserves separation at the generic level 
as Salvadorina, and (2) that it may, together with Hymenolaimus and 
Malacorhynchus form a relict genus of waterfowl that has survived up to 
the present, as have many other animals only in the Australian region. 
The relict nature of these genera and the expected prevalence of primitive 
features which characterise them, prevent their being properly defined as 
a tribe at present. The situation can be improved only after the extensive 
fossil record of the waterfowl (Brodkorb 1964, Howard 1964, Mlikovsky 
1983b) is improved in the Australian region (cf. Rich & Van Tets 1982, 
Rich & Baird 1986) and completely re-evaluated; and after the internal 
anatomy of all waterfowl is studied in more detail. Complete skeletons 
and fluid-preserved specimens of Salvadorina are particularly needed. 


I am grateful to Burkhardt Stephan (Berlin) for lending me the specimens of Salvadorina 
waigiuensis. The manuscript benefited from the suggestions of Storrs L. Olson and James 
F. Monk. 


Boetticher, H. von & Grummt, W. 1965. Game- und Entenvogel aus aller Welt. 2nd rev. ed. 

Wittenberg Lutherstadt: A. Ziemsen. 
Brodkorb, P. 1964. Catalogue of fossil birds: Part 2 (Anseriformes through Galliformes). 

Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci. 8: 195-335. 
Delacour, J. 1956. The Waterfowl of the World, II. Country Life. 
Frith, H. J. 1967. Waterfowl in Australia. East-West Press. 
Howard, H. 1964. Fossil Anseriformes. Pp. 233-326 in Waterfowl of the World, IV (J. 

Delacour, Ed.). Country Life. 
Johnsgard, P. 1978. Ducks, Geese and Szuans of the World. University of Nebraska Press. 
Johnsgard, P. 1979. Order Anseriformes. Pp. 425-506 in Check-list of Birds of the World, I 

(E. Mayr & C. W. Cottrell, Eds.). Cambridge, Mass.: Museum of Comparative 

Kear, J. 1973. The Blue Duck of New Zealand. Living Bird 11: 175-192. 
KearJ. 1975. Salvadori's Duck of New Guinea. Wildfowl26: 104-111. 
Kolbe, H. 1984. Die Entenvogel der Welt. 3rd rev. ed. Neumann Verlag. 
Mayr, E. 1 93 1 . Zur Anatomie und systematischen Stellung der Salvadori-Ente (Salvadorina 

waigiuensis Rothsch. & Hartert). Ornithol. Monatsber. 39: 69—70. 
Mlikovsky, J. 1983a. On the foundations of biological systematics: a historical approach. 

Pp. 305-317 in General Questions of Evolution (V. J. A. Novak & K. Zemek, Eds.). 

Praha: CSAV. 
Mlikovsky, J. 1983b. Fossil evidence for Waterfowl Evolution ( Aves : Anseriformes). Unpubl. 

Thesis, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Praha (in Czech). 
Mlikovsky, J. 1987. Ecological bases of supraspecific evolution. Pp. 253—267 in Biological 

Evolution (V. Pesce-Delfino, Ed.). Adriatica Editrice. 

L.F.KiffetaL 25 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Olson, S. L. 1977. Notes on subfossil Anatidae from New Zealand, including a new species 

of Pink-headed Duck (Malacorhynchus). Emu 77: 132-135. 
Rich, P. V. & Baird, R. F. 1986. History of the Australian avifauna. Current Ornithol. 4: 

Rich, P. V. & Van Tets, G. F. 1982. Fossil birds of Australia and New Guinea: their 

biogeographic, phylogenetic and biostratigraphic input. Pp. 235—384 in The Fossil 

Vertebrate Record of Australasia (P. V. Rich & E. M. Thompson, Eds.). Monash 

Rothschild, W. & Hartert, E. 1894. Salvadorina waigiuensis gen. et sp. nov. Novit. Zool. 1: 

Yerheven, R. 1953. Bijdrage tot de osteologie en die systematiek der Anseriformes. Gerfaut 

43, Suppl.: 373-197. 
Yerheven, R. 1955. La systematique des Anseriformes basee sur l'osteologie comparee. 

Bull. Inst. Rov. Sci. Nat. Belgique 31(35): 1-18, 31(36): 1-16, 31(37): 1-22, 31(38): 

Wood, D. S. & Schnell, G. D. 1986. Revised World Inventory of Avian Skeletal Specimens , 

1986. AOU and Oklahoma Biological Survey. 
Woolfenden, G. E. 1961. Postcranial osteology of the waterfowl. Bull. Florida State Mus., 

Biol. Sci. 6:1-129. 

Address: Dr. Jifi Mlikovsky, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Czechoslovak Academy 
of Sciences, Sekaninova 28, CS-128 00 Praha 2, Czechoslovakia. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Notes on the nests and eggs of some Ecuadorian 


by Lloyd F. Kiff, Manuel Marin A., Fred C. Sibley, 
Juan Carlo Matheus and N. John Schmitt 

Received 6 April 1988 

Considering the richness of its avifauna, surprisingly little has been pub- 
lished on the nesting habits of Ecuadorian birds, the only major studies 
apparently being those of Marchant (1959, 1960), who reported on the 
breeding species in the semi-arid southwestern portion of the country. 
The Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology initiated a long-term 
study of the breeding habits of the birds of Ecuador in 1987. This pre- 
liminary report includes new breeding information on Ecuadorian birds, 
including the first descriptions of the nests and eggs, or both, of several 
species or races. 

Two of the authors (MMA and FCS) worked from 29 July to 23 August 
1987 in the relatively undisturbed primary wet forest surrounding the 
small Jivaro village of Tayuntza, elev. 600 m, 54 km SE of Macas, on the 
eastern slopes of the Cordillera de Cutucu, Morona- Santiago Prov. 
(2°43'S, 77°52'W). LFK and NJS visited Ecuador 8-27 October 1 987 and 
conducted field work primarily in the Quito region and (with JCM) in 
paramo near La Virgen, Pichincha Prov., the highest point (4000 m,) on 
the road between Quito and Baeza, Napo Prov. Incidental collecting was 
done in several other localities on the eastern slope of the Andes during 
these periods. 

L.F. Kiffetal. 26 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Nomenclature follows that of Meyer de Schauensee (1966), and egg 
shapes are those given by Palmer (1962: 13). Egg measurements are in 
mm and were made with Helios dial calipers accurate to the nearest 
0.01 mm. Weights of empty eggshells were taken with an Allied model 
7303 DA electronic balance, and these data are given in grams in paren- 
theses after the measurements; only the eggshells of fresh or slightly 
incubated eggs were weighed. All specimens are housed in the collections 
of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology (WFVZ). 


SAPPHIRE QUAIL-DOVE Geotrygon saphirina saphirina 

FCS found a nest of this species containing a recently hatched chick 
(WFVZ 42,457) on 8 August 1987 at Tayuntza. The nest (WFVZ 
1 5 5,728) was located in disturbed riparian forest 3—4 m from a small creek 
and was placed over the moss-covered fork of a branch of a shrub 2.1m off 
the ground. It was a typical columbid structure, being a loose platform of 
fine sticks, rootlets, and bits of green moss. The chick could be seen 
through the bottom of the nest, which measured 21x16 cm. An incubat- 
ing bird (WFVZ 42,456) proved to be a female. No nests have previously 
been reported for this rather uncommon species (Goodwin 1967, Hilty & 
Brown 1986). 

BAND-WINGED NIGHTJAR Caprimulgus longirostris ruficervix 

FCS flushed one of these nightjars from a single egg on the ground at 
the base of a 7-10 m cliff made by a roadcut on the south side of a quebrada 
(canyon) on the east side of Volcan Pichincha, c. 2 km W of the centre of 
Quito, Pichincha Prov., elev. 3000 m, on 24 July 1987. The cliff overhung 
the nest site, which was about 15m from the edge of a dirt road. The site 
was shielded from the road by a bush and several large rocks. There was 
no nesting material, nor even a depression, the egg being laid on hard, 
bare dirt. The egg (WFVZ 156,081) contained a half-developed embryo 
and was immaculate dull white and subelliptical in shape. It measured 
28.51 x 20.20 (0.425), and the whole egg weight was 6.0 g. It differs 
markedly from a series of 6 sets of 2 eggs of this species from Chile in the 
collection of the WFVZ. All the latter eggs have a buffy-white ground 
colour, and all but one set (2 eggs) are variously marked with dots and 
scrawls of dark brown, olive brown, and lilac over their entire surfaces 
(see Johnson 1967). In addition, Sclater & Salvin (1879) mentioned that a 
Colombian egg of this species was spotted. The clutch size of this species 
is also apparently variable, as all the clutches reported by Johnson (1967) 
contained 2 eggs, Hilty & Brown (1986) mention possible one-egg 
clutches in Colombia, while Todd & Carriker (1922) reported a 2-egg 
clutch from the Santa Marta region in Colombia. Our Ecuador set was 
presumably complete, since the egg was well incubated. 

CHESTNUT-COLLARED SWIFT Cyse hides rut this brunneitorques 

This species is widely distributed in the neotropics, and nesting has 
previously been described from Trinidad (Belcher & Smooker 1936, 
Snow 1962, Collins 1968), Colombia (Niceforo & Olivares 1967), 
Mexico (Rowley 1966, 1984), and Costa Rica (Marin & Stiles in prep.). 

L.F.Kiffetal. 27 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

However, there are no previous descriptions of the eggs of this sub- 
species, nor breeding records for Ecuador, although a Cypseloides rutilns 
nest mentioned bv Orton (1871) may have been from Ecuador. 

MMA and FCS found a nest on 25 July 1987 at La Merced, 10 km SE 
of Quito, Pichincha Prov., elev. 2300 m. It was located in the roof of a 
man-made earthen tunnel c. 6 m above a small stream. It was a half cup- 
shaped structure made of mosses, liverworts, and with some mud in its 
base, agreeing in these details with Costa Rican nests found by Marin & 
Stiles (in prep.). The nest measured 13x10 cm wide and was 10 cm deep. 
It appeared that the mosses and liverworts used in the construction were 
actually alive, due to the high humidity of the nest site, and that the roots 
of these plants provided a strong attachment for the nest to the nearly 
vertical wall of the tunnel. The nest contained a 4—5 day old chick and an 
infertile egg (WFVZ 156,085), which was white and unmarked, measur- 
ing 24.04 x 15.17 (0.133) and long subelliptical in shape. The whole egg 
weight was 2.4 g. The chick was allowed to fledge, and the emptv nest was 
collected by LFK and NJS on 11 October 1987. 

BLACK-TAILED TRAINBEARER Lesbia victoriae aequatorialis 

LFK and XJS found this species nesting in abundance along a road 
through a eucalvptus plantation on the slopes of Volcan Pichincha, 2 km 
W of Quito, Pichincha Prov., elev. 3000 m, 14-16 October 1987. Of 8 
nests whose contents were determined 7 contained 2 eggs, and the other 
only one. The latter nest was found on 14 October with a single egg and 
had not received another egg by 16 October. Nine eggs collected 15-16 
October averaged 13.80 x 8.76 (0.028). They were immaculate white, not 
glossy, and subelliptical or long subelliptical in shape. All were fresh or 
contained very small embryos, indicating the onset of egg laying at this 
locality. The eggs of this species have apparently not been described 

The nests were cup-shaped affairs of moss, fine grasses, tiny leaves, and 
cobwebs, and all had 'hoods' of the same materials, ranging from some 
that were complete to merely a few wisps of moss. All the nests were 
lined with fine plant fibres. Six nests averaged 6.8 cm deep and 7.2 cm in 
diameter, with inner cups 3 cm in diameter and 2.5 cm deep. The hoods 
averaged 6.5 (5—8) cm deep and 6.4 (4—8) cm wide. All but one of the nests 
were suspended on hanging masses of vines or grass growing under the 
overhanging lips of road embankments, with the open side of the cup 
facing the roadbanks. The single exception was a nest located 2.5 m high 
in a clump of a lacey, evergreen parasite vine interwoven through the 
branches of a small eucalyptus tree. This nest was much bulkier than the 
ones found under the roadbanks, and its hood was so extensive that the 
nest presented an almost oven-shaped appearance. 

This was the only hummingbird found nesting here at this time, 
although a more detailed study in progress by JCM has indicated that the 
same type of situation is also extensively used for nesting by several 
other hummingbird species, including Metallura tyrianthina and Colibri 
coruscans, at other times of the year. Presumably, the advent of man and 
roadbanks has provided much new nesting habitat for hummingbirds 
both in this area and many others throughout the neotropics. Moore 

L. F. Kiffet al. 28 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

(1947) mentioned finding a nest of this species with a young bird on the 
slopes of Volcan Pichincha on 3 April 1947, indicating that the breeding 
season must either be bimodal, or extend for at least 7 months. Aside from 
a photograph of a Quito nest in Greenewalt (1960), we can find no other 
published record of the nesting of L. victoriae. The Quito nest is of 
interest, since it was located 16 ft (4.9 m) high in a tree and does not 
appear to have had a hood over the cup, as was the case with all the nests 
we found. 

WHITE-EARED JACAMAR Galbalrhynchus leucotis leucotis 

J CM collected a female of this species (JCM 8704) on 16 September 
1987 at Coco, c. 64 km NE of Puerto Francisco Orellana, Napo Prov., 
elev. 280 m, which contained a fully formed oviduct egg. The egg (WFVZ 
156,110) is white, unmarked, not glossy, and short oval in shape, and 
measures 25.19x19.12. This is apparently the first report of an egg of this 

BLACK-BILLED TREEHUNTER Thripadectes melanorhynchus 


A nest of this species was found on 17 October 1987 by NJS and LFK 
in a wet primary forest area 23 km NE of Archidona, Napo Prov., elev. 
1 300 m. The nest was a springy pad-like cup of stiff dark brown leafstems 
of a consistent size and texture. It measured 17x13 cm and was located at 
the enlarged end of a 1 m long tunnel, which sloped slightly upwards in 
the earthen wall of a 3m deep game pit. The tunnel was located 1 m up 
from the floor of the pit, and was 5 cm in diameter. There were several 
other whole or partial tunnels in the wall, presumably representing 
former nests or roosting burrows of this species at the same site. The 
incubating bird (WFVZ 39,185) was flushed from the nest and netted. 
The nest contained 3 eggs (WFVZ 156,103), 2 of which contained large 
embryos, while the other was infertile. The eggs were white, unmarked, 
not glossy, and subelliptical in shape. They measured 29.28 x 20.65 
(0.300), 29.32 x 20.43 (0.312), and 28.98 x 21.59 (0.353). This is the first 
description of the nest and eggs of this species. 

The distinctive nest pad of leafstems is virtually identical to 2 Costa 
Rican nests of Automolus ochrolaemus, 2 Costa Rican nests of Sclerurus 
guatemalensis, and one Colombian nest of Sclerurus albigularis in the 
WFVZ collection. Curiously, 2 nests of Thripadectas rufobrunneus 
(including the one collected by Worth (1939) in Panama and another from 
Costa Rica) in the WFVZ collection are made of rootlets, not leafstems. 

BROWN-BACKED CHAT-TYRANT Ochthoeca fumicolor brunneifrons 

A nest of this species was found by JCM and LFK on 16 October 1987, 
2 km W of La Virgen (78°12'W, 00°19'S), elev. 3800 m. One of the birds 
was collected (WFVZ 42,906), and the nest and eggs (WFVZ 156,105) 
were taken on 23 October. The nest was a bulky cup of moss and grass 
lined with puya fibres, and was located in a dense vine hanging high over a 
dirt roadbank 1.5 m off the ground. The nest measured 12 x 1 1.5 cm wide 
and was 8 cm deep with an inner cup 5.5 cm in diameter and 4.5 cm deep. 
The eggs were fresh and were creamy-white with a few scattered spots of 
rufous-brown and dark brown, mostly on the larger ends. They measured 

L.F.Kiffetal. 29 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

19.46x15.12 (0.115) and 20.24x15.74(0.131) and were short oval and 
short subelliptical respectively. These details appear to agree with those 
given for a set of eggs of the nominate race, O.f.fumicolor by Sclater & 
Salvin (1879), apparently the only previous description of the eggs of the 
species. Yuilleumier & Ewert (1978) described 2 nests found in the 
Venezuelan paramo, one located in the niche of a bank in a situation 
apparently similar to the Ecuadorian nest, the other placed in the cavity of 
an Espeletia sp. plant. 

OLIVE-CHESTED FLYCATCHER Myiophobus cryptoxanthus 

MM A and FCS found this seldom-reported flycatcher to be quite 
common in the vicinity of Tayuntza. A nest found on 2 August 1987 was 
located in brushy second-growth at the edge of a pasture and placed in a 
small branch of a sapling c. 1.8 m from the ground. It was a suspended 
cup, made mostly of mosses and fine plant fibres with bits of moss and 
decorative dead leaves and fine twigs attached to its outer surface by 
cobwebs, and was lined with fine plant fibres. Its outer dimensions were 
7 cm deep and 9 x 8.5 cm wide, and the inner cup was 4.5 cm in diameter 
and 5.5 cm deep. The adult female was collected (WFVZ 42,691) along 
with the nest and 2 eggs (WFVZ 156,088). The eggs measure 
16.85 x 12.85 (0.082) and 17.11 x 12.90 (0.084) and are short oval and 
short subelliptical, respectively. The whole egg weights were 2.55 and 
2.6 g. They are identical in appearance to several sets of eggs of the con- 
generic Bran-coloured Flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus in the WFVZ 

BROWN-BELLIED SWALLOW Notiochelidon murina murina 

We collected several sets of eggs of this species in the mountains east of 
Quito. A set of 3 fresh eggs (WFVZ 156,084) was taken on 8 September 
1987 by FCS and Peggy Sibley at 3 km E of Papallacta, near Rio San 
Pedro, Napo Prov. Both adults were observed at the nest, and one was 
collected (WFVZ 42,726). The nest was on a beam under a small bridge c. 
2 m over the water. It was made of moss, rootlets and dried grass and was 
lined with chicken feathers of several colours. The nest seemed unusually 
large for a swallow and was possibly made originally by some other 
species. It measured 31x15 cm and was 9.5 cm deep. The inner cup was 
7 cm in diameter. The 3 eggs were white, unmarked, not glossy, and 
subelliptical in shape. They measure 18.89 x 13.41 (0.086), 18.79 x 13.81 
(0.088), and 18.41 x 13.85 (0.090). 

Three other nests (WFVZ 1 56,106—8) of this species were collected by 
LFK, JCM and NTS on 23 October 1987 at 2 km W of La Virgen, elev. 
3800 m, and several other active nests of the species were examined in the 
same vicinity- on that date. All were located in burrows in dirt roadbanks, 
2—5 m off the road and mostly near the tops of the banks. No more than 2 
active nests were found in the same section of roadbank. The burrows 
averaged 10 cm in diameter and most were c. 50 cm deep. The ends of the 
burrows were enlarged to hold the fairly bulky cup nests, made com- 
pletely of dried grass and lined with feathers of various species, including 
Buteo poecilochrous and unidentified anatids. The 3 nests averaged 
24 x 19 cm in size with inner cups averaging 5.3 cm in diameter. In most 
instances the incubating birds were removed from the nests by hand. On 

L. F. Kiffet al. 30 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

this date most of the nests contained well incubated eggs or small chicks, 
but 2 fresh sets of 2 eggs were collected, although only 3 were saved. 
These are identical in appearance to the eggs taken earlier by FCS, and 
measure 18.85x14.02 (0.081), 19.76x13.85 (0.090) and 19.72x13.69 
(0.082). Nearly all the nests contained 3 eggs or chicks, but one of the sets 
of 2 was complete, since the bird caught on the nest (42,914) did not 
contain additional developing ova. The bird caught on the other nest 
(WFVZ 42,91 5) did contain a partially formed egg, indicating that the full 
clutch would have contained 3 eggs. 

GREAT THRUSH Turdus f us cater guindio 

There is surprisingly little published information on the nesting of this 
species, despite its relative abundance in many Andean localities, and 
there appears to be no previous description of the eggs of this subspecies. 
LFK, JCM and NJS found a nest on 23 October 1987 at 1 1 km W of La 
Virgen, elev. 3400 m. It was located 4 m high in a dense cluster of leaves at 
the end of a large lateral limb of a 9m tree (Oreopanax sp.) growing 
alongside a small creek near the upper limits of the temperate forest belt. 
The nest was a large bulky cup-shaped affair constructed of coarse sticks 
on its outer shell and damp weedy and monocot leaves in the inner layers. 
No mud was found in the walls of the nest, and it was lined with grass. It 
measured 32x21 cm wide and was 1 2 cm deep; the inner cup was 9.5 cm 
in diameter and 6 cm deep. One of the pair was seen at the nest, which 
contained a set of 2 fresh eggs (WFVZ 156,104). The eggs measured 
35.97x23.60 (0.0543) and 36.30x24.20 (0.572) and were long oval in 
shape. They were bluish-green with bold spots of reddish-brown, 
cinnamon and (underlying) lilac over their entire surfaces. They are 
virtually identical in colour and measurements to another egg (WFVZ 
151,162) of this species, possibly of the same race, taken in Colombia (no 
specific locality given) in 1879 by the early collector, Baer. Baer's egg 
measures 35.49 x 24.15 and is long subelliptical in shape. 


Peggy Sibley and Juan Manuel Carrion provided valuable help and companionship in the 
field. We are most grateful to Nancy Hilgert de Benavides and Virgilio Benavides of the 
Corparacion Ornitologica del Ecuador for their many forms of assistance in Ecuador. Dr 
Sergio Figueroa and Dr Angel Lovato of the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia kindly 
assisted in obtaining permits to conduct research and collect specimens in Ecuador, and 
Biol. Fausto Sarmiento R., Director Ejecutivo Encargado of the Museo Ecuatoriano de 
Ciencias Naturales provided valuable cooperation. This project was supported by the 
Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology and the Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias 


Belcher, C. & Smooker, G. D. 1936. On the birds of the Colony of Trinidad and Tobago. 

Pt.3.Ibzs6: 1-35. 
Collins, C. T. 1968. The comparative biology of two species of swifts in Trinidad, West 

Indies. Bull. Florida State Mus. Biol. Sci. 11: 257-320. 
Euler, C. 1900. Descripcao de ninho e ovos das aves do Brazil. Rev. Mus. Paul. 4: 9—164. 
Goodwin, D. 1967. Pigeons and Doves of the World. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Greenewalt, C. H. 1960. Hummingbirds . Doubleday and Co. 

Hilty, S. L. & Brown, W. L. 1986. A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princeton Univ. Press. 
Johnson, A. W. 1967. The Birds of Chile and Adjacent Regions of Argentina, Bolivia and 

Peru. Vol. II. Piatt, Buenos Aires. 
Marchant, S. 1959. The breeding season in S.W. Ecuador. Ibis 101: 137—152. 

P. W. Wendelken & R. F. Martin 31 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Marchant, S. 1960. The breeding of some S.W. Ecuadorian birds. Ibis 102: 349-382, 

Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1 966. The Species of Birds of South America and their Distribution. 

Livingston Publ. Co. 
Xiceforo Maria, H. & Olivares, A. 1967. Adiciones a la avifauna Colombiana, IV 

(Apodidae-Picidae). Hornero 10: 403^1-35. 
Orton, J. 1871. Notes on some birds in the museum of Vassar College. Amer. Nat. 4: 

Palmer, R. S. (Ed.). 1962. Handbook of North American Birds. Vol. 1. Yale Univ. Press. 
Rowley, J. S. 1966. Breeding records of the birds of the Sierra Madre del Sur, Oaxaca, 

Mexico. Proc. Western Found. Vert. Zool. 1: 1-204. 
Rowlev, J. S. 1984. Breeding records of land birds in Oaxaca, Mexico. Proc. West. Found. 

Vert. Zool. 2: 73-224. 
Sclater, P. L. & Salvin, O. 1879. On the birds collected by T. K. Salmon in the state of 

Antiquoia, United States of Colombia. Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1879: 486—550. 
Snow, D. W. 1962. Notes on the biology of some Trinidad swifts. Zoological: 129-139. 
Todd, W. E. C. & Carriker, M. A., Jr. 1922. The birds of the Santa Marta Region of 

Columbia: a study of altitudinal distribution. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 14: 1—611. 
Vuilleumier, F. & Ewert, D. W. 1978. The distribution of birds in Venezuelan paramos. 

Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 162(2): 51-90. 
Worth, C. B. 1939. Nesting of some Panamanian birds. Auk 56: 306—310. 

Addresses : L. F. Kiff, AI. Marin A., N. J. Schmitt, Western Foundation of Vertebrate 
Zoology, 1100 Glendon Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA; F. C. Sibley, 
Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 
06520, USA; J. C. Matheus, Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Casilla 8976, 
Sue. 7, Quito, Ecuador. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Recent data on the distribution of birds in 
Guatemala, 2 

by Peter W. Wendelken and Robert F. Martin 

Received 7 April 1988 

Distributional information on Guatemalan birds was organised compre- 
hensively by Land (1970) and updated in part by Wendelken & Martin 
(1986) following studies of avian frugivory in Guatemala's arid interior 
(Wendelken & Martin 1987, 1988). In our first report, covering the period 
1981-1985, we presented distributional data for 42 species; for 26 of 
these, our data represented the /irst record for the species from the 
tropical arid interior and was annotated FRTAI (see definition, 
Wendelken & Martin 1986). Here we present additional data on distri- 
bution for 26 species, based primarily on work during 1986 and 1988. 
We present the first record from Guatemala for one species {Amazilia 
violiceps) and the second record or second known site in Guatemala for 3 
others. For 14 species, we present geographical range extensions for 
regions, departments or locations from which the species has not been 
reported previously: 3 for Tikal National Park and the Department 
Peten, 3 for the Motagua Valley portion of the arid interior (FRTAI), 
2 for the Department Sacatepequez, 1 for the Pacific lowland, and 

P. W. Wemlvlken & R. F. Mart,,, 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Figure 1. Outline map of Guatemala. E=Dpto. Escuintla; I = Dpto. Izabal; P = Dpto. 
Peten; S = Dpto. Sacatepequez; Z = Dpto. Zacapa. Located by dots are: Tikal National 
Park, Dpto. Peten; El Cimarron, Dpto. Izabal; and Puerto de Iztapa, Dpto. Escuintla. 

7 easternmost records for the country from El Cimarron, Department 
Izabal (Fig. 1). El Cimarron is located at km 269 of the Route to the 
Atlantic (Ruta al Atlantico), c. 5 km from the town Tenedores and 
c. 18 km SSW of Puerto Barrios. For 9 species, we present data that 
supplement those presented in our first report (Wendelken & Martin 
1986 -herein annotated W&M). Other records are noteworthy for 
reasons given within the appropriate species accounts. All records are 
based on observations made using 10 x 50 binoculars. Our conclusions 
concerning the appropriateness of our records are based primarily on 
comparisons with Land's species accounts and range maps (1970), 
Land's earlier distributional papers (1962a, b, 1963), and search of the 
subsequent literature. 


GREAT BLUE HERON Ardea herodias 

22 Feb 1986, one seen along the Motagua River at Santa Cruz, Dpto. 
Zacapa. (FRTAI: W&M, 9 Mar 1984.) 

GREAT EGRET Casmerodius albus 

22 Feb 1986, one seen along the Motagua R. at Santa Cruz, Dpto. 
Zacapa. 19 Jan 1988, one seen along the Rio Grande de Zacapa at 
Estanzuela, Dpto. Zacapa. (FRTAI: W&M, 8 Mar & 4 Jun 1984.) 

P. W. Wendelken & R. F. Martin 33 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

SNOWY EGRET Egretta thula 

Single birds seen along the Motagua R. at Santa Cruz, Dpto. Zacapa on 
22 and 23 Feb 1 986. 1 9 Jan 1 988, 4 seen along the Rio Grande de Zacapa at 
Estanzuela, Dpto. Zacapa. FRTAI. 

LITTLE BLUE HERON Egretta caerulea 

19 Feb 1986, one adult and one juvenile (all white) seen along the Rio 
Grande de Zacapa at Estanzuela, Dpto. Zacapa. 2 adults seen at same site, 
19 Jan 1988. One adult seen along the Motagua R. at Santa Cruz, Dpto. 
Zacapa on 22 and 23 Feb 1986. (FRTAI: W&M, 10 Mar & 24 Jul 1984.) 


On 21 and 22 Feb 1986, single birds seen soaring at Santa Cruz, Dpto. 
Zacapa. One seen on 22 Mar 1986 and 3 on 4 Feb 1988 along highway, 
10-20 km NE of Quirigua, Dpto. Izabal. (FRTAI: W&M, 10 Mar 1984 
and first records for the Caribbean lowland, Guatemala, W&M, 9 Mar & 
3 Sep 1984.) 

SNAIL KITE Rostrhamus sociabilis 

21 Feb 1986, one adult female or immature bird seen in full sunlight 
flying from a marshy field 2 km SW of Santa Cruz, Dpto. Zacapa. One 
adult female or immature bird seen and photographed at Santa Cruz on 
22 Feb 1986 and 2 (either adult female or immature) seen there next day, 
one perched in tree and vocalising, the other flying. (FRTAI: W&M, 13 
Mar 1984.) 

SHARP-SHINNED HAWK Accipiter striatus 

One observed at close range (20 m) at El Cimarron, Dpto. Izabal, 19 
Mar 1986. Not recorded in Land's study (1963) of the Caribbean lowland. 
Appears to be the first record for Dpto. Izabal and extends the known range 
of this species to easternmost Guatemala. 

ZONE-TAILED HAWK Buteo albonotatus 

Rare, possibly resident, in Guatemala; apart from several trade skins of 
unspecified locality, the only record is from Ocos, at sea level on the Pacific 
coast (Land 1970). 1 Nov 1985, one in adult plumage seen soaring low, at 
close range, in excellent light near a permanent stream in Alotenango, 
Dpto. Sacatepequez. Yellow cere, long black-and-white banded tail, and 
2-tone (black and grey) wings were clearly observed. The first record for 
the Guatemalan highlands and Dpto. Sacatepequez. 

FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL Glaucidium brasilianum 

Single birds seen on 20 and 21 Mar 1986 and 2 Feb 1988 at El 
Cimarron, Dpto. Izabal. Although recorded previously in western Dpto. 
Izabal (Land 1963), these are the easternmost records for Guatemala. 

GREEN-BREASTED MANGO Anthracothorax prevostii 

At Estanzuela, Dpto. Zacapa, one female seen on 19 Feb 1986 and 2 
females seen next day. At this site in 1988, 2 males were observed on 19 
Jan; 4 males and 2 females (one female photographed) on 20 Jan; 2 males 
and 2 females on 31 Jan and 1 female on 5 Feb. On 17 Jan 1988, one female 
seen in the foothills of the Sierra de las Minas at 100-1 50 m elevation 
above the Motagua Valley floor village of Monte Grande (located c. 4 km 
west of Santa Cruz, Dpto. Zacapa). The habitat at this foothills site is the 

P. W. W.endelken & R. /•'. Martin 34 Bull. B.O.i '. 1989 109(1) 

same dry scrub forest found on the Motagua Valley floor. (FRTAI: 
W&M, one female, 8 & 10 Mar 1984 at Santa Cruz, Dpto. Zacapa.) 


Not recorded from Guatemala (Land 1970), its previously known 
southern extent of range was Chiapas, Mexico (Peterson & Chalif 1973). 
17 Jan 1988, one male observed when it was both feeding and perched at 
very close range (to 5 m) in full sunlight for c. 30 min in the southern 
foothills of the Sierra de las Minas, at c. 100-150 m elevation above the 
Motagua Valley floor village of Monte Grande. Monte Grande is located 
c. 4 km west of Santa Cruz, Dpto. Zacapa. The habitat of the site is dry 
scrub forest (cacti, thorny scrub) and the bird was observed c. 20 m from 
a wooded canyon. The bill (including upper mandible) was red with a 
black tip, the crown violet-blue, the tail rufous above, the throat, breast, 
abdomen and sides a pure white. This is the first record for Guatemala 
and FRTAI. 

TURQUOISE-BROWED MOTMOT Eumomota super ciliosa 

El Cimarron, Dpto. Izabal, one seen along the Rio Tenedores near a 
vertical dirt bank, 19 Mar 1986. 22 Mar 1986, 2 pairs and a single bird 
seen along the banks of the Rio Tenedores (one bird photographed). 4 
Feb 1988, 3 seen at the same site. Although previously recorded in 
western Dpto. Izabal (Land 1970), these are the easternmost records for 

PALTRY TYRANNULET Zimmerius vilissimus 

El Cimarron, Dpto. Izabal, single birds seen on 22 Mar 1986 & 3 Feb 
1988. Although previously recorded in western Dpto. Izabal (Land 
1963), these are the easternmost records for Guatemala. 


16 Jan 1986, one seen on the lower northern slopes of Volcan del Agua, 
8 km south of Antigua, Dpto. Sacatepequez. W&M (1986) extended the 
earliest calendar date from 7 Mar to 28 Jan; latest calendar dates are 16 
Dec (Land 1970) and 30 Dec (Brose et al. 1980). Present record suggests 
possible winter resident, rather than migrant, status. 

BLACK PHOEBE Sayornis nigricans 

Recorded in the Caribbean lowland from northwestern and western 
Dpto. Izabal (Land 1970). One seen on 2 Feb 1988 and 2 on 4 Feb 1988 
along the Rio Tenedores at El Cimarron, Dpto. Izabal. These are the 
easternmost records for Guatemala. 

TREE SWALLOW Tachycineta bicolor 

Four observed on 28 Jan 1988 and 2 next day flying continuously over 
artificial ponds adjacent to headquarters at Tikal National Park, Dpto. 
Peten. First record for Tikal Nat. Pk. and Dpto. Peten. 

MANGROVE SWALLOW Tachycineta albilinea 

Rio Grande de Zacapa at Estanzuela, Dpto. Zacapa, one seen on 1 9 Feb 
1986, 4 on 19 Jan 1988 and one on 31 Jan 1988. Motagua R. at Santa Cruz, 
Dpto. Zacapa, 2 on 22 Feb 1986 and one next day. (FRTAI: W&M, Mar- 

P. W. Wendelken & R. F. Martin 35 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

CLIFF SWALLOW Hirundo pyrrhonota 

One seen repeatedly in a mixed flock of swallows, flying over artificial 
ponds adjacent to headquarters at Tikal National Park, Dpto. Peten, 28 
and 29 Jan 1988. First record for Tikal Nat. Pk. and Dpto. Peten. 

NORTHERN PARULA Panda americana 

One female seen on 26 Jan 1988 in Tikal Nat. Pk. Partial white eye ring 
and absence of black mask noted clearly. First record for Tikal Nat. Pk. 
and Dpto. Peten. 

WORM-EATING WARBLER Helmitheros vermivorus 

Recorded from near sea level to 1500 m in Guatemala (Land 1970). 3 
Oct 1985, one seen at c. 2700 m on Volcan del Agua, Dpto. Sacatepequez. 

WHITE- VENTED EUPHONIA Eiiphonia minuta 

Resident and rare, recorded in Guatemala only at Coban, Dpto. Alta 
Verapaz (Salvin & Godman 1879: 259, cited in Land 1970). El Cimarron, 
Dpto. Izabal, in 2—3 m fruiting shrubs in an overgrown pasture adjacent 
to the Rio Tenedores, single males seen on 19 and 22 Mar 1986 and 2 
males and one female on 2 Feb 1988. Observed at close range in sun and 
confirmed by photographs, the posterior abdomen, vent and undertail 
coverts of the males were completely white. The female had a greyish 
throat and whitish abdomen. On 3 Feb 1988, a male seen in a low (6 m) 
fruiting tree at forest edge c. 2 km upstream from previous site. First 
records for Dpto. Izabal and Caribbean lowland of Guatemala. 

WESTERN TANAGER Piranga ludoviciana 

20 Feb 1986, one male seen at Estanzuela, Dpto. Zacapa. Single birds 
seen at this site, 19 and 31 Jan 1988. FRTAI. 19 Mar 1986, one male seen 
at El Cimarron, Dpto. Izabal. Although recorded in the Caribbean low- 
land at Panzos, Dpto. Alta Verapaz (Land 1963), and apparently from 
western Dpto. Izabal (Land 1970), this is the easternmost record for 

GRAYISH SALTATOR Saltator coerulescens 

23 Feb 1986, one adult seen at Santa Cruz, Dpto. Izabal. (FRTAI: 


Probably resident; the only previous record was from Duehas, Dpto. 
Sacatepequez, in the 19th Century (Land 1970). On 23 Jan 1988, one 
male seen along the road between San Juan del Obispo and Santa Maria 
de Jesus, 9 km south of Antigua, Dpto. Sacatepequez. 

RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD Agelaius phoeniceus 

19 Feb 1986, various males heard vocalising near the Rio Grande de 
Zacapa at Estanzuela, Dpto. Zacapa. (FRTAI: W&M, Apr-Jul 1984, 
Santa Cruz, Dpto. Zacapa.) 


Observed many times in the vicinity of the villages Ciudad Vieja, San 
Pedro and San Juan del Obispo, 4—6 km south of Antigua, Dpto. 
Sacatepequez: 8 & 29 Nov 1981; 3, 6 & 25 Dec 1981; 3, 10 & 31 Jan 1982; 
15 & 19 Mar 1985; 8 & 11 Dec 1985; and 2 Jan 1986. Seen at Duenas 

J.S.Ashetal. 36 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

(c. 1 2 km WSW of Antigua), 1 8 Aug & 1 Dec 1 985, at Alotenango (c. 1 3 km 
SW of Antigua), 27 Nov 1985, and at Santa Maria de Jesus (c. 10 km 
SSE of Antigua), 23 Jan 1988. These are the first records for Dpto. 
Sacatepequez. On 22 Nov 1981, observed along the Pacific coast at Puerto 
de Iztapa, the first record for Dpto. Escuintla and the Pacific lowland of 


We appreciate the assistance of the staff of the Centro de Estudios Conservacionistas 
(CECON) of the Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas 
y Farmacia and give special thanks to Luis M. Villar Anleu, Ismael Ponciano, Elfriede de 
Poll, Jaime Tres and Hilda Rivera M.; we thank also the staff of the Instituto Guatemalteco 
de Turismo. The study was supported in part by funds from the Texas Memorial Museum - 
The University of Texas at Austin. 


Brose, H., Brose, W. & Emmerson, A. 1980. Acct. 1307: Cerro de Oro, Guatemala. Amer. 

Birds 34: 676. 
Land, H. C. 1962a. A collection of birds from the arid interior of eastern Guatemala. Auk 79: 

Land, H. C. 1962b. A collection of birds from the Sierra de la Minas, Guatemala. Wilson 

Bull. 74:267-283. 
Land, H. C. 1963. A collection of birds from the Caribbean lowland of Guatemala. Condor 

Land, H. C. 1970. Birds of Guatemala. Livingston: Pennsylvania. 

Peterson, R. T. & Chalif, E. L. 1973. A Field Guide to Mexican Birds. Houghton Mifflin. 
Salvin, O. & Godman, F. D. 1879. Biologia Centrali- Americana, Aves, Vol. 1. Taylor & 

Wendelken, P. W. & Martin, R. F. 1986. Recent data on the distribution of birds in 

Guatemala. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 106: 16-21. 
Wendelken, P. W. & Martin, R. F. 1987. Avian consumption of Guaiacum sanctum fruit in 

the arid interior of Guatemala. Biotropica 19: 116-121. 
Wendelken, P. W. & Martin, R. F. 1988. Avian consumption of the fruit of the cacti 

Stenocereus eichlamii and Pilosocereus maxonii in Guatemala. Amer. Midi. Nat. 119: 


Addresses: Dr P. W. Wendelken, P.O. Box 26, Marietta, Ohio 45750, U.S.A.; Dr R. F. 
Martin, Texas Memorial Museum and Department of Zoology, The University of 
Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78705, USA. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

The mangrove reed warblers of the Red Sea and 
Gulf of Aden coasts, with description of a 
new subspecies of the African Reed Warbler 
Acrocephalus baeticatus 

by J. S. Ash, D.J. Pearson, G. Nikolaus and P. R. Colston 

Received 21 June 1 988 

On 26 January 1952 K. D. Smith collected what he believed to be a Reed 
Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus from a population singing in coastal 

J.S.Ashetal. 37 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

mangroves at Zula (15°15'N, 39°42'E), (Eritrea), Ethiopia, and which, to 
judge from the enlarged testes of the specimen, was assumed to be breed- 
ing there. On the basis of its rather short and rounded wing this bird was 
subsequently re-identified as a Blyth's Reed Warbler A. dumetorum 
(Williamson 1963, Smith 1964). The specimen was further discussed by 
Fry et al. (1974), and together with birds from Senegal and Lake Chad 
and a March specimen from Tibesti, it was considered to be representa- 
tive of populations intermediate between the African Reed Warbler A. 
baeticatus cinnamomeus and Palaearctic A. dumetorum. 

The Lake Chad birds were placed in a new taxon A. baeticatus hopsoni 
(Fry et al. 1974) and those of Senegal were subsequently named A. b. 
guiersi (Colston & Morel 1982). The Tibesti bird, which we have 
re-examined, appears to be a short- winged A. scirpaceus. 

The taxonomy and affinities of the African Reed Warbler have been a 
subject of some controversy over the past 15 years. Fry et al. (1974) and 
Fry & Ferguson-Lees (1977) argued that A. baeticatus, or at least some of 
its forms, should be treated as conspecific with A. dumetorum. This has 
been rejected by, among others, Devillers & Dowsett-Lemaire (1978) and 
Dowsett-Lemaire & Dowsett (1987), who stress instead the close vocal 
and other similarities of A. baeticatus and A. scirpaceus. In fact, the last- 
named authors suggest that baeticatus and scirpaceus are conspecific. 
Whilst we agree that these 2 are closely related, we adhere to the 2 specific 
names in this paper. Clancey (1975) proposed that the smaller, more 
rufous coloured birds of inland eastern and central Africa be treated as a 
separate species A. cinnamomeus, but the justification for this is question- 
able (vide e.g. Dowsett-Lemaire & Dowsett 1987) and we here treat 
cinnamomeus as a race of A. baeticatus. 

Populations referrable to cinnamomeus which extended the known 
range of this race north and northeast were found in Niger (Devillers & 
Dowsett-Lemaire 1 978), central Ethiopia (Ash 1 973) and Somalia (Ash in 
press), while birds found by Wilkinson & Aidley (1983) in northern 
Nigeria were considered to be intermediate between cinnamomeus and 

Meanwhile there have also been further discoveries of birds resembling 
the Zula specimen, all from mangroves on the coasts of Ethiopia (Eritrea), 
Sudan, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, and North Yemen (for all known records 
of A. baeticatus from Ethiopia, Somalia, coastal Sudan and the Arabian 
peninsula see Appendix 1). In December 1972 J.S.A. found birds singing 
on Seek Said Is (15°36'N, 39°28'E), Ethiopia, where Brother Edmund 
Johnson netted 2 examples and collected one specimen on 7 January 1976 
(Ash 1977, Johnson 1976). Prompted by these findings G.N. searched 
for and found singing birds during early March of the same year near 
Suakin (19"05'N, 37°20'E) on the Sudan coast, and collected a series of 10 
moderately worn birds, 8 of which are now housed at the Alexander 
Koenig Museum, Bonn, and 2, together with the Seek Said bird, at the 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. G.N. collected 4 more birds 
at Suakin in early August 1 981 , 2 in fresh plumage being considered to be 
young birds, whilst one worn and one moulting specimen were clearly 
adults. Three of these 4 birds were quite fat. These 4, together with 3 
more specimens taken by G.N. in March 1983, and 2 nests collected in 

J. S.AshfXd. 38 Bull. B.O.C. 1989109(1) 

1982 and 1983 (Appendix 2) are housed at Stuttgart Museum (Nikolaus 
1984, 1987; Nikolaus & Backhurst 1982). 

In Somalia, Clarke (1985) collected, but did not preserve, an 
Acrocephalm in mangroves at Zeila (11°21'N, 43°28'E) on 20 May 1958, 
which was almost certainly the same taxon as the birds from Alula (see 
below). On 10 May 1979 at least 2 birds were heard by J.S.A. singing in 
mangroves at Saad-al-Din Is (11°27'N, 43°28'E) which sounded just like 
the Seek Said Is birds in Ethiopia (Ash 1983). Then in early May 1980 
similar birds were singing in mangroves at Alula (1 1°58'N, 50°15'E). Two 
adults were collected and confirmed as the typical mangrove form (J. S. 
Ash & J. E. Miskell). A further mangrove bird was seen by J.S.A. nearby 
at Garas Wadi (1 1°16'N, 49°02'E) in the same month. 

Two specimens, inseparable from those from the Sudan coast, were 
collected by B. S. Meadows from birds singing in mangroves at Yanbu 
Al-Sinaiyah (23°09'N, 38°02'E), 350 km north of Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, 
on 17 March 1986, the 2 skins being now in the British Museum (Natural 
History) (BMNH), Tring, U.K. In 1987 an adult and juvenile were 
netted in mangroves much further south, at Shuqaia (17°45'N, 41°55'E), 
by M. K. Jennings and H. Felemban, who also saw others with newly 
fledged juveniles in mangroves nearby. One seen well in mangroves by 
M. K. Evans at Al'Urj (15°06'N, 42°52'E) in North Yemen on 10 June 
1 986 agreed with the description of the mangrove birds on the west side of 
the Red Sea. 

These Red Sea mangrove reed warblers certainly appear to be closely 
allied to A. baeticatus, and their song is of a typical baeticatusj scirpaceus 
character. However, they appear to be more distinctive than any of the 
other baeticatus populations of northern Africa. In wing structure they 
are very similar to both A. dumetorum and A. agricola; in particular, many 
key out as agricola and even one as experienced as K. Williamson was led 
to believe that the Zula bird was actually dumetorum. Plumage colouration 
is incorrect however for both dumetorum and agricola, bill shape is wrong 
for agricola (which also has a relatively longer tail) and, most significantly, 
the song is very different from that of dumetorum. Both agricola and 
dumetorum are probably monotypic. 

We describe the mangrove taxon here as a race of baeticatus: 

Acrocephalus baeticatus avicenniae, subsp. nov. 

Type. Male adult with testes enlarged, Zula (15°15'N, 39°42'E), 
Eritrea, Ethiopia, 26 January 1952. Collected in a mangrove swamp near 
Zula by K. D. Smith. In the collection of the British Museum (Natural 
History), Tring. Registration number 1952 25-23. 

Description and diagnosis. Differs from A. b. cinnamomeus in being 
olive-brown above, with rusty tinge confined to rump and upper tail 
coverts, but lacking on wing feathers; slightly paler on head and mantle. 
Worn birds are paler with a greyish cast above. Supercilium creamy 
white. Almost uniform creamy white below with only a slight buff 
suffusion on the flanks and thighs, in contrast to the deep rich buff on the 
breast, flanks and under tail coverts typical of A. b. cinnamomeus. Under 
wing coverts creamy white. Wing usually longer than in cinnamomeus 

J. S. Ash et al. 39 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 


Measurements (in mm) of 2 races of Acrocephalus baeticatus 

n A. b. avicenniae n A. b. cinnamomeus* 

Wing S (10) 57-61(59.0+1.2) (14) 53-56(54.7 + 1.2) 

? (11) 55-61(58.2 + 0.9) (5) 53-56(54.8 + 1.1) 

Tail $ (8) 47-50(47.0 + 1.4) (10) 43-4-7(44.7 + 1.5) 

? (9) 44—18(46.1 + 1.3) (3) 43,44,45 

Tarsus S (8) 20-21.5(20.9 + 0.5) (10) 21.5-23 (22.1 +0.5) 

? (9) 20-21.5(20.7 + 0.5) (3) 21,21,22 

Bill (skull) S (8) 15.5-17(16.4 + 0.6) (14) 15.5-17.5 (16.7 + 0.6) 

$ (9) 15.5-17 (16.1 +0.5) (5) 16.5-17.0 (16.8 + 0.3) 

2nd primary tip (19) Most = tips p6/7 (18) Most = tips p7/9 (two 

(one = 7/8; two = 5/6) =9/10; none above p7) 

10th primary shortfall (19) 7.5-10 (9.3 ±0.5) (16) 6-9 (7.3 ±0.9) 

Hind claw (6) 5-6 (15) 6.5-7.5 

Weight (20) 7-10.5 g (8.0 + 1.1) (17) 6.2-10.6 g (8.0+ 1,0) 

*These include all the BMNH specimens from Sudan and Chad (10) and Tanzania (4, of 
which 2 are labelled wrongly as suahelicus), plus the Smithsonian specimens from Ethiopia 
(4) and Somalia (3). 

and rather more pointed (greater tenth primary shortfall, and the second 
primary falling nearer the wing tip); tarsus shorter (Table 1). 

Distribution. Mangroves on the Red Sea coasts of Ethiopia (Eritrea), 
Sudan, Saudi Arabia, North Yemen, and the Gulf of Aden coast of 

Measurements (in mm). Type: wing flattened 59, tail 48, tarsus 21, bill 
(culmen to skull) 16.5, hind claw 5; measured ascendantly, 2nd primary 
falls between 6th and 7th; 10th primary shortfall (distance from tip of 
10th primary to wingtip on closed wing) 9 mm. Other specimens: for a 
series of 19 (lO^c?, 9$$), measurements are compared with those of NE 
African cinnamomeus in Table 1 . 

Museum material examined (in addition to the type). Two Saudi 
Arabian specimens at BMNH (Reg. Nos. 1986-1-1 and 1986-1-2); 5 
specimens - one from Seek Said Is and 2 each from Suakin and Alula - on 
loan from the Smithsonian Institution (Reg. Nos. AMNH 569770, 
570439, 570440, 571274, 571366); 8 skins in the Alexander Koenig 
Museum, Bonn; and 5 skins in Stuttgart Museum, together with all hold- 
ings of A. baeticatus at BMNH and 7 A. b. cinnamomeus collected by 
J.S.A. in central Ethiopia and Somalia on loan from the Smithsonian 

Breeding and moult. Records of song all fall between January and May, 
which presumably includes the breeding season. This is borne out by the 
state of gonadal development, as well developed testes were present in one 
male at Zula in January and in 4 at Suakin in March; 4 females were in 
breeding condition at Suakin in March, and one nearly so at Alula in 
May — the latter probably regressing. Moult would seem to occur 
between about July and November, for the two January specimens, 
though fairly fresh, appear to have moulted at least 2 months previously; 
March birds are more faded and moderately worn, May birds are very 
worn, while of the 2 August adults, one was moulting and the other was 
very worn. Whereas all birds caught at Suakin in March were lean, 3 of the 
4 caught in August were rated Fat 3 (vide Pearson & Backhurst 1976). 
This suggests that the population migrated after breeding, and in fact no 

J. S. Ash etal. 40 Bull. B. O.C. 1989 109(1) 

birds have been recorded on the Sudan coast during September- 

Etymology. The bird is named after Avicennia maritima, the predomi- 
nant species in the mangrove habitat in which it has been found. 

Comparison with other forms of A. baeticatus and A. scirpaceus. A. b. 
avicenniae is paler above than other races of A. baeticatus, including hallae 
from southwestern Africa and guiersi from Senegal. A. b. guiersi has a 
similar restriction of warm colouration above, but is slightly darker 
brown on the head and mantle. Although the type was originally ident- 
ified as a Reed Warbler y4. 5. scirpaceus, the upperparts of avicenniae in fact 
closely match those of the eastern A. s. fuscus. The creamy wash below 
and the very pale flanks differentiate avicenniae from other races of 
baeticatus. The other African Reed Warbler known to frequent man- 
groves, perhaps exclusively, is A. b. suahelicus of the East African coast. 
This is a rather larger bird than avicenniae with a bigger bill, and is much 
darker and more richly coloured above and below. 

The wing of avicenniae is longer and less blunt than that of central and 
eastern African cinnamomeus. This is a tendency also shown by West 
African guiersi and hopsoni on the one hand, and by southern African 
nominate baeticatus and hallae, which are known to migrate, on the other. 
Rarely, in any of these African Reed Warblers, however, is the more 
pointed wingtip of A. scirpaceus approached. The bill of avicenniae is 
relatively small; the rather slender looking legs and toes and small claws 
are more apparent in the live bird in the hand than can be demonstrated 
by the measurements obtained. The different foot structure is presum- 
ably a reflection of the bird's mangrove habitat; most other races of 
baeticatus inhabit reeds, swamps and tall grasses to a large extent. A. b. 
cinnamomeus in southern Somalia is confined to the lowest parts of very 
dense and high stands of Typha growing in water. 

The pallid underparts, small feet and general structure and wing 
formula suggest in avicenniae an approach greater than that in other 
African Reed Warbler races to the Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais pallida. 
However, its rufous tinged rump, its short first primary, more rounded 
tail, and a lack of tarsal scaling, as well as its song, indicate its affinities 
with baeticatus and scirpaceus. Whether it warrants separate status as an 
endemic mangrove species will be determined by further observations of 
its behaviour and breeding, and song recordings. 

Thus, in summary, we recognise A. baeticatus as a polytypic species 
in Africa and Arabia, which does not seem to have a long-distance 
migration, has very close affinities with A. scirpaceus, and has a frag- 
mented distribution with a number of local populations, some of which 
are distinct. 

The discovery of A. b. avicenniae on the eastern coast of the Red Sea 
adds the species to the avifauna of Saudi Arabia and North Yemen, which 
are sites just outside the border of the Palaearctic as defined by Cramp 


Over the years discussions with many people have helped to clarify our thoughts on the 
mangrove reed warblers; in particular we thank R. J. Dowsett, Dr Francoise Dowsett- 
Lemaire, Dr C. H. Fry, Mrs B. P. Hall, the late K. D. Smith and Dr G. E. Watson. The 

J. S. Ash et al. 41 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

following most kindly sent us details of birds seen and/or handled in the countries after their 
names: Gordon Clarke (Somalia), M. K. Evans (N. Yemen), M. C. Jennings (Saudi 
Arabia), Brother Edmund Johnson (Eritrea), B. S. Meadows (Saudi Arabia), Dr S. J. Tyler 
(Ethiopia) and Alan Yittery (Ethiopia). Brother Edmund went to exceptional lengths at the 
height of the Ethiopian revolution to obtain the specimen from Seek Said Is. Thanks are 
due to Dr Storrs L. Olson and Phil Angle for arranging the loan of specimens from the 
Smithsonian Institution. John E. Miskell was of much help and good company on field trips 
in Somalia. 


Ash, J. S. 1973. Six species of birds new to Ethiopia. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 93: 3—6. 

1977. Four species of birds new to Ethiopia and other notes. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 97: 

1983. Over sixty additions of birds to the Somalia list, including two hybrids, together 

with notes from Ethiopia and Kenva. Scopus 7: 54-79. 
Ash, J. S. & Miskell, J. E. 1988. Observations on birds in Somalia in 1978-1982, together 

with a bibliography of recent literature. Scopus 1 1 : 57-78. 
Antinori, O. & Salvadori, T. 1873. Yiaggio dei Signori O. Antinori, O. Beccari ed A. Issel 

nel Alar Rosso, nel Territorio dei Bogos e Regioni circostanti durante gli anni 1 870— 71 . 

Catalogo degli Uccelli. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova. Vol. IV, 

Clancey, P. A. 1975. On the species limits of Acrocephalus baeticatus (Vieillot) (Aves: 

Sylviidae) of Ethiopian Africa. Arnoldia, Rhodesia 7(20): 1-14. 
Clarke, G. 1985. Bird observations from northwest Somalia. Scopus 9: 24-42. 
Colston, P. R. & Morel, G. J. 1984. A new subspecies of the African Reed Warbler 

Acrocephalus baeticatus from Senegal. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 104: 3-5. 
Cramp, S. 1988. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: the 

Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. 
Devillers, P. & Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1978. African Reed Warblers {Acrocephalus baeticatus) 

in Kaouar (Niger). Gerfaut 68: 211-213. 
Dowsett-Lemaire, F. & Dowsett, R. J. 1987. European and African Reed Warblers, 

Acrocephalus scirpaceus and A. baeticatus: vocal and other evidence for a single species. 

Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 107: 74-85. 
Erlanger, C. F. von 1905. Beitrage zue vogelfauna Nordostafrikas. J. Orn. 1905: 433-499. 
Fry, C. H., Williamson, K. & Ferguson-Lees, I. J. 1974. A new subspecies of Acrocephalus 

baeticatus from Lake Chad and a taxonomic reappraisal of Acrocephalus dumetorum. Ibis 

Hilgert, C. 1908. Katalog der Collection von Erlanger in Nieder-Ingelheim a Rh. Verlag von 

R. Friedlander & Sohn. 
Johnson, E. 1976. A flying trip to Massawa. Eth. Wildl. & N.H.S. Newsletter 107: 3. 
Nikolaus, G. 1984. Further notes on birds new or little known in the Sudan. Scopus 8: 38^42. 
— 1987. Distribution Atlas of Sudan's Birds with Notes on Habitat and Status. Bonner 

Zoologische Monographic Nr. 25. Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum 

Alexander Koenig, Bonn. 

& Backhurst, G. C. 1982. First ringing report for the Sudan. Scopus 6: 77-90. 

Pearson, D.J. & Backhurstt, G. C. 1976. The southward migration of Palaearctic birds over 

Ngulia, Kenya. Ibis 118: 78-105. 
Smith, K. D. 1964. Acrocephalus dumetorum in Africa. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 84: 172. 
Wilkinson, R. & Aidley, D. J. 1983. African Reed Warblers in northern Nigeria; morpho- 
metries and the taxonomic debate. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 103: 135-138. 
Williamson, K. 1963. Identification for Ringers. 1. (2nd ed). British Trust for Ornithology, 


Addresses: Dr J. S. Ash, Division of Birds, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 
20560, U.S.A. (present address: Godshill Wood, Fordingbridge, Hants SP6 2LR, 
U.K.J; Dr D. J. Pearson, Dept of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Box 30197, 
Nairobi, Kenya; Gerhard Nikolaus, Bosenbiittel 4, 2859 Spieka, West Germany; P. R. 
Colston, Sub-department of Ornithology, British Museum (Natural History), Tring, 
Herts HP23 6AP, U.K. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

J. S. Ash etal. 


Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Appendix 1. Records of Acrocephalus baeticatus in Ethiopia, Somalia, the Sudan, Saudi 

Arabia and North Yemen 











Massawa, Eritrea 

Not rare 

Antinori & Salvador! 1873 





Zula, Eritrea 

Ad c? coll. 

Smith 1964 







Ash 1973 






S coll. 

Ash 1973 






One netted 

Ash 1973 






One netted 

Ash 1973 






One netted 

Ash 1973 




27.iii. &4.iv.l972 


One netted 

Ash 1973 






One netted 

Ash 1973 






One coll. 

Kumerloeve 1974 





Seek Said Is 

5+ seen 

Ash 1977 






2 netted 

Ash 1977(Nikolaus) 






1 netted 

Ash 1977 






1 seen 

A. Vittery in lilt. 





3 km ex Tendaho 

1 seen 

A. Vitterv in litt. 






One netted 

Ash 1977 






One netted 

Ash pers. obs. 






One netted 

Ash pers. obs. 





Seek Said Is 

Two netted 

Ash 1977 (E.Johnson) 





Gilo River 


Dr S.J. Tyler in lift 





Ubela River 


Dr S. J. Tyler in litt 






One netted 

Ash pers. obs. 






6" coll. 

Ash pers. obs. 





10. i. 1900 


Ad J coll. 

Erlanger 1905; see 
Hilgert 1908 






One coll. 

Clarke 1985 






9 coll. 

Ash pers. obs. 






3<J(J coll. 

Ash pers. obs. 





Saad-al-Din Is 

2 seen 

Ash 1983 






6 seen 

Ash & Miskell pers. obs. 







Ash & Miskell pers. obs. 






299 coll. 

Ash & Miskell pers. obs. 





Garas wadi 

3 seen 

Ash pers. obs. 



SUDAN (coastal records only) 




8 coll. 

Nikolaus pers. obs. 






2 coll. 

Nikolaus pers. obs. 






4 coll. 

Nikolaus pers. obs. 






3 coll. 

Nikolaus pers. obs. 






Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah 


B. S. Meadows pers. obs. 





20 km NW of Shuqaia 

2 netted 

M. C. Jennings pers. obs. 





15kmNWof Shuqaia 

Sev. seen 

M. C. Jennings pers. obs. 






One seen 

M. K. Evans in litt. 



Notes. BM = British Museum (Natural History); SI = Smithsonian Institution; Bonn = 
Alexander Koenig Museum, Bonn; St. = Stuttgart Museum; G = Genoa Museum. 
Subsp. refs: a = A. b. cinnamomeus; b = A. b. avicenniae. The following identifications 
are presumed (first column) Ethiopia a; Somalia b,e,i; Saudi Arabia b,c; North Yemen 
*This was an Acrocephalus found with others ('non e raro') in mangroves, and remained 
unidentified. It was very probably this species. Coordinates for those localities not 
included in the text are given in Appendix 2. 

Appendix 2. Coordinates for localities in Appendix 1 which are not given in the text 




Gambela Ethiopia 08°15'N,34°38'E 
Garas wadi Somalia ll°16'N,49 o 02'E 

Gilo River 



Ubela River Ethiopia 07°55'N,33°57'E 

P. A. Clancey 43 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Appendix 3. Description of nests of Acrocephalus baeticatus avicenniae collected by 

G. Nikolaus in the Sudan 

1. Suakin, Sudan. July 1982. Empty nest in fork of mangrove, 20 cm above the sea, built 

entirely of seaweed. 

2. Suakin, Sudan. 17 August 1983. Empty nest in fork of mangrove, 1.5 m above the sea, 

built mainly of feathers and seaweed. It was close to a mixed breeding colony of 
Spoonbills Platalea leucorodia and Reef Herons Egrettagularis. 

Measurements (mm) 

Nest 1 

Nest 2 

External diameter of nest 



Internal diameter of cup 



Internal depth of cup 



External depth of nest 



Both nests are deposited in the Stuttgart Museum. 

The status of Anthns coffer mzimbaensis 
Benson, 1955 

by P. A. Clancey 

Received 19 April 1988 

The small Afrotropical Bushveld or Little Tawny Pipit Anthus caffer 
Sundevall, 1850: Rustenburg district, western Transvaal, of lightly 
wooded grassland savanna is a highly vicariant species, which ranges 
locally from southern Ethiopia, south through the eastern interior of the 
continent to reach southern Mozambique, Swaziland and Zululand in the 
southeast, with an isolate population in western Angola. White, in Peters 
(1960), admitted 4 subspecies, these, apart from the nominate race, 
being: A. c. mzimbaensis Benson 1955: Edingeni, Mzimba, Malawi; A. c. 
blayneyi van Someren 1919: Olgerei, Kenya; and A. c. australoabyssinicus 
Benson 1942: Yavello, southern Ethiopia. Since the appearance of this 
arrangement, A. c. traylori Clancey, 1964: Bela Vista, southern 
Mozambique, has been described. 

Geographically related variation in A. caffer affects levels of reddish 
brown and buffiness in the plumage, and general size, which latter seems 
not to be altitudinally correlated. Small-sized birds, with wings in males 
72 mm and below, occur from southern Ethiopia south to southern Kenya 
and northern Tanzania, and others almost as short-winged are present in 
the lowlands of the southeast of the range (southern Mozambique and 
adjacent territories) with wings in males 74.5 mm and below. Interposed 
between these short-winged groups of populations are much larger-sized 
elements with wings in males above 74 and attaining 80 mm in length. 
Variation in colouration is disposed somewhat differently to that of over- 
all size, with birds with the dorsal surfaces strongly reddish sandy or 
ochraceous and the underside (ground colour of breast and flanks) warm 
buff present from southern Ethiopia, south to northern Tanzania (to 
c. 5 S) and northeastern Zambia, re-appearing further south in the 
Transvaal and western Swaziland. This sequence of populations with 

P. A. Clancey 44 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

the undersides strongly tinged with buff is broken by elements with the 
upper-parts duller, less saturated, the light streaking, especially over 
the hind neck, paler, and with the throat and lower underside white, the 
flanks without any buff. Birds exhibiting these characters range from the 
plateau of Zimbabwe west to northeastern Botswana and are present 
again in the southeastern coastal lowlands, mainly to the south of the 
lower Limpopo R. in Mozambique. It has not been possible to fit the 
putative characters of the western Angolan isolate into this mosaic of size 
and colour variation, but as material from Angola is generally treated as 
applicable to the nominate race, described from the western Transvaal, it 
clearly belongs to the ventrally huffish group of populations. 

A. c. mzimbaensis was described on a single adult male in the 
Transvaal Museum collection taken near Mzimba, western Malawi, near 
the Zambian border, on 30 September 1940, by C. W. Benson, since when 
no further specimens have been collected in Malawi; consequently it must 
now be conceded that it is extremely unlikely that the name mzimbaensis 
represents a viable local breeding population. While generally believed to 
be sedentary, this pipit is credited by some as being either nomadic or 
even as having regular, seasonal movements {vide Britton et al. 1980), 
and evidence gathered from specimens examined during the course of 
the present study substantiates this view. The characters advanced by 
Benson in the original description of mzimbaensis are those of a population 
of larger size than A. c. coffer — longer wing (77) and tail (57.5 mm) — and 
the pure white nature of the abdominal surface, without any buff (on the 
flanks). The very long tail-length of the type of mzimbaensis is excep- 
tional, the longest measurement being normally 54.5/55 mm, and is prob- 
ably due to the rectrices having been ineptly cut during preparation. 
Otherwise, the criteria are not diagnostic, since comparable specimens 
have been taken at Mwekera, near Kitwe, Zambia (at 12°49'S, 28°23'E) 
and in the population continuum from the plateau of Zimbabwe, west to 
northeastern Botswana. On the evidence available, it is postulated that 
mzimbaensis is based on a migrant, probably from the Zimbabwean 
breeding population. 

On the basis of 4 specimens from the Bulawayo collection, Benson et al. 
(1971) recognised 2 subspecies of A. caffer from extreme western Malawi 
and eastern Zambia (east of 28°E), A. c. mzimbaensis of Malawi being 
separated from nominate A. caffer by the ecologically unsuitable 
Luangwa Valley. The 4 Zambian skins are an uneven lot. The single 
Mwekera specimen, shot on 4 September 1961, has already been alluded 
to. It does not resemble Transvaal topotypes of A. c. caffer, being duller 
and less red above and is very whitish below, without buff on the flanks 
and the breast streaking is on the whole fine; but on the other hand it can 
be matched with numerous specimens from western Zimbabwe and is 
assuredly a migrant from south of the Zambezi R. A single female 
from Chilanga (23 August 1957) is very worn and bleached, but again 
resembles comparable eroded Zimbabwe/Botswana material. The 
remaining 2 Zambian specimens are a freshly moulted female obtained 71 
miles from Kasama-Mpika, dated 22 January 1955, and a juvenile from 
the same general area (56 miles from Mpika-Kasama) taken on 8 March 
1954. These 2 specimens are more significant, since the freshly moulted 

P.A.Clancey 45 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

female exhibits characters linking it with the East African A. c. blayneyi 
rather than A. c. caffer (pace Benson et al.), these being the less heavily 
streaked dorsum, duller, less reddish brown rump, brighter buff to the 
underside and markedly finer and paler breast streaking. The Zambian 
birds are, however, not blayneyi, their wing-length being too long: 2 
females (one a juvenile) 72 and 73, versus 65-71 mm. van Someren 
(1919), in the original description of A. c. blayneyi, gave the wings of both 
sexes as 65-70 mm. In the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) series of A. c. 
australoabyssinicus of southern Ethiopia, 4 $<$ have wings 69.5-71 (70.1) 
(SD 0.62), 3 $$ 66-69 (67.1) mm. The series of blayneyi in the same 
collection, is, unfortunately, very limited, the wings of 3 c?$ being 66.5— 
71. This latter sample includes an atypical example with the dorsal sur- 
face showing broad dark brown shaft-streaking, the breast densely 
streaked with dark brown and the belly whitish, setting it apart from both 
typical blayneyi and the southern Ethiopian race. This skin was taken at 
Lomorn, 18 miles southwest of Loliondo, in the Serengeti region of 
northern Tanzania. Its status in uncertain. 

Returning to the Zambian specimens from Kasama-Mpika, these are 
presumably part of an undescribed subspecies, which may also comprise 
the remote Angolan isolate. Angolan specimens are not in the collection at 
Tring, but Mrs Mary LeCroy of the Department of Ornithology of the 
American Museum of Natural History, has kindly furnished wing- and 
tail-length data of the examples from Angola in their collection, as 
follows: wings of 2 males 72 and 74, 4 females 71.5—75 (sexing of one $ 
with a wing of 75 questionable), tails of males and females (mainly worn or 
in moult) 50-54 mm. Most patterns of variation exhibited by moderately 
or highly polytypic species ranging widely west to east south of the Lower 
Guinea Forest are unbroken, or vary only slightly terminally, from 
Angola, east to northern Zambia, Shaba (Zaire) and southwestern 
Tanzania; linkage of the undescribed Zambian element of A. caffer 
with the Angolan isolate would be in concordance with this general 

It can be concluded from the above discussion that A. c. mzimbaensis of 
1955 does not represent a subspecies known only from its type-locality, its 
type a migrant or nomad example agreeing in its critical features with 
birds breeding in a continuum to the south of the Zambezi from the 
interior plateau of Zimbabwe to Botswana. As these latter breeding birds 
constitute a discrete race, differing from A. c. caffer of the Transvaal and 
country to the southeast in being less reddish above and much whiter 
below, Benson's mzimbaensis may be used for it. 

Six groupings of populations merit treatment as subspecies, the 4 
present south of 10°S as defined below, and the 2 northern forms, A. c. 
blayneyi and A. c. australoabyssinicus, which range from southern 
Ethiopia to northern Tanzania, but only weakly differentiated from one 
another and needing further study. 

Anthus caffer caffer Sundevall, 1850: Rustenburg district, western 

Upper parts dark reddish olive-brown, the feathers edged deep 
ochraceous buff; rump plain dark Tawny-Olive (Ridgway 1912). Below, 

P.A.Clancey 46 Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

with breast warm buff, streaked with brownish black; rest of venter buffy 
white, the flanks washed warm buff. Size large. 

Wings of 13 &J 74-77. 5 (75.4) (SD 1.01), tails (of 5) 51. 5-52 (51. 5) (SD 
0.86); wings of 8 ?? 71.5-75 (73.3) (SD 1.06), tails (of 5) 48-52.5 (50.6) 

Range. Southeastern Botswana, southwestern Zimbabwe (? as 
migrants), the bushveld regions of the Transvaal highveld, western 
Swaziland and adjacent northern Natal (Itala). Intergrades to the east of 
its range with A. c. traylori. Some winter to north of range given. 

Remarks. One or two specimens from farms in the Bulawayo district of 
southwestern Zimbabwe and from Selukwe dated May— August agree 
with the present subspecies in their ventral characters, and appear to be 
seasonal visitors from south of the Limpopo R, which breed November- 
February. Other Bulawayo farms material is of mzimbaensis. A single 
freshly moulted S from Darwendale (17°49'S, 30°36'E), dated 11 May is 
also clearly a migrant example of nominate coffer. 

Anthus coffer traylori Clancey, 1964: Bela Vista, southern Sul do 
Save, Mozambique. 

Markedly less reddish above than A. c. coffer, the light streaking on the 
hind neck paler and the rump more olivaceous and markedly streaked 
with dark brown. Below wholly whiter, the ground to the breast pale 
ochraceous-buff, and flanks white, not buff. Size smaller. 

Wings of 14 $$ 70-74.5 (72.0) (SD 1.18), tails (of 10) 46-50 (48.4) (SD 
1.34); wings of 11 ?$ 68.5-72 (70.4) (SD 1.13), tails (of 8) 47-49 (47.5) 
(SD 0.82) mm. 

Range. Coastal plain of southern Mozambique south of the Save R, but 
known mainly from south of the lower Limpopo R. Extends to the Kruger 
National Park in the eastern Transvaal lowveld and to northeastern 
Zululand to the east of the Lebombo Mtns. 

Anthus coffer mzimbaensis Benson 1955: Edingeni, Mzimba, 

Similar in colour to A. c. traylori but much larger in size. Wings of 7 <$<$ 
74.5-80 (77.0) (SD 1.54), tails (of 10) 51.5-55 (52.6) (SD 1.26); wings of 
16 $? 71-75 (73.2) (SD 1.12), tails (of 12) 48.5-54 (50.8) (SD 1.60) mm. 

Range. Northern Botswana from just east of the swamp region, east to 
the interior plateau of Zimbabwe (see map in Irwin 1981). Some individ- 
uals range north of the Zambezi R during August and September, then 
reaching northern Zambia and western Malawi. 

Remarks. The lighter dorsal colouration and much whiter underside of 
mzimbaensis are analogous to the phenotypic character states of several 
xeric salt pan races of southern African larks (Alaudidae) and other pipit 
species, suggesting an arid region origin and recent spread to the country 
to the east of the South West Arid District. 

Anthus coffer Psubsp. nov. 

Similar to A. c. blayneyi but differs in being larger. Compared with 
nominate coffer less darkly and heavily streaked above. Ventrally, the buff 
of the breast and lateral surface brighter, and breast streaking both lighter 
and much finer. Size similar to nominate coffer. Wings of 2$$ 73, 72, tails 
(of 2) 50.5 mm each. 

R. A. Cheke & J. F. Walsh 47 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Range. Zambia east of 28°E. Perhaps also includes the Angolan 


Some 92 specimens of A. caffer were made available for the present project: from the 
collections of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.), Tring, the Museum Alexander Koenig, 
Bonn, the National Natural History Museum (of Zimbabwe), Bulawayo, the Transvaal 
Museum, Pretoria, and the Durban Natural History Museum. To all responsible officials I 
tender my thanks. Mrs Mary LeCroy, of the American Museum of Natural History, also 
assisted by kindly measuring and providing data on the short series in New York. 


Benson, C. W. 1955. New forms of Pipit, Longclaw, Robin-Chat, Grass Warbler, Sunbird, 

Quail-Finch and Canary from Central Africa. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 75(8): 101-109 

(p. 102). 
Benson, C. W., Brooke, R. K., Dowsett, R. J. & Irwin, M. P. S. 1971. The Birds of Zambia, 

p. 290. Collins. 
Britton, P. L. (Ed.). 1980. Birds of East Africa — their habitat, status and distribution, p. 175. 

East African Natural History Society, Nairobi. 
Irwin, M. P. S. 1981. The Birds of Zimbabwe, pp. 337-338. Quest Publishing, Salisbury 

Ridgwav, R. 1912. Color Standards and Color Nomenclature. The Author, Washington, 

van Someren, V. G. L. 1919. Anthus blavnevi, sp.n. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 40: 56. 
White, C. M. N. 1960. In Peters' Check-list of Birds of the World, 9, p. 156. Museum of 

Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

Address: Dr P. A. Clancey, Fernleigh Gardens, 8 Lambert Road, Morningside, Durban 
4001, South Africa. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Westward range extension into Togo of the 
Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia 

by Robert A. Cheke and J. Frank Walsh 

Received 25 June 1988 

At 1400 hours on 30 March 1988 R.A.C. heard an unfamiliar dove call, 
while collecting insects from the Ove river near Tasso (7°36'N, 0°42'E; 
450 m a.s.l.) in the highlands of Togo. The calls were repeated every 1-2 
minutes and consisted of a mournful "Cloor-cloor-cl or Cloor-cloor- 
clockpu\ coming from the top of a tree in the gallery forest beside the 
river; but the source of the sound appeared to be moving. Eventually the 
bird responsible was seen near the apex of a tree, but within its canopy. 
The dove was bigger and plumper than a Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur. 
The diagnostic features recognised were: head, neck and chest white with 
a grey wash; eye red; bill black; legs dark red; mantle brown; folded wings 
and upper tail very dark, the latter with a pale square-ended tip. The angle 
from which the bird was seen precluded sight of the collar but the upper 

5. M. Goodman & P. C. Gonzales 48 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

belly was vinous and the lower belly was a remarkably bright pinkish 
red. The under-tail was dark with a narrow white tip. The dove called 
repeatedly whilst being watched and occasionally turned a half-circle on 
its perch, accounting for the earlier illusion of movement. 

The plumage characters seen were sufficient for an identification of the 
dove as an Adamawa Turtle Dove 5. hypopyrrha. This was confirmed by 
the calls: Wood (1975) described the most frequent call of »S. hypopyrrha 
as a 3 note "Croor-cr- croor" or "Croorr croor croo" but occasionally a 4 
note "Croor err -croor coor" . 

During 1 1-13 May 1988 J.F.W. visited the site and heard similar calls, 
from a single dove, but failed to see the bird. No calls were heard between 
1720 and 1755 hours on 11 May but at 0733 and 0815 on 12 May 2 short 
bursts of calling were heard. These included a 3 note "Croor croor croo", a 
4 note "Croor-croor croo croor" and 2 note calls of "Croor coo". At 0745 on 
13 May a further burst of calling was heard. 

S. hypopyrrha was previously only known from the Jos-Bauchi and 
Mambilla plateaux in Nigeria, the Adamawa Highlands of Cameroon and 
SW Chad, but is said to be nomadic (Urban et al. 1986). This, the first 
record for Togo, is a westward extension of range of 800 km. The upland 
riverine forest habitat where the dove was found in Togo corresponds 
with its preferred habitat elsewhere, but whether this record signifies a 
hitherto unknown breeding population or a single vagrant is unclear: the 
length of the bird's presence at the site and its persistent advertising calls 
suggest the former. If so the record is of importance as Collar & Stuart 
(1 985) list S. hypopyrrha as a candidate species to be treated as threatened. 


Collar, N. J. & Stuart, S. N. 1985. Threatened Birds of Africa and Related Islands. The 

ICPB/IUCN Red Data Book, Part 1. Third Edition. Cambridge. 
Urban, E. K., Fry, C. H. & Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa, Vol. 2. Academic Press. 
Wood, B. 1975. Observations on the Adamawa Turtle Dove. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 95: 68-73. 

Addresses: Dr Robert A. Cheke, 8, Cecil Mansions, Marius Road, London, SW17 7QN, 
UK; Dr J. Frank Walsh, c/o WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme, B.P. 36, Kara, 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Notes on Philippine birds, 12. Seven species 
new to Catanduanes Island 

by Steven M. Goodman and Pedro C. Gonzales 

Received 5 July 1988 

Catanduanes is the largest of the offshore islands of Luzon, approxi- 
mately 1513 km" in total area. It is separated from Luzon by a water gap, 
the Maqueda Channel, which at its narrowest point is 8 km wide and 
c. 50 m deep (Heaney 1986). Catanduanes has been the site of several 
vertebrate collecting expeditions and the avifauna is one of the best 

5. M. Goodman & P. C. Gonzales 49 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

known of the smaller Philippine islands. The most intensive survey of the 
birds was conducted by Gonzales (1983) between 1968 and 1971. He 
tabulated 139 species for the island based on his own collections and the 
earlier work of Ogilvie Grant (1895) and Manuel (1937). 

Between 12 and 28 February 1988 we took part in a joint National 
Museum of the Philippines/Smithsonian Institution vertebrate survey of 
the island and were able to add an additional 7 bird species to Gonzales's 
(1983) list. We worked mostly out of 2 localities. The area surrounding 
our 'forest camp', 8.5 km W of Gigmoto and 5 km E of Summit, 13°47'N, 
124T9'E, 250 m elevation, is one of the last remaining tracts of essentially 
undisturbed dipterocarp forest on the island. It is known locally as 'Little 
Mindanao'. The second site was the 'road camp', 8.5 km W and 1 km N 
Gigmoto, 13°48'N, 124°19'E, 200 m elevation, a partially cleared area 
with some secondary growth and cultivation. 

All specimens referred to herein were prepared as skins and deposited 
in the National Museum of the Philippines (NMO), Manila. 

CHINESE LEAST BITTERN Ixobrychus sinensis 

At least one individual was observed several times between 20 and 23 
February, in a patch of banana plants along the Buadan River, just below 
the 'road camp'. 

BLACK-WINGED KITE Elanns caerideus 

We noted adult Black-winged Kites on 2 occasions along the road by 
the bank of the Bato River between Virac and Summit; on 14 and 23 
February single birds were chased up from roadside perches and closely 
observed as they flew away. 

PHILIPPINE BANDED CRAKE Rallina e. eurizonoides 

An adult female (NMO 16474) was collected on 22 February near the 
'road camp'. The bird, which weighed 105 gm and was not in breeding 
condition, was taken in a cleared area with some secondary growth and 
near an abaca grove. 

SPOTTED DOVE Streptopelia chinensis 

On 24 February we examined and photographed a caged Spotted Dove, 
kept in a private house, which had been captured wild the previous month 
near the Pajo River, c. 5 km SE of Virac, and represents the first docu- 
mented record from Catanduanes. The trapper mentioned that he first 
noted this species on the island in January or February 1987. 

In the past few decades the Spotted Dove has rapidly colonized 
portions of the Philippines, apparently spreading from the islands of 
Balabac and Palawan. The first documented record for Luzon was a bird 
collected on 22 November 1 968 at Dalton Pass, Nueva Viscaya (Gonzales 
& Celestino 1979). In September and October 1978 it was noted several 
times near Los Banos, Laguna (Waldbauer & Waldbauer 1982). A 
specimen (NMO 12349) was taken on Samar Island, to the south of 
Catanduanes, by Gonzales and Ramos on 20 April 1970 at the Southern 
Samar Agricultural College, Saludo. This is the closest known locality to 
Catanduanes inhabited by Spotted Doves and presumably the region 
from which the colonizing population originated. 

5. M. Goodman & P. C. Gonzales 50 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 


On 22 February a male Luzon Collared Scops (NMO 16475) was 
netted near the 'forest camp'. It was in breeding condition, the testes 
measuring 26 x 17 mm (left) and 25 x 14 (right), and weighed 180gm. 
The specimen is comparable in size, colouration, and tarsal feathering to 
specimens from Luzon identified by Marshall (1978) as O. megalotis. A 
downy young owl (Delaware Museum of Natural History 73267) taken on 
Catanduanes at Burgos, Viga, on 21 May 1981 may be either this species 
or O. bakkamoena. 

GOLDEN GROUND THRUSH Zoothera dauma aurea 

An adult male (NMO 16466) Golden Ground Thrush was netted near 
the 'forest camp' on 20 February. The bird had heavy fat deposits and 
weighed 172 gm. This species is a winter visitor to Luzon, Mindoro 
and Palawan (duPont 1971) and had not been previously recorded on 

BLUE-BREASTED FLYCATCHER Niltava (Cyornis) herioti 

Three specimens were taken at the 'forest camp': immature male 
(NMO 16439), weight 22 gm; immature male (NMO 16451), 20 gm; 
adult female (NMO 16461), 18 gm. Subspecific identification was 
impossible because the 2 recognized forms, N . h. herioti from northern 
and central Luzon and N. h. camarinensis from southern Luzon, are 
differentiated by adult male plumage (duPont 1971). 


The material gathered on Catanduanes was the result of many peoples' labour. We would 
like especially to thank Dr. Larry Heaney for providing funds for the work and commenting 
on this paper, Mr Jacinto Ramos for preparing the skins, and Mr. Renato Fernandez for 
helping in many ways. We acknowledge the financial support of the National Museum of 
the Philippines, the Smithsonian Institution, and the U.S. National Science Foundation 


duPont, J. E. 1971 . Philippine Birds. Delaware Museum of Natural History. 

Gonzales, P. C. 1983. Birds of Catanduanes. Zoological Papers, National Museum Manila, 

No. 2. 
Gonzales, P. C. & Celestino, M. 1979. Streptopelia chinensis tigrina (Temminck), a new 

record for Luzon. Zoological Papers, National Museum Manila, No. 4. 
Heaney, L. R. 1986. Biogeography of mammals in SE Asia: estimates of rates of colon- 
ization, extinction and speciation. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 28: 127-165. 
Manuel, R. C. 1937. Avifauna of Catanduanes. Phil. J. Sci. 63: 185-189. 
Marshall, J.T.I 978. Systematics of small Asian night birds based on voice. Ornith. Monogr. 

No. 25. 
Ogilvie Grant, W. R. 1895. On the birds of the Philippine Islands -Part IV. The province 

of Albay, south-east Luzon, and the adjacent island of Catanduanes. Ibis Ser. 7(1): 

Waldbauer, G. P. & Waldbauer, S. M. 1982. First sight record of the Spotted Dove 

Streptopelia chinensis from Luzon and a summary of its range expansion in the 

Philippines. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 102: 22-24. 

Addresses : Steven M. Goodman, Museum of Zoology, The University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan 48109, U.S.A.; Pedro C. Gonzales, Chief, Zoology Division, 
National Museum of the Philippines, Old Congress Building, Rizal Park, Manila, 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

P. A. Clancey 51 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

The status of (Cursorius temminckii) damarensis 
Reichenow, 1901 

by P. A. Clancey 

Received 14 July 1988 

In the first volume of his monumental work on Afrotropical birds, 
Reichenow (1901) conditionally named a Damaraland, South West 
Africa/Namibia, race of Temminck's Courser Cursorius temminckii 
Swainson as follows: "With Damara birds the reddish brown of the 
crown seems to be paler. These [birds] may be separable as a subspecies 
damarensis." No type-specimen was designated with the rudimentary 
description and none appears to exist, so that the taxonomic attribution of 
the name must rest explicitly on the crown colour character. As demon- 
strated in the recent study of geographical variation in C. t. temminckii 
(Clancey 1984), all 3 subspecies occur in South West Africa, these being 
C. t. temminckii Swainson, 1822: Senegal, with the crown pale Sudan 
Brown {vide Ridgway 1 91 2), as a relatively common non-breeding visitor, 
C. t. ruvanensis Madarasz, 1915: Ruwana R., Speke Gulf, southeastern L. 
Victoria, Mara district, Tanzania, with a darker crown (Amber Brown), 
breeding on the alluvial flats of the Okavango R. flood-plain of the north- 
east of the territory, and C. t. damarensis Reichenow 1901: no locality, but 
Damaraland by inference, again with a paler crown (dusty or dull Sudan 
Brown). In my revision of 1984, C. t. damarensis was shown to be centred 
as a breeder on the saline pans of Botswana, but occurring to the west of 
this to the Etosha Pan in northern South West Africa/Namibia in small 

Examination of the short series of 7 South West African specimens in 
the collection of the State Museum, Windhoek in May 1988, revealed 
that all are attributable to the nominate race, which is a long-distance 
transequatorial post-breeding migrant from the Sahel and Guinean 
savannas to the south of the Sahara; these were collected in the Etosha Pan 
area (19 February), Wilhelmsrute, Gobabis (13 February), Welbacht (? = 
Welbedacht) (17 March) and the Waterberg (17 November). Neither 
ruvanensis nor damarensis is represented in the collection in Windhoek. 
The paler crown character given for damarensis by Reichenow negates it 
being an earlier name for ruvanensis, restricting application to either 
nominate temminckii as a junior synonym or as the definitive name for the 
saline pan oriented form, as currently interpreted. In the latter event, as 
Reichenow did not comment to the effect that the back and wings were 
distinctly paler (in the saline pan phenotype Drab or Light Drab, v. 
Tawny-Olive in C. t. temminckii), indications are that his damarensis 
was based on a comparison between migrant nominate temminckii 
taken or observed in northern South West Africa/Namibia and ruvanensis 
from German East Africa. It is noteworthy that the only South West 
African locality given in Reichenow's 1901 treatment of the present 
courser is Ondangua, in Ovamboland, which is based on a C. J. 
Andersson reference of the mid-1 800s. As we have no recourse to a 

P. A. Clancey 52 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

comparison of a type-specimen to resolve this issue, I recommend on the 
basis of: (a) the stated lighter coloured crown, and (b) the absence of a 
reference to a more drab-coloured dorsum, that (C. t.) damarensis be 
treated as a synonym of nominate C. temminckii, an established non- 
breeding visitor to South West Africa/Namibia from north of the Equa- 
tor. Resulting from this action, a name is required for the "damarensis" of 
Peters (1934), Clancey (1984) and other authors: 

Cursorius temminckii aridus, subsp. nov. 

Type. <$, adult. Sekhuma Pan, 160 km W. of Kanye, southern 
Botswana. Taken on 1 8 February 1961. Collector's No. SWK 118 (name 
not given). In the Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe, Bulawayo, 
Mus. Reg. No. 45822. 

Description. Compared with C. t. ruvanensis crown paler, being a dull 
Sudan Brown, and dorsum and wings lighter and greyer, less dark 
earthen, brown, corresponding to the Drab or Light Drab of Ridgway 
(1912). Over the lateral head, the cheeks are less washed with light rusty 
buff, and ventrally the fore-throat is whiter and the breast paler (about 
Pinkish Buff). The Cinnamon of the mid-breast is both lighter and more 
restricted, and the black mid-ventral patch is smaller with a correspond- 
ing increase in the extent of the lateral white. Similar in size. 

The nominate race differs from aridus in having a richer Sudan Brown 
crown, the dorsum and wings warm Tawny-Olive rather than Drab, the 
lateral head and fore-throat washed with tawny, and with the breast 
Cinnamon-Buff v. Pinkish Buff, the lower mid-breast more strongly 
tinged Cinnamon. The black belly patch is also broader. 

Measurements. Wings of 6 &J, 126-132 (126.6), of 7 ??, 120-128 
(124.4) mm. 

Material examined. C. t. aridus, 14; C. t. temminckii, 77; C. t. ruvanensis, 

Range. Occurs from the Etosha National Park, northern South West 
Africa/Namibia, locally east to the saline pans of Botswana south of the 
Ngamiland swamps and from Makgadikgadi Pan southwards through the 
Kalahari and regions to the east to the Molopo R. It extends marginally 
into western Zimbabwe at Hwange (Wankie) National Park and near 
Bulawayo. Resident, but one taken at Musimbiri, Sabi/Lundi con- 
fluence, in southeastern Zimbabwe, on 17 January suggests local seasonal 

Etymology . aridus, Latin, parched or desiccated. 

Remarks. The above description is based on Clancey (1984: 371—372). 


For research facilities at the State Museum, Windhoek, I am grateful to Dr J. M. 
Mendelsohn, Chief Curator of Natural Science. I am also indebted to Dr H. E. Wolters, 
Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, and Mr H. D. Jackson, Director, Natural History 
Museum of Zimbabwe, Bulawayo, for assistance in other directions in connection with this 


Clancey, P. A. 1984. Geographical variation and post-breeding dispersal in Temminck's 
Courser of the Afrotropics. Le Gerfaut 74: 361—374. 

A. Tye 53 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Peters, J. L. 1934. Check-list of Birds of the World, 2: 300. Harvard University Press, 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Reichenow, A. 1901. Die Vbgel Afrikas, 1: 156. Neumann, Neudamm. 
Ridgwav, R. 1912. Color Standards and Color Nomenclature. The Author, Washington, 


Address: Dr P. A. Clancey, Fernleigh Gardens, 8 Lambert Road, Morningside, Durban 
4001, South Africa. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

The systematic position of the Buff-streaked 
Chat (Oenanthe/ Saxicola bifasciata) 

by Alan Tye 

Received 5 August 1988 

The Buff-streaked Chat is an enigmatic species, endemic to southern 
Africa. It was considered by Hall & Moreau (1970) as of "uncertain 
affinities". At its original description, Temminck (1829) named it 
Saxicola bifasciata, thus placing it in a genus which at that time covered 
a variety of chats, including most wheatears. It was later transferred to 
the ant-chat genus Myrmecocichla (e.g. Seebohm 1881) while other 
wheatears remained in Saxicola. However, at that time Myrmecocichla 
bore little resemblance to the genus as we now know it: Seebohm (1881) 
considered it to comprise 8 species in 3 groups, of which 6 species (2 
groups) are now included in Cercomela. (The remainder of present-day 
Cercomela was included with the wheatears in Saxicola.) The third group 
in Seebohm's Myrmecocichla comprised the Buff-streaked Chat and the 
Southern Anteater Chat M . formicivora. 

The very diverse Myrmecocichla as constituted by Seebohm (1881) was 
later dismantled, with the majority of its species transferred to 
Cercomela but, over the years, further species were added to it, forming a 
Myrmecocichla genus quite different in character from that in which 
Seebohm placed the Buff-streaked Chat. 

The Buff-streaked Chat superficially resembles some of the ant-chats 
in having white (or buff) shoulders, but this mark is due to buff scapulars 
in the Buff-streaked Chat while in the ant-chats it is a result of white wing- 
coverts. In other characteristics, the Buff-streaked Chat differs from the 
ant-chats in plumage, egg-colour and behaviour and does not appear to be 
closely related to them. Ripley (1962) removed it and restored it to the 
wheatears (which by that time were placed in Oenanthe) "on plumage and 
behavioural grounds" but without giving detailed reasons. 

In plumage, the Buff-streaked Chat is actually quite unlike any 
wheatear, although it does bear a striking resemblance to the Stonechat 
Saxicola torquata and Whinchat S. rubetra. It seems worthwhile to com- 
pare in detail what is known of the plumage, morphology, behaviour and 
ecology of the Buff-streaked Chat with 'other' wheatears (hereafter 
termed simply wheatears or Oenanthe spp.) and with Saxicola spp. 

A. Tye 54 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 


The Buff-streaked Chat superficially resembles the Stonechat, but 
a detailed comparison is required to substantiate this resemblance. 

The male Buff-streaked Chat has a black throat, a feature found in 
some species of both Saxicola and Oenanthe, but the remainder of the 
underparts of the BufT-streaked Chat is a deep cinnamon-buff, as in the 
Stonechat and Whinchat but unlike any Oenanthe except the Desert 
Wheatear O. deserti. Male Buff-streaked Chats have a cream super- 
cillium, as in some species of both genera (including the Whinchat but not 
the Stonechat). 

The upperparts of the Buff-streaked Chat, from crown to back, are 
mottled black and brown, unlike any Oenanthe but strikingly like the 
upperparts of the Stonechat and Whinchat. In all 3 species the fresh 
feathers have black centres with broad brown fringes. Indeed, the exacti- 
tude of the resemblance in this character alone would strongly suggest 

The Buff-streaked Chat's rump is cinammon or deep buff, as 
in the Stonechat. This condition is also approached by the 2 
'red-rumped' wheatears, Tristram's O. moesta and the Red-tailed 
O. xanthoprymna. 

One of the most arresting characters of the male Buff-streaked Chat is 
its cinnamon-buff or creamy-white inner wing-coverts and scapulars 
which contrast with the dark wings and upperparts. This precise pattern 
is found in no Oenanthe but is approached most closely by the Mountain 
Wheatear O. monticola and Somali Wheatear O. phillipsi, in which 
most or all of the wing-coverts are white or pale grey, and by the Desert 
Wheatear in which the innermost coverts are buff (concolorous with the 
back). However, cream or white inner wing-coverts and outer scapulars 
are a prominent feature of several Saxicola spp., including the Stonechat, 
in which the extent of white varies greatly between subspecies and 
individuals. The females of the Stonechat and Buff-streaked Chat 
resemble one another closely, except that the wing-flash is absent from 
the female Buff-streaked Chat. 

In Saxicola the tail may be wholly black (as in the Stonechat) or black 
and white (e.g. Whinchat). The Buff-streaked Chat has a black tail. 
All Oenanthe spp. except one subspecies of the Mountain Wheatear 
O. m. nigricauda have a patterned black and white tail. Although 
O. m. nigricauda demonstrates that a wholly black tail can arise in 
Oenanthe, this character allies the Buff-streaked Chat more closely with 

In isolation, each of the resemblances to Saxicola might not appear 
convincing but as a suite of characters (Table 1), the overall similarity 
between the Buff-streaked Chat and, especially, the Stonechat seems 
unlikely to have arisen by convergence. In contrast, the Buff-streaked 
Chat resembles closely no single wheatear species: it has an odd mix of 
characters, one or other shared with different species (e.g. general colour 
with Desert Wheatear, rump colour with Tristram's, etc). These isolated 
resemblances are less likely to indicate close relationship and more likely 
to represent convergence. 

A. Txe 


Bull. 109(1) 


Comparison of plumage characteristics of the Buff-streaked Chat with the Stonechat 
Saxicola torquata and wheatears. + signifies agreement with Buff-streaked Chat, 

— signifies disagreement. 






Buff-streaked Chat 

Rich cinammon-buff 


Mottled black & brown 


Contrasting buff-white 

Stonechat Oenanthe spp. 

-(+ deserti) 

-(+ m. nigricauda) 

-(+ moesta & xanthoprymna) 
-(+ monticola) 

Structural characteristics of the Buff-streaked Chat compared with Saxicola and Oenanthe 
spp. Figures are means calculated from data in the following sources: S. torquata & S. 
rubetra- Cramp (1988); Buff-streaked Chat & O. monticola -Tye (in press); O. deserti- 
Cramp (1988), Tye (in press). Figures in brackets are measurement divided by body ! 

weight 033 . 

weight (g) 

length (mm) 

length (mm) 

length (mi 

Saxicola torquata 





S. rubetra 














Oenanthe monticola 






0. deserti 







The Buff-streaked Chat is a larger bird than the Stonechat and other 
Saxicola spp., although this may not be of great significance. Similar size 
differences exist between subspecies of other chat species. 

Structural differences between Saxicola and Oenanthe include the 
following (Meinertzhagen 1930, Leisler & Winkler 1985): the bill of 
Saxicola is generally shorter and flatter at the base than in Oenanthe; 
Oenanthe has fewer, finer, shorter rictal bristles than Saxicola — in 
the latter they are very prominent, resembling those of flycatchers 
Muscicapidae (sensu stricto); the wing and tail of Saxicola are shorter in 
comparison with body size than in Oenanthe. 

Some of these factors are examined for the Buff-streaked Chat in 
relation to 2 Saxicola spp. and 2 Oenanthe spp. in Table 2. The 2 Saxicola 
spp. were chosen as those geographically closest and most similar in 
appearance to the Buff-streaked Chat. The 2 Oenanthe spp. represent 
extremes of body size in that genus and include the species (Desert 

A. Tye 56 Hull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Wheatear) which perhaps most closely resembles the Buff-streaked Chat 
in appearance. 

Table 2 considers wing, tail and bill lengths in relation to body size 
(measured by body weight ) and clearly demonstrates 2 points: first, 
that Saxicola and Oenanthe differ considerably (no overlap) in these 
characteristics and, second, that the Buff-streaked Chat falls within the 
range of Saxicola in all 3 features. The agreement with Saxicola comes 
despite the fact that the Buff-streaked Chat is a considerably larger bird. 
Differences between the Buff-streaked Chat and the Mountain Wheatear 
(which are similarly sized) and similarities between the 2 wheatear species 
(which differ greatly in size) show that these results are not the product of 
allometry but are probably true generic characteristics. 

The bill of the Buff-streaked Chat is finer than that of most Saxicola but 
rather broader than that of Oenanthe. Taking into account bill length 
(proportional to body size) and shape, the Buff-streaked Chat's bill is 
perhaps intermediate between the 2 genera (short like a Saxicola, finer 
like an Oenanthe). 

The Buff-streaked Chat possesses long, prominent rictal bristles, as in 
Saxicola spp. 


The egg of the Buff-streaked Chat is unusual in having a ground colour of 
creamy-white or buff, heavily freckled with lilac and red-brown (see 
Priest 1948). In this it resembles the typical pattern of neither Saxicola 
nor Oenanthe (nor Myrmecocichla), which normally have pale blue or 
greenish blue eggs, spotted with red-brown. The Buff-streaked Chat egg 
more closely resembles those of Thamnolea and Monticola spp., although 
a few species of both Saxicola and Oenanthe sometimes approach it. Egg 
colour seems quite labile in the Turdidae and these resemblances may not 
bear any taxonomic significance (Lack 1958). 

Ecology and Behaviour 

The Buff-streaked Chat has been studied little in the field. What is 
known of its biology is summarized by Tye (in press). Most aspects of its 
behaviour and ecology do not ally it more closely with either Saxicola or 
Oenanthe, partly because these 2 genera are themselves rather similar. 
One small difference exists in breeding biology: Oenanthe are primarily 
underground hole-nesters, whereas Saxicola mainly nest on the ground 
(under bushes) or in crevices. The Buff-streaked Chat is mainly a crevice 
nester, often placing its nest on the ground, on the down-slope side of 
a rock, concealed by grass tufts (Vincent 1947). In this it resembles 

The major behavioural-ecological difference between the 2 genera lies 
in habitat selection and foraging behaviour. Saxicola spp. in general 
prefer bushier habitats than Oenanthe, and forage mainly by sallying to 
the ground or aerial sallying from elevated perches (Greig-Smith 1982, 
Moreno 1984, Leisler & Winkler 1985, Cramp 1988). Oenanthe is a more 
terrestrial group, occupying more open, steppe and semidesert habitats. 

A.Tye 57 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

Although ground and aerial sallying are used by most wheatear 
species, they also commonly run on the ground to capture terrestrial 
prey by a technique known as dash-and-jab (Cornwallis 1975, Tye 
in press). 

In a recent study of the foraging behaviour of the Buff-streaked Chat 
(Tye 1988), I found it difficult to reconcile certain aspects of the bird's 
behaviour with that of wheatears. Differences from 'normal' wheatear 
behaviour included a comparatively high frequency of aerial and ground 
sallying, the absence of typical dash-and-jab, and an unusual bounding 
gait. Since the Buff-streaked Chat was then regarded as a wheatear, I 
attempted to explain these differences in behaviour from the normal 
wheatear pattern as adaptations to its unusual (for a wheatear) habitat. 
The Buff-streaked Chat inhabits montane grassy slopes, with tall grass 
and boulder fields in the Drakensberg of southeast Africa. In this habitat 
the tall grass prevents dash-and-jab, necessitating alternative foraging 
and movement techniques. No other wheatear species has this type of 
habitat as its major environment; all others inhabit short-grass savannas 
or steppes with much bare ground. 

However, if the Buff-streaked Chat is regarded as a Saxicola, there is no 
difficulty in explaining either its habitat preferences or its behaviour. 
Montane grasslands with tall grass are the normal habitat of many 
Saxicola spp., including the Stonechat, which lives alongside the Buff- 
streaked Chat in the Drakensberg (pers. obs.). The foraging behaviour of 
the Buff-streaked Chat is similar to that of the Stonechat (cf. Greig-Smith 
1983 with Tye 1988), especially where the 2 are using similar habitat. 
In the study area described in Tye (1988), both species captured the 
majority of their prey by aerial sallying (Tye 1988 and unpublished). One 
difference is that the Stonechat perches more often on vegetation (e.g. 
Greig-Smith 1983, Moreno 1984), whereas the Buff-streaked Chat 
shows a strong preference for rocks (Tye 1 988). However, where rocks are 
available, Stonechats also use them as perches from which to hunt: in the 
same area studied by Tye (1988) where Buff-streaked Chats used rocks 
for 96° of their perches, 53% of Stonechats' perches were also on rocks 
(Tye, unpublished). The stronger preference for rocks exhibited by 
Buff-streaked Chats is perhaps explained by their larger, heavier build. 

Finally, the unusual bounding gait noted for Buff-streaked Chats (Tye 
1988) seems, in fact, typical of Saxicola: Cramp (1988) describes the gait 
of the Stonechat as a "bouncing hop". 


The Buff-streaked Chat resembles Saxicola more than Oenanthe in 
plumage (detail and general appearance), morphology and ecology. It 
bears the closest resemblance to the 2 geographically closest Saxicola 
spp., the Stonechat and Whinchat. Most of the characteristics shared by 
the Buff-streaked Chat and wheatears are common to many chat species 
and genera and are therefore of little taxonomic significance. Details of 
plumage, structure and behaviour shared with Saxicola, on the other 
hand, do seem to indicate evolutionary relationship. On this basis the 
Buff-streaked Chat might be regarded as a giant Stonechat. 

A. Tye 58 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 

It may be speculated (Tye in prep.) that the genus Oenanthe may 
not be monophyletic, even after excluding the Buff-streaked Chat from 
it. Certain Oenanthe spp. or superspecies seem closely linked with 
Myrmecocichla on the one hand (e.g. O. monticola) and Cercomela on the 
other (e.g. O. pileata superspecies). These 3 genera, perhaps together 
with Thamnolea , Saxicola and others, seem to stem from an early chat 
radiation, although the precise relationships between these genera and 
their constituent species-groups are obscure. Although the Buff-streaked 
Chat most closely resembles Saxicola spp., it is conceivable that it 
represents an evolutionary line which has been independent since the 
time of the postulated early chat radiation. If this is the case, it merits its 
own monotypic genus. However, lacking clear evidence on the course of 
events at the time of the isolation of the ancestors of the present genera, 
the more conservative option of placing it with its nearest apparent 
relatives seems the better course. The Buff-streaked Chat thus returns to 
its original genus, becoming Saxicola bifasciata Temminck 1829. 


I thank the staff of the British Museum (Natural History), particularly P. R. Colston, G. S. 
Cowles and M. P. Walters, for access to specimens in their care. Petrina Brooke and Rob 
Little made possible the field study of the Buff-streaked Chat which stimulated this work, 
while Stuart Keith expressed tolerance towards and guarded agreement with the heterodox 
classification which encouraged its publication. 


Cornwallis, L. 1975. The Comparative Ecology of Eleven Species of Wheatear in S.W. Iran. 

D.Phil, thesis, University of Oxford. 
Cramp, S. (ed.) 1988. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. 
Greig-Smith, P. W. 1982. Interspecific aggression between chats. Bird Study 29: 162—164. 
Greig-Smith, P. W. 1983. Use of perches as vantage points during foraging by male and 

female Stonechats Saxicola torquata. Behaviour 86: 215-236. 
Hall, B. P. & Moreau, R. E. 1970. An Atlas of Speciation in African Passerine Birds. British 

Museum (Natural History), London. 
Lack, D. 1958. The significance of the colour of turdine eggs. Ibis 100: 145—166. 
Leisler, B. & Winkler, H. 1985. Ecomorphology. In R. F. Johnston (Ed.), Current 

Ornithology , Vol. 2, pp. 155-186. Plenum. 
Meinertzhagen, R. 1930. Nicoll's Birds of Egypt. Hugh Rees. 
Moreno, J. 1984. Search strategies of Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and Stonechats 

(Saxicola torquata): adaptive variation in perch height, search time, sally distance and 

inter-perch move length..?. Anim. Ecol. 53: 147-159. 
Priest, C. D. 1948. Eggs of Birds Breeding in Southern Africa. Glasgow University Press. 
Ripley, S. D. 1962. Brief comments on the thrushes. Postilla 63: 1-5. 
Seebohm, H. 1881. Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Vol. 5, British Museum 

(Natural History), London. 
Temminck, C. J. 1829. Saxicola bifasciata. In C. J. Temminck & M. Laugier de Chartrouse: 

Nouveau Recueil de Planches Coloriees d'Oiseaux, Vol. 4, livr. 79. pi. 472, fig. 2. 

Levrault, Paris. 
Tye, A. 1988. Foraging behaviour and selection of prey and perches by the Buffstreaked 

Chat Oenanthe bifasciata. Ostrich 59. 
Tye, A. (in press) Wheatears Oenanthe spp. and Buff-streaked Chat. In G. S. Keith, E. K. 

Urban & C. H. Fry (Eds), The Birds of Africa, Vol. 4. Academic Press. 
Tye, A. In prep. Superspecies in the genus Oenanthe. 
Vincent, A. W. 1947. On the breeding habits of some African birds. Ibis 89: 163-204. 

Address: Dr A. Tye, British Ornithologists' Union and Edward Grey Institute of Field 
Ornithology, Dept of Zoology, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, England. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Books received 59 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(1) 


Fry, C. H., Keith, S. & Urban, E. K. (Eds.). 1988. The Birds of Africa. Vol. 3. Psittaciformes 

to Piciformes. Pp. 611. 32 colour plates by Martin Woodcock. Line drawings by Ian 

Willis. Acoustic References by Claude Chappuis. Academic Press. £71 50. 24 x 32 cm. 

The third volume of this excellent work completes the non-passerines, with style and 

layout the same as in Volume 2. The literature up to August 1986 has been reviewed and, for 

many species, use has been made of more recent material also. In systematic treatment, a few 

changes have been made at low taxonomic levels, but the authors have been conservative in 

higher taxa. 

Hollom,P. A.D. 1988. The Popular Handbook of British Birds. 5th Revised Edn. Pp. 486. 16 

colour plates of eggs and 7 in black-and-white; 120 colour plates of birds and 8 birds in 

flight in black-and-white. Many line drawings. Hardback. £14-95. 21x13 cm. 

This well-known and deservedly popular book, "the lineal descendant" of the classic The 

Handbook of British Birds (1938-41), has been thoroughly revised, especially the status and 

distribution sections, the text being entirely reset, and the scientific sequence re-arranged. It 

is 36 years since the first edition appeared and it is improbable that this present revision will 

be the last, so valuable is the book's whole approach to ornithology. 


Papers, from Club Members or non-members, should be sent to the Editor, 
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supporting evidence under the headings "Description", "Distribution", 
"Type", "Measurements of Type" and "Material examined", plus any 
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correspondence concerning membership should be addressed to the Hon. 


The Bulletin (Vol. 1 08 onwards) may be purchased by non-members on 
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above should go to the Hon. Secretary, R. E. F. Peal, 2 Chestnut Lane, 
Sevenoaks, Kent TNI 3 3AR. 


club notes. Report of the Committee for 1988. Annual General 

Meeting Agenda 1 

GERARD J. morel. Paradoxical Sahel: rich wetlands surrounded 

with arid bush steppe 4 


Petrel Oceanodroma monorhis; a species new for Thailand .... 9 
brian wood. Biometrics, iris and bill colouration, and moult of 

Somali forest birds 11 

jiri mlikovsky. Note on the osteology and taxonomic position of 

Salvadori's Duck Salvadorina waigiuensis (Aves: Anseridae 

[Anatidae]) 22 


& N. john schmitt. Notes on the nests and eggs of some 
Ecuadorian birds 25 

peter w. wendelken & Robert f. martin. Recent data on the dis- 
tribution of birds in Guatemala, 2 31 

j. s. ash, d. j. pearson, g. nikolaus & p. r. colston. The mangrove 
reed warblers of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coasts, with 
description of a new subspecies of the African Reed Warbler 
Acrocephalus baeticatus 36 

p. A. clancey. The status of Anthus coffer mzimbaensis Benson, 

1955 43 

Robert A. cheke & j. frank walsh. Westward range extension into 

Togo of the Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia hypopyrrha. . 47 

steven m. goodman & pedro c. gonzales. Notes on Philippine 

birds, 12. Seven species new to Catanduanes Island 48 

p. A. clancey. The status of (Cursorius temminckii) damarensis 

Reichenow, 1901 51 

ALAN tye. The systematic position of the Buff-streaked Chat 

{Oenanthej Saxicola bifascata) 53 

books received 59 

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This will only apply to copies despatched from the printers on publication. Those whose 
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their copies despatched by surface mail, after their current subscription has been paid. 


Revd. G. K. McCulloch, O.B.E. (Chairman) (1986) D. Griffin (V ice-Chairman) (1986) 

R. E. F. Peal (Hon. Secretary) (1971) Mrs D. M. Bradley (Hon. Treasurer) 

Drj. F. Monk (Editor) (1975) (1978) 

N. H. F. Stone (1986) J. H. Elgood (1986) 

R. H. Kettle, B.A. (1988) Mrs A. M. Moore (1987) 

Published by the BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB and printed by 
Henry Ling Ltd., at the Dorset Press, Dorchester, Dorset 


ISSN 0007-1 595 

Bulletin of the 

British Ornithologists' Club 

Edited by 


JUL 2 5 


Volume 109 No. 2 

June 1989 


Tuesday, 25 July 1989 at 6.15 p.m. for 7 p.m. in the Senior Common 
Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, S.W.7, Dr Margaret 
Carswell will speak on "The Uganda Atlas of Birds". Those wishing 
to attend should send their acceptance with a cheque for £5 per person 
to reach the Hon. Secretary at 1 Uppingham Road, Oakham, Rutland 
LEI 5 6JB by first post on Tuesday, 1 1 July, if possible*. 

Dr Carswell lived and worked in Uganda from 1968 to 1987 
and is senior author of The Uganda Atlas. Her address will be 
illustrated with colour slides by Mrs B. J. Holcombe. 

Tuesday, 26 September 1989 at the same place, in conjunction with 
the West African Ornithological Society, Mr Roger Beecroft will speak 
on "Birds in the Sahara". Those wishing to attend should send their 
acceptance with a cheque for £5 per person to reach the Hon. Secretary 
(address above) not later than first post on Tuesday, 12 September, if 

Mr Beecroft will speak particularly of observations of migrants 
and wintering birds made on a journey from Algeria to Niger and 
back from October to December last. 

Tuesday, 7 November 1989 at the same place, Mr Peter Robinson 
will speak on "Enforcement of Conservation Management — what 
is the R.S.P.B. actually achieving through its Investigations 

Tuesday, 28 November 1989 at the same place, Dr P. J. Jones will 
speak on "The migration strategies of Palaearctic migrants in 
West Africa in relation to Sahelian drought". 

*It will be possible to take acceptances up to the weekend before a Meet- 
ing, but Members are asked to accept by 14 days before a Meeting, if they 
possibly can. A plan showing Imperial College will be sent to Members 
who request it when sending their acceptance for a meeting. 

61 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Bulletin of the 


Vol. 109 No. 2 Published: 20 June 1989 


The Annual General Meeting of the British Ornithologists' Club was 
held in the Senior Common Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, 
London S.W.7 on Tuesday, 9 May 1989 at 6 p.m. 14 Members were 

The Minutes of the Annual General Meeting held on 10 May 1988, 
which had been published (Bull. Brit. Orn. C/.108: 152—153), and the 
Minutes of the Special General Meeting held on 7 February 1989, which 
were read, were approved and signed by the Chairman. 

The Report of the Committee for 1988 was presented and, on the 
proposal of the Honorary Secretary seconded by Mr B. Gray, it was 
unanimously received and adopted. 

The accounts for 1988 were presented. After discussion, on the pro- 
posal of Mr S. Howe, seconded by Mrs M. N. Muller, they were 

The Editor reported that the submissions for publication in the 
Bulletin would probably continue to provide the enlarged size of recent 
issues again this year. 

There having been no additional nominations, the following were 
declared duly elected: - 

Chairman: Mr R. E. F. Peal (vice Revd. G. K. McCulloch, who 

retired on completion of his term of office). 

Vice-Chairman : Mr J. H. Elgood (vice Mr D. Griffin, who retired on 
completion of his term of office). 

Hon. Secretary: Mrs A. M. Moore (vice Mr R. E. F. Peal). 

Hon. Treasurer : Mrs D. M. Bradley (re-elected). 

Committee: Mr S. J. Farnsworth and Mr D. Griffin (vice Mrs A. M. 

Moore and Mr J. H. Elgood). 

Mr J. H. Elgood proposed a vote of thanks to the Chairman for all the 
work he had done for the Club; this was seconded by the Honorary 
Secretary and carried with acclamation. 

The Chairman proposed a vote of thanks to the retiring Honorary 
Secretary for his unstinting efforts in that office for the exceptional time of 
1 8 years, during which he had himself, to a large extent, brought the Club 
to its present flourishing state. This was carried with acclamation. 

The Meeting closed at 6.1 5 p.m. 


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Club Notes 63 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

The seven hundred and eighty-fourth Meeting of the Club was held in the Senior 
Common Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, London SW7 on Tuesday, 6 
December 1988 at 7 p.m. and was arranged in collaboration with the Ornithological Society 
of the Middle East. There were present 18 members of the Club with 15 guests. 3 members 
of both Club and OSME (marked * below) with 1 guest and 4 other members of OSME with 
2 guests 

Club members present were: Revd. G. K. McCulloch (Chairman), Dr J . S. Ash, Miss H. 
Baker, Mrs D. M. Bradley, I. D. Collins, Dr H. Q. P. Crick, M. C. Gibbons, Revd. 
T. W. Gladwin, D. Griffin*, K. W. Henshall, Dr M. G. Kelsey, Dr J. F. Monk, Mrs A. 
M. Moore, P. J. Oliver, R. E. F. Peal, R. E. Sharland, N. H. F. Stone, A. R. Swash, A. 
R. Tanner, Mrs E. E. Warr* and G. R. Welch*. 

Other OSME members present were: B. H. Beck, C. G. R. Bowden, G. Pilling and Mrs 
H. Welch. 

Guests present were: Mrs J. W. Ash, Dr R. J. Baker, Dr J. D. Bradley, J. Chappell, 
Mrs P. Chappell, Miss R. Dovey, Mrs F. M. Farnsworth, Mrs J. M. Gladwin, Mrs 
M. C. Gibbons, Miss E. Hawkins, Miss S. Hill, Mrs I. McCulloch, P. J. Moore, Mrs M. 
Oliver, Mrs M. B. Pilling, Miss E. Smith, Mrs G. Swash and A. J. Warr. 

The speaker was Mr C. G. R Bowden, who showed the film "Autumn in Arabia Felix". 

He then spoke on "Birds in Yemen and S. W. Arabia and their Conservation", elaborat- 
ing on the information in the film and giving information from observations in adjacent 

The seven hundred and eighty-fifth Meeting of the Club was held in the Senior Common 
Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, London S.W.7 on Tuesday, 7 February 1989 
at 7 p.m. The attendance was 37 members and 18 guests. 

Members present were: Revd. G. K. McCulloch (Chairman), Miss H. Baker, R. C. 
Beecroft, Mrs D. M. Bradley, D. R. Calder, Commander M. D. Casement, r.n., S. E. 
Chapman, DrR. A. F. Cox, the Earl of Cranbrook, Dr H. Q.P. Crick, J. H. Elgood, S. J. 
Farnsworth, A. Gibbs, Revd. T. W. Gladwin, B. Gray, D. Griffin, K. W. Henshall, S. 
Howe, R. H. Kettle, I. T. Lewis, T. R. Mills, Dr J. F. Monk, Mrs A. M. Moore, R. G. 
Morgan, Mrs M. N. Muller, J. G. Parker, R. E. F. Peal, M. L. R. Romer, V. J. Sawle, Dr 
R. C. Self, P. J. Sellar, R. E. Sharland, N. H. F. Stone, J. J. Wheatley, Lieut-Col. T. C. 
White, Dr J. B. Wood and M. W. Woodcock. 

Guests present were: Dr R. J. Baker, Commander M. Barritt, r.n., E. Boerma, Dr 
N. F. Davies, Mrs Jean Edrich, Mrs F. M. Farnsworth, Dr E. F. J. Garcia, Mrs J. M. 
Gladwin, Robin Gore-White, Catherine Hoff, Lieut-Cdr. W. Houghton, r.n., Mrs I. 
McCulloch, P. J. Moore, E. M. Nicholson, the Lord Norrie, Miss A. Nussey, R. Ranft, 
and Mrs B. J. Woodcock. 

Dr E. F. J. Garcia gave an address, illustrated with many fine slides, on "Aspects of Bird 
Conservation in Spain". 

The seven hundred and eighty-sixth Meeting of the Club was held in the Senior Common 
Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, London SW7 on Tuesday, 14 March 1989 at 
7 p.m. The attendance was 18 Members and 16 guests. 

Members present were: Revd. G. K. McCulloch (Chairman), Miss H. Baker, Mrs 
D. M. Bradley, D. R. Calder, P. J. Conder, S. J. Farnsworth, Revd. T. W. Gladwin, 
R. H. Kettle, Dr J. F. Monk, Mrs A. M. Moore, R. G. Morgan, Mrs M. N. Muller, 
R. E. F. Peal, R. S. Pritchett, V. J. Sawle, N. H. F. Stone, A. D. Tomlins and 
M. W. Woodcock. 

Guests present were: Miss E. Archer, Dr R. J. Baker, Mrs C. Bradley, E. Bradley, 
Dr J. Bradley, M. J. Bradley, Mrs F. M. Farnsworth, Mrs J. M. Gladwin, Mrs 
I. McCulloch, P. J. Moore, C. A. Muller, Mrs M. S. Prys-Jones, Dr R. P. Prys-Jones, 
Dr W t erner-Suter, Frau D. Suter-Haberlin and Mrs B.J. Woodcock. 

During supper Mrs D. M. Bradley spoke briefly on a recent visit to the Falkland Islands. 

Dr Werner Suter gave an illustrated address on "Cormorants wintering in Switzerland". 
An abstract of his address will be published in a future number of the Bulletin. 

Clem Fisher 64 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

The seven hundred and eighty-seventh Meeting of the Club was held in the Senior 
Common Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, London S.VV.7 on Wednesday, 5 
April 1989 at 7 p.m. The attendance was 36 members and 32 guests. 

Members present were: Revd. G. K. McCulloch {Chairman), M. A. Adcock, Miss H. 
Baker, P. J. Belman, J. H. R. Boswall, J. J. Bowley, Mrs D. M. Bradley, Dr Margaret 
Carswell, P. J. Conder, Dr R. A. F. Cox, M. J. Crosby, J. H. Elgood, S. J. Farnsworth, 
G. D. Field, A. Gibbs, B. Gray, Dr A. Gretton, D. Griffin, Dr F. D. Kelsey, R. H. 
Kettle, Mrs Amberley Moore, Mrs M. N. Muller, P. J . Oliver, R. E. F. Peal, R. C. Price, 
E. P. Richards, M. Romer, D. S. Salt, V. J. Sawle, Dr R. C. Self, P. J. Sellar, R. E. 
Sharland, N. H. F. Stone, Dr A. R. H. Swash, Dr A. Tye and M. A. Walmsley. 

Guests present were: Mrs B. Adcock, J. Aitchison, Dr R. J. Baker, Miss A. Barker, 
Miss A. Bennett, J. H. Elphick, Mrs F. M. Farnsworth, Jane Goffe, A. J. Holcombe, 
Katie Hoff, S. Jones, C. P. Kelsey, Dr Algirdas Knystautas, A. Lambert, R. H. G. 
Lowes, Mrs I. McCulloch, P. L. J. Mantle, Dr Amicia Melland, P. J. Moore, Dr 
Caroline Murphy, B. O'Brien, P. J. Oliver, Mrs H. Price, R. D. Ranft, P. H. Ryley, 
Dr T. Salathe, Mrs G. O. Swash, Mrs H. Tye, S. Usui, Zhilvinas Valius, S. de Vere and 
M. G. Wilson. 

Mrs M. N. Muller spoke briefly on a recent visit to the Juan Fernandez Islands and Dr A. 
Tye spoke, also briefly, on a visit to the St Andrew and Old Providence Islands of Colombia 
in the Caribbean Sea. 

Dr Algirdas Knystautas then gave an address on "Birds of the Soviet Union". He dealt 
especially with conservation and threats to the environment and the effects upon birds and 
other animal life. He illustrated it with very fine photographs from a 20,000 mile journey in 
1988 from Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R. eastwards, which included Central Asia and the Lake 
Baikal region. 

The discovery of new Australian species by John Gilbert, 


Abstract of the talk to the British Ornithologists' Club, 20 September 1988 

Many of the type specimens of Australian birds and mammals in 
museums around the world were originally attributed to John Gould, the 
artist and naturalist, who published fine books on the fauna of Australia, 
with illustrations in many cases based on these specimens. Some are in the 
Liverpool Museum, bequeathed by Gould's friend, the 13th Earl of 
Derby (Largen & Fisher 1986), and research has revealed that many were 
actually collected by Gould's assistant, John Gilbert. Gilbert also wrote 
manuscript accounts of his travels and discoveries in Australia, and 
many of his remarks were quoted, often word-for-word, in Gould's 
publications (Fisher 1985). 

In 1838 John Gould embarked on an expedition to Australia, ac- 
companied by Gilbert, aged 26. Although Gilbert initially stayed with his 
employer while they were collecting in Tasmania, he soon showed such 
competence that he was sent alone to explore the almost unknown terri- 
tory of Western Australia. Specimens from Gilbert's first visit to the 
region include many of importance, such as the type of the Western 
Mallee Fowl Leipoa ocellata. He also collected the first examples of 
Gilbert's Rat Kangaroo Potorous tridactylus gilberti, named after him by 
Gould. In July 1840 he moved to Port Essington (on the coast of Northern 

© British Ornithologist's Club 1989 

Clem Fisher 65 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Territory), where he obtained the types of the Masked Finch Poephila 
personata, the local subspecies of scrubfowl Megapodius reinwarti 
tumulus and the female type of the Gouldian Finch Chloebia gouldiae. 
His mammal collections were also of importance and included the 
types of the northern subspecies of Sugar Glider Petaurus breviceps 

After a short trip to Timor in October 1840, where he obtained a 
particularly fine series of birds, Gilbert returned to London in March 
1841. Gould was obviously well pleased with his assistant's capabilities, 
because by February 1842 Gilbert was on his way back to Western 

Here Gilbert collected the first specimens of the Blue-breasted Wren 
Malurus pulcherrimus and the Noisy Scrub Bird Atrichornis clamosus. 
He also discovered a small songbird which John Gould named after 
him, Gilbert's Whistler Pachycephala inornata gilbertii, and collected 
specimens of that most peculiar marsupial, the Pig-footed Bandicoot 
Chaeropus ecaudatus. 

Gilbert left Western Australia for Sydney at the end of 1843. Later, in 
the Darling Downs area of southern Queensland, he discovered the 
Paradise Parrot Psephotus pulcherrimus, an extremely colourful little bird 
which is now probably extinct. One of the types is in the Liverpool 
Museum; Gilbert collected this in May 1844, just before he joined the 
expedition of Ludwig Leichhardt (Fisher 1986). The German explorer 
intended to cross Australia from Brisbane to Port Essington, and Gilbert 
saw great possibilities for collecting new animals en route. 

At dusk on 28 June 1845, when the expedition had reached the base of 
the Cape York Peninsula, John Gilbert was killed when aborigines 
attacked the camp. The rest of the party eventually arrived at Port 
Essington with his specimens, amongst which were several new forms. 
The type of the Cape York subspecies of the Brown Treecreeper 
Climacteris picumnus melanota was collected on the day Gilbert was killed. 

Some of Gilbert's specimens, although well documented, have not yet 
been found; but museum collections such as those in Dublin and Turin 
have still to be searched. Curatorial mishaps, including the loss of labels 
or the casual disposal of material in the last century, may have resulted in 
some specimens, including types, being lost entirely. 

It has been suggested (Moyal 1986) that John Gilbert represents the 
most able and productive of the early collectors in Australia, despite 
having been active in that country for only 7 years. A river, a mountain 
range and other features are named after him and there are several monu- 
ments; but, until very recently, details of his early life remained obscure. 

After long hours of searching archives and the Mormon Genealogical 
Index, some details of Gilbert's background have now been found. He 
was born in Xewington Butts, in south London, on 14 March 1812, the 
son of a carpenter. He appears to have married twice and was available to 
accompany Gould to Australia in 1838 only because recently dismissed as 
the first-ever curator of the Shrewsbury Museum (Torrens 1987). He had 
tried to install his second wife in his rooms at the museum, much to the 
horror of the Trustees, and thus England lost one of her finest field 
naturalists to Australia. 

Manuel Marin A et al. 66 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 


Fisher, C. T. 1985. From John Gilbert to John Gould. Aust. Zool. 22(1): 5-14. 

Fisher, C. T. 1986. A type specimen of the Paradise Parrot Psephotus pulcherrimus (Gould, 

1845). Aust. Zool. 22(3): 10-12. 
Largen, M. J. & Fisher, C. T. 1986. Catalogue of extant mammal specimens from the 

collection of the 13th Earl of Derbv, now in the Liverpool Museum. Arch. Nat. Hist. 

13(3): 225-272. 
Moyal, A. 1 986. A Bright and Savage Land: Scientists in Colonial Australia. Collins. 
Torrens, H. S. 1987. John Gilbert (1812-1845), the Australian naturalist and explorer. New 

light on his work in England. Arch. Nat. Hist. 14(2): 211-219. 

Address: Clem Fisher, Curator of Birds and Mammals, Department of Zoology, Liverpool 
Museum, William Brown Street, Liverpool L3 8EN. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Notes on Chilean birds, with descriptions of 
two new subspecies 

by Manuel Marin A., Lloyd F. Kiff & Luis Pena G. 

Received 12 August 1988 

Among South American countries Chile is relatively well studied 
ornithologically, but it still contains some areas which have seldom, if 
ever, been visited by ornithologists and this is particularly true for the 
northernmost portions of the country. From 1980 to 1986 the Western 
Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology (WFVZ) conducted several surveys 
of birds, mostly under the direction of Peha (LP), in northern Chile. 
In addition, a survey of the birds of Isla Chiloe was made by Marin 
(MM) from January to April 1981. This report presents significant new 
information on bird distribution and breeding records obtained during 
these studies. 

In the following accounts the species nomenclature and sequence are 
mostly those of Meyer de Schauensee (1966). The terms of Palmer (1962: 
13) are used to describe egg shape, and capitalized and numbered colour 
names are those of Smithe (1975, 1981). Measurements were made using 
the techniques described by Baldwin et al. (1931). Since few weights of 
Chilean birds have appeared in the literature, such data are included 
where available. All specimens collected by MM and LP are presently 
housed at the WFVZ. Material from the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology (MCZ), American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and 
the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) was also examined. 


Tarapaca Province 

1. Mamiha, 100 km NE of Iquique (20°05'S, 69°14'W); 2700 m. A 
small E— W transverse valley mostly devoted to agriculture with cacti, 
grasses and Baccharis sp. on the steep dry slopes. 

2. Quebrada de Camarones, 70 km S of Arica (28°40'S, 70°39'W); 500- 
900 m. An E— W transverse valley, heavily modified by agriculture with 

Manuel Marin A et al. 67 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

scattered stands of Schinus molle and Baccharis sp. and, in well-watered 
spots, Cortaderia sp. The slopes are sandy and almost devoid of 

3. Quebrada de Parca, 100 km ENE of Iquique (20°01'S, 69°12'W); 
2700 m. Like Mamiha. 

4. Quebrada de Suca; 25 km S of Camarones (19°12'S, 70°00'W); 
900 m. Like Quebrada de Camarones. 

5. Valle de Lluta, c. 30 km NE of Arica (18°25'S, 70°06'W); 940 m. 
Like Quebrada de Camarones. 

Antofagasta Province 

6. Tulor (2450 m), Quitor (2500 m) and Guatin (3200 m). These are 3 
well populated small oases near San Pedro de Atacama (22°55'S, 
68°13'\V), which is surrounded by much agricultural activity (mostly 
fruit orchards). The slopes of the valleys are covered with the 'pimiento' 
(Schinus molle) and several cacti and grass species. The dominant plant 
along the creeks is a Cortaderia sp. 

7. Quebrada Paposo (25°02'S, 70°29'W); 650 m. A large transverse 
canyon extending inland from the Antofagasta coast. The vegetation is 
xerophytic, including an abundant shrub, the 'lechero' (Euforbia lacti- 
flua), and several cacti (Copiapoa and Opuntia), but the area is frequently 
immersed in coastal fog. 

Malleco Province 

8. Pichinahuel, 110 km S of Concepcion, Cordillera de Nahuelbuta 
(38 3 09'S, 72°39'W); 800 m. An area dominated by beech (Nothofagus) 
forests with Araucaria trees at higher elevations. 

Chiloe Province 

9. Laguna Coluco, 60 km S of Ancud, Isla Chiloe (42°06'S, 73°57'W); 
25 m. A small lake, c. 70% of it covered with aquatic plants (Heleoarchis 
sp.) at the time of MM's visit. 

10. Islas Talcahue (or Las Negras), 50 km W of Ancud, Isla Chiloe 
(41°53'S, 74°02'W); 5 m. Two small rocky islets with a few scattered 
patches of vegetation c. 200 m off the NW coast of Isla Chiloe. 


SNOWY EGRET Egretta thula 

Johnson (1967) regarded this species as an abundant resident in Chile 
as far south as Valdivia, but as only a casual visitor to Llanquihue and 
Chiloe. More recently, Wheelwright (1978) reported an apparent 
straggler from Magallanes Prov. in May 1976, and a specimen was 
also collected 8 km S of Punta Arenas, Magallanes Prov. in May 1979 
(Venegas & Jory 1979), both records occurring in the non-breeding 

During his survey of Isla Chiloe, MM found a breeding colony con- 
taining 9 pairs of these egrets on 1 5 Jan 1 98 1 . The colony was at site 1 on 
one of the 2 islets called Talcahue (or Las Negras), located c. 200 m off the 
northwestern coast of Isla Chiloe. The nests were placed on long-leaved 
plants (Gregia sp.) and were built with its leaves. The centres of the nest 
platforms were lined with feathers. Most of the nests contained young a 

Manuel Marin A et al. 


BulI.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 




100 200 miles 

400 kilometers 

Figure 1 . Map of northern Chile showing WFVZ collecting localities (numbers match those 
given site descriptions in the text). 

few weeks old. A fresh C/2 was collected (WFVZ 129,145), the eggs 
measuring 40.0x31.9 mm and 42.35 x 33.6 mm, with whole weights of 
22.0 and 26.0 g respectively. The eggs were elliptical and subelliptical in 
shape and pale bluish-green in colour. 

CINEREOUS HARRIER Circus cinereus 

Although Johnson (1972) implied that this species occurs in Chile 
north to Arica, there are no specimens or documented sight records for it 

Manuel Marin A et al. 69 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

north of Valle de Copiapo, Atacama Prov, where a male was collected on 
25 Aug 1923 (Hellmavr 1932). In the Antofagasta Range, between 1 and 
11 Sep 1982, LP collected a female (WFVZ 24,111) at Quitor, 480 km N 
of the Yalle de Copiapo. 

DOLPHIN GULL Leiicophaeus scoresbii 

During MM's 15 Jan 1981 visit to the Talcahue islets off Isla Chiloe 
(site 10), he found a small breeding colony of Phalacrocorax atriceps, 
several scattered nests of Phalacrocorax magellanicus and P. gaimardi, and 
a breeding colony of c. 37 pairs of Sterna hirundinacea. The nests of all 
these species were at various stages, ranging from freshly laid eggs to well- 
grown chicks. Among the Sterna hirundinacea nests were 2 nests oiLeuco- 
phaeus scoresbii, c. 8 m apart. One of them contained 2 eggs and the other 
held one, all of them pipping; none was collected. The eggs were subellip- 
tical and, olive-brown, with dark brown blotches and spots. The nests 
were bulky elevated platforms built mainly with seaweed and some grass. 

The only previously documented breeding localities for this species in 
Chile are Camp la Punta Estacion Gente Grande, Isla Grande, Tierra del 
Fuego, where 50 pairs were found nesting in Nov 1952 (Philippi et al. 
1954), and at nearby Isla Magdalena in the Straits of Magellan (Olrog 
1948, Parmelee& MacDonald 1975). The Isla Chiloe nests thus represent 
a northward extension of c. 1 500 km of the known breeding range of this 
species in Chile. Whether this record is of a regular occurrence or an 
anomalous one requires further study. Hellmayr (1932) speculated that 
the species was found at Isla Chiloe only during the non-breeding season. 
Goodall et al. (1951) and Johnson (1967) were uncertain as to how far 
north the species nests in Chile, although Murphy (1936) felt that the 
species breeds well northward through the Chilean Archipelago. 

TRUDEAU'S TERN Sterna trudeaui 

Few breeding localities are known for this rather uncommon species in 
Chile. Johnson (1967) provided a synopsis of the earlier account of Barros 
(1940), who found a small nesting colony at Laguna de Torca, Curico 
Prov. Barros also suspected nesting near Maullin, Llanquihue Prov. The 
WFVZ collection contains a set of 2 eggs (WFVZ 12,018) collected by D. 
Roel at Corral, Valdivia Prov. on 24 Jan 1932. 

On 25 Jan 1981 MM found a nesting colony of c. 15 pairs at Laguna 
Coluco (site 9) on Isla Chiloe, well to the south of the aforementioned 
localities. The nests were dispersed into groups of 3-6 pairs, which were 
on the perimeters or among the outer edges of Brown-hooded Gull Larus 
maculipennis colonies, a tendency also noted by Barros (1940). The nests 
were large floating platforms with small central depressions and were 
composed completely of small pieces of a freshwater plant (Heleoarchis 
sp.). Most contained 2 eggs. A set of 2 fresh eggs (WFVZ 129,145) was 
collected; they are olive-brown with irregular dark brown spots and 
blotches over the entire surface, oval and long oval in shape, measuring 
42.3 x 30.9 and 44.1 x 30.1 mm. Each whole egg weighed 21 .0 g. 

FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL Glaucidium brasilianum 

The relationships of the widespread Glaucidium brasilianum and the 
austral form, G. nanum, have not been well defined. Wetmore (1922, 

Manuel Marin A etal. 70 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

1926) suggested that they might prove to be conspecific, and Hellmayr 
(1932) and Peters (1940) subsequently treated nanum as a race of G. 
brasilianum. However, Meyer de Schauensee (1966) regarded them as 
separate species. The 2 forms have previously been regarded as being 
allopatric in Chile, G. brasilianum being known only from the northern- 
most province, Tarapaca (Johnson 1967) and nanum north only to 
Atacama Prov. (Johnson 1 967). A single geographically disjunct specimen 
ascribed to nanum was reported from Moquegua, southwestern Peru by 
Chapman (1929). 

Wetmore (1926) characterized nanum as differing from nominate 
brasilianum by its darker dorsum and heavier markings on the underparts. 
Chapman (1929) noted that nanum has more extensive dark markings on 
the ventrum and heavier spotting on the sides of the breast, as well as 
rufous tail bars. Hellmayr (1932) stated that brasilianum could be dis- 
tinguished from nanum by having white instead of rufous tail bands, 
generally only 6 tail bands, and by its greyish-brown upperparts (in con- 
trast to the rufous-brown dorsum characteristic of nanum). Finally, 
Meyer de Schauensee (1970) stated that nanum can be separated from 
other pygmy-owls by having numerous white spots on the wing coverts 
and scapulars and by its narrowly banded tail. There are no reports of size 
differences between the 2 forms. 

Among our series of Chilean Glaucidium specimens are 4 with the 
characters reported to be diagnostic for G. brasilianum, i.e., all have 6 
white tail bands and greyish-brown backs. All were collected by LP, one 
at Valle de Lluta (site 5), and the other 3 at Quebrada de Parca (site 3), 
both localities lying within the previously reported range of this form in 

There are as well 9 Chilean specimens with the characters ascribed to 
nanum in the WFVZ collection, including 3 from Valle de Lluta, and 
single specimens from: Quebrada de Parca; Farellones, Santiago Prov; 
Dalcahue, Isla Chiloe, Chiloe Prov; Chaiten, Chiloe Prov. and Puerto 
Aysen, Aysen Prov. All these specimens have rufous-brown backs, 
cinnamon-brown tail bands and spots on the back, and more numerous 
tail bands, including one with 8, one with 9, one with 10, and 6 with 11. 
The specimens from the Tarapaca Prov. localities represent a significant 
northward extension of the range of G. nanum in Chile. 

The WFVZ collection in addition contains 6 Chilean specimens which 
appear to be intermediate between these 2 extremes. They have medium 
brown backs, white spots with brownish edges on the back and tail, larger 
and more oval tail bands than those of typical nanum and an intermediate 
number of white tail bands with brownish edges, including 4 with 7, one 
with 8, and one with 9. All the specimens with intermediate characters are 
from Tarapaca Prov, 5 from Valle de Lluta (site 5) and the other from 
Quebrada de Camarones (site 2). However, the influence oibrasilianum- 
type characters may extend much farther south. An additional specimen 
from Punitaqui, Ovalle, Coquimbo Prov. within the expected range of 
nanum also shows a whitish tinge to the tail bars and dorsal spots. Further- 
more, of the aforementioned nanum specimens, those from the southern- 
most localities are distinctly darker-backed than the ones from northern 

Manuel Marin A et al. 71 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Even among the specimens clearly identifiable as nanum, there is con- 
siderable variability in the relative widths of the light and dark tail bars. 
This relationship was the main character used by Wetmore (1922) in 
designating the central Chilean population as a separate race, vafrum, 
which was described as having dark tail bars twice the width of the light 
ones in contrast to the equal-sized tail bars of the more southern popu- 
lations. Thus, we agree with Hellmayr (1932) and Peters (1940) in not 
recognizing vafrum. 

The occurrence of dichromatic morphs in Glaucidium complicates the 
interpretation of the Chilean situation. Geographical variation in the fre- 
quency of colour morphs in numerous Glaucidium brasilianum popu- 
lations was analysed by Ridgway (1919), who concluded that it was not 
possible to draw a sharp line between the plumage types. We agree with 
his conclusions and also note that the range of colour variation exhibited 
by our combined series of Chilean Glaucidium specimens is no greater 
than that found within single Mexican populations of brasilianum, as 
demonstrated by series in the WFVZ collection. Furthermore, the pat- 
terns of variation seen within such samples essentially match the sets of 
characters used to define the differences between nanum and brasilianum, 
i.e., specimens with white tail bars have greyish-brown backs, and 
rufous-brown backs are associated with numerous cinnamon tail bars. As 
in northern Chile, various intermediate versions occur between these 

Size appears to be highly variable within Glaucidium (e.g. Hellmayr 
1932), and we found no geographical size trends among our Chilean 
specimens when they were segregated by sex (Table 1). Therefore, unless 
measurements of a larger sample of austral Glaucidium specimens reveal 
significant size differences between nominate brasilianum and the more 
southerly populations, we question the wisdom of recognizing nanum as a 
separate taxon. We suspect that further study will show that the Glauci- 
dium populations presently called 'nanum' are not subspecifically distinct 
from brasilianum, but merely represent a predominance of the darker 
rufous-brown morph. Ridgway (1919) reported an apparently equivalent 
situation in his large Texas sample of G. brasilianum in which only a single 
colour morph (rufous tail bands and greyish-brown backs) was found. 
Several authors, including Chapman (1929) and Kelso (1937) have 
suggested that the colour morphs in Glaucidium are correlated with local 
environmental conditions, and Marshall (1967) discussed the apparently 
similar situation in Otus. It seems likely, therefore, that more information 
on the geographical frequencies and possible ecological significance of 
such morphs is needed before plumage variation in this group can be 
interpreted taxonomically. 

BAND-WINGED NIGHTJAR Caprimulgus longirostris bifasciatus 

Five specimens of this nightjar collected by LP at Quebrada Paposo 
(site 7) represent a significant northward range extension of the race bifas- 
ciatus. The specimens agree with this form in their colour and also on the 
basis of their long wing length (av. 162.9 mm; range 158.5-166) and tails 
(122.1 mm; range 121-124.5). Johnson (1965) gave wing and tail 
measurements of C. I. bifasciatus at 162.9 and 119.1 mm, respectively. 

Manuel Marin A et al. 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Measurements (mm) and body weights (g) of Chilean Glaucidium specimens in the WFVZ 





Sex Wing Culmen Tail Wt 

With brasilianum colour characters: 
39,222 Valle de Lluta (site 5), Tarapaca Prov. 
Qbda. de Parca (site 3), Tarapaca Prov. 
Qbda. de Parca, Tarapaca Prov. 
Qbda. de Parca, Tarapaca Prov. 
Intermediate characters, but nearest brasilianum: 
29,678 Punitaqui, Coquimbo Prov. 

Qbda. de Camarones (site 4), Tarapaca Prov. 
Valle de Lluta, Tarapaca Prov. 
Valle de Lluta, Tarapaca Prov. 
Valle de Lluta, Tarapaca Prov. 
Valle de Lluta, Tarapaca Prov. 
Valle de Lluta, Tarapaca Prov. 
Intermediate characters, but nearest nanum: 

39.227 Valle de Lluta, Tarapaca Prov. 

39.228 Valle de Lluta, Tarapaca Prov. 
39,220 Valle de Lluta, Tarapaca Prov. 
34,149 Qbda. de Parca, Tarapaca Prov. 

With nanum colour characters: 
36,390 Chaiten, Chiloe Prov. 

Puerto Aysen, Aysen Prov. 
Puerto Aysen, Aysen Prov. 
Farellones, Santiago Prov. 
Dalcahue/Mocopulli, Chiloe Prov. 





























A I 























































A I 





A I 















The average body weight of the 5 Quebrada Paposo specimens was 42 

(40^5) g. 

SPARKLING VIOLETEAR Colibri coruscans 

Widely distributed in the Andean and adjacent montane regions of 
South America, but not previously reported from Chile. LP collected an 
adult female (WFVZ 34,003), weighing 6 g, at Mamiha (site 1) on 26 Jul 
1985. Mamiha is c. 580 km SSE of Arequipa, the southernmost locality 
for the species in the western Andes of Peru (Johnson 1967). Although 
this species regularly descends to the coast in Peru in the non-breeding 
season (Koepcke 1970), it may be a permanent resident in the Tarapaca 
Andes, judging from this winter record. 

WHITE-SIDED HILLSTAR Oreotrochilus leucopleurus 

LP took 2 female specimens (WFVZ 39,246-7) on 19 and 20 Jul 1986, 
respectively, at Quebrada Paposo. This represents a significant range 
extension of this species, which is known north of Atacama Prov. from 
only a single specimen taken at Hueso Parado, near Taltal, Antofagasta 
Prov. (Hellmayr 1932). In addition, this is evidently the first winter re- 
cord for this hummingbird from Chile. Johnson (1967) suggested that the 
species may migrate in March from its montane breeding grounds in 
Chile across the Andes to lower altitudes in northeastern Argentina. It is 

Manuel Marin A et al. 73 Bull. B.O.C. 1 989 109(2) 

possibly significant, therefore, that the specimens reported here were 
taken at 600 m, an unusually low elevation for this species. 

RUFOUS-BANDED MINER Geositta rufipennis 

A series of 15 specimens collected by LP at Quebrada Paposo rep- 
resents a northward range extension of over 200 km for this species in 
Chile from its previous northern limits in Atacama Prov. In addition, 
examination of the series indicates that the specimens represent an 
unnamed race, which may be known as follows: 

Geositta rufipennis harrisoni subsp. nov. 

Holotxpe. Adult male, WFVZ 39,266, Quebrada Paposo, Antofagasta 
Province, Chile (22°02'S, 70°29'W); elevation 650 m, collected 17 Jul 
1986, by Luis Pena G., original field number 1698, prepared by Denys 

Measurements of the holotype (mm). Wing (chord) 99.0, tail 53.0, 
exposed culmen 14.9, tarsus 21.95. Weight 28 g. 

Diagnosis. Most similar to G. rufipennis fasciata, but much smaller and 
with a more slender bill, a paler, more whitish belly, virtually lacking 
rufous markings on flanks and crissum, and with the tips of the longest 
primaries barely tipped with cinnamon or not at all. 

Range. Presently known only from the type locality. 

Etymology. Named in honour of Ed N. Harrison, whose contributions 
to the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology have greatly advanced 
the knowledge of the birds of Chile. 

Remarks. A detailed mensural comparison of this form with G. r. 
fasciata is given in Table 2. The most striking feature of the new form is 
its much smaller size, averaging about a third less than fasciata in body 
weight and 10° o smaller in wing length. In addition, the series of harrisoni 
is generally paler than fasciata. The conspicuous Kingfisher Rufous (24) 
markings on the flanks and crissum characteristic of fasciata are almost 
completely lacking in harrisoni, as are the Cinnamon (39) to Cinnamon 
Rufous (40) tips of the longest primaries characteristic of most specimens 
of fasciata. Most of the specimens of harrisoni possess darker, more 
prominent streaks on the crown than do the majority of the fasciata series, 
although this does not appear to be a wholly reliable character. 

Specimens examined (including the holotype). 
G. r. harrisoni: 6 $$, 6 9$, 3 unsexed. All from Quebrada Paposo, Antofa- 
gasta Prov, Chile. 

G. r. fasciata: 8 $$, 12 $$. Coquimbo Prov: Punitaqui, Ovalle 1 $ 
(WFVZ), Cerro Guaquilon 2 $$, 8 $? (WFVZ); Santiago Prov: El Yeso 1 
3 (WFVZ), Lo Valdes 1 ^ (WFVZ), Lagunillas 1 <$ (WFVZ), Altos de 
Cantillana 3 JJ, 2 55 (WFVZ); O'Higgins Prov: Alto de los Gusanos 1 ? 

SCALE-THROATED EARTHCREEPER Upucerthia dumetaria hypoleuca 

Previously known in Chile northward to the Rio Loa, Antofagasta Prov 
(Philippi 1964). Two specimens collected by LP at Quebrada de Suca 
(site 4) extend the known Chilean range of the species c. 250 km north- 
ward. A male (WFVZ 39,276) collected on 7 Jul 1986 weighed 39.0 g; a 

Manuel Marin A et al. 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Measurements of subspecies of Geositta rufipennis 




X Range 



X Range 




Wing chord 

95.6 94.0-99.0 



Wing chord 

95.3 93.0-97.5 




105.75 103.5-111.5 



105.45 101.0-109.5 




Exposed culmen 

14.5 13.55-15.45 



Exposed culmen 
14.6 13.9-15.35 




14.9 13.4-16.5 



14.2 12.9-16.1 


Exposed culmen/bill hei 
at base 


Exposed culmen/bill height 
at base 



3.76 3.47-3.92 



3.64 3.39-3.88 




3.25 2.95-3.63 



3.30 2.79-3.73 




52.1 50.0-53.0 



50.6 49.5-52.0 




56.9 53.0-61.0 



56.3 52.0-60.0 




22.1 21.1-23.5 



22.2 21.25-23.6 




23.9 22.5-25.8 



23.75 22.9-24.7 




Body weight 

26.7 ' 25-29 



Body weight 

26.6 24-29 




39.2 36-1-2 



39.5 37-14 


female (WFVZ 39,275) taken on the following day weighed 41.0 g. The 
male was not in breeding condition; the testes measured 1.5 x 1.4 mm. 
The specimens agree in size and colour with other examples of the mon- 
tane race hypoleuca in the WFVZ collection, rather than with the coastal 
saturatior. Our series supports the arguments of Hellmayr (1932), 
Goodall et al. (1942), and Johnson (1967) for not recognizing the race 
U. d. hallinani, which Chapman (1919) described from only a single 
specimen from El Tofo, 60 km (given erroneously as miles by Chapman) 
NNE of Coquimbo, Coquimbo Prov. 


LP collected individuals (WFVZ 39,296-9) of this species on 17, 18, 20 
and 22 Jul 1986 at Quebrada Paposo, extending the known range north- 
ward c. 230 km from its previously reported Chilean limit, Caldera, 
Atacama Prov (Hellmayr 1932). A comparison of this series with 25 speci- 
mens of the nominate race from Atacama to Maule Provinces, central 
Chile, indicates that the Quebrada Paposo population represents an 
undescribed subspecies, which may be known as: 

Asthenes humicola goodalli, subsp. nov. 

Holotype. Adult male, WFVZ 39,296, Quebrada Paposo, Antofagasta 
Province, Chile, elevation 650 m, collected 22 Jul 1986, by Luis Pena G; 
original field number 1758, prepared by Denys Veas. 

Measurements of the holotype (mm). Wing (chord) 64.1, tail 72.5, 
exposed culmen 15.0, tarsus 21.45. Weight 20 g. 

Diagnosis. Most similar to A. h. humicola, but with more slender bill, 
less pronounced streaking on breast, more streaks on lores and auricular 

Manuel Marin A et al. 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Measurements (mm) of Asthenes humicola subspecies 




X Range 



X Range 


Wing chord 

Wing chord 



64.0 64.0-64.1 






64.8 61.0-69.0 



65.4 60.0-69.0 




67.1 64.5-70.0 
Exposed culmen 



65.1 65.0-65.5 
Exposed culmen 




14.85 14.45-15.1 






12.5 11.2-13.35 



12.4 11.15-13.7 




12.7 12.25-12.95 



12.55 12.0-12.85 


Exposed culmen/bill height 

Exposed culmen/bill height 

at base 

at base 



3.90 3.73^.09 






3.26 2.98-3.68 



3.29 2.99-3.61 




3.07 2.89-3.39 



3.05 2.72-3.33 




69.8 69.0-72.5 






72.4 70.0-76.5 



72.3 70.0-74.5 




74.4 73.0-76.5 



72.5 69.5-74.5 




21.7 21.1-22.5 






22.1 21.4-23.3 



22.15 21.1-23.25 




22.9 22.0-24.25 
Body weight 



22.0 21.25-22.5 
Body weight 




19.7 ' 19.0-20.0 






21.5 20.0-24.0 



22.3 22-23 


area, darker crown, and conspicuously brighter cinnamon shoulder 
patch, flanks, and crissum. 

Range. Presently known only from the type locality. 

Etymology. Named in honour of the late J. D. 'Jack' Goodall for his 
lifetime of contributions to Chilean ornithology. 

Remarks. See detailed comparison of mensural characters with T. h. 
humicola and T. h. polysticta in Table 3. 

We follow Meyer de Schauensee (1966) in placing this species in 
Asthenes; Vaurie (1980) assigned it to Thripophaga. 

Specimens examined (including the holotype). 
A. h. goodalli: 3 £#, 1 ?. Antofagasta Prov: Quebrada Paposo (WFVZ). 
A. h. humicola: 12 £<?, 12 $?. Coquimbo Prov: Romero 1 ? (FMNH), 
La Compania 1 J (FMNH), Punitaqui 2 ^, 2 $$ (WFVZ), Cerro 
Guaquilon (SE of Punitaqui) 2 $3 (WFVZ); Aconcagua Prov: Hda. 
Limache, Papudo 1 S (FMNH), Zapallar 1 ? (MCZ); Valparaiso 
Prov: Olmue 1 $ (FMNH); 'Central Chile' 1 9 (MCZ); Santiago 
Prov: Las Condes 1 <J, 1-$ (MCZ), San Jose de Maipo 1 $ (FMNH), 
Pehalolen 1 ^ (FMNH), Batuco 1 ? (FMNH), Lagunillas 1 ? (WFVZ), 
Cerro Mantancilla 2 ^ (WFVZ); O'Higgins Prov: San Francisco 1 ? 
(FMNH); Colchagua Prov: Cauquenes 1 ? (FMNH); Talca Prov: 
Tamarico 1 ^ (MCZ); Desembocadura, Rio Maule 1 $ (MCZ). 
A. h. polysticta: 6 $$, 4 $?. Maule Prov: Pilen Alto 1 (J, 1 $ (FMNH); 
Concepcion Prov: Gualpencillo 3 $$, 3 $? (FMNH), Concepcion 1 $ 
(AMNH); Cautin Prov: Traiguen 1 £ (MCZ). 

Manuel Marin A et al. 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Measurements of Scelorchilus albicollis subspecies 




X Range 



X Range 


Wing chord 

Wing chord 



82.3 79.5-89.0 



80.1 77.5-83.0 




79.3 78.5-81.0 
Exposed culmen 



75.9 73.0-78.5 
Exposed culmen 




17.7 16.15-18.9 



17.2 16.3-18.5 




17.5 15.65-19.6 



17.0 15.2-19.7 




76.9 69.0-84.0 



73.5 66.0-82.5 




70.4 67.5-75.1 



69.4 61.5-77.5 




34.85 33.7-36.7 



33.8 32.2-35.4 




33.15 31.2-34.5 
Body weight 



33.5 32.2-35.7 
Body weight 




54.8 ' 52-60 



46.5 45-48 







WHITE-THROATED TAPACULO Scelorchilus albicollis 

One was collected between 17 and 19 Sep 1982 (WFVZ 25,978) and 
another 2 on 19 Jul 1986 (WFVZ 39,306-7) by LP at Quebrada Paposo. 
This becomes the northernmost locality for the species in Chile, as it 
was previously unrecorded north of Quebrada (Aguada) del Leon, near 
Caldera, Atacama Prov. The July specimens, a male and a female, 
weighed 44 and 39 g, respectively. Examination of 48 Chilean specimens 
indicates that there is pronounced north— south clinal variation, the more 
northern birds being characterized by their smaller size and more numer- 
ous ventral bars, whereas the more southern populations are larger and 
have a darker mantle and fewer ventral bars. It appears that specimens 
north of El Tofo, 60 km NNE of Coquimbo, Coquimbo Prov, where the 
Cordillera Romero abuts the coast and serves as an altitudinal barrier, 
can be assigned to the race S. a. atacamae, whereas those to the south 
of El Tofo are most conveniently considered to be the nominate race. 
Measurements of the 2 forms, defined in this manner are given in Table 4. 

GREY-BELLIED SHRIKE-TYRANT Agriornis microptera 

Previously known from only a single locality in Chile, at 4000 m on the 
Rio de Collacagua, inland from Iquique, Tarapaca Prov. (Philippi 1964, 
Johnson 1967). LP collected a female (WFVZ 39,309) at Valle de Lluta 
(c. 180 km N of Collacagua) on 14 Jul 1986, and another female at 
Quebrada de Camarones on 4 Jul 1986. The birds weighed 62 and 63 g 
respectively. Taken during the austral winter, it suggests there is a 
seasonal movement to these relatively low elevations. LP also collected 7 
additional specimens near San Pedro de Atacama in the Antofagasta 
Range, as follows: 2 males (WFVZ 27,241, 27,244) and 2 females 
(WFVZ 27,243, 27,245) at Quitor on 1 and 2 Aug 1982, another female 
(WFVZ 27,242) at Tulor on 2 Aug 1982, and a male (WFVZ 27,239) and a 
female (WFVZ 27,240) at Guatin between 24 and 30 Aug 1982. These 
records, which represent a southerly range extension of 330 km, indicate 

Manuel Marin A et al. 77 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

that the species is widespread and presumably resident in this region. 
Goodall et al. (1946) predicted that it might occur in the Antofagasta 
Range and farther south in Chile. Including both sexes, the average 
measurements of our series (n = 9), wing 119.2 mm (116.5-127), tail 
98.8 mm (95.0-105.5) and bill 25.2 mm (24.3-25.7), agree with those 
given by Hellmayr (1927) for the race A. m. andecola. 

GREAT KISKADEE Pitangus sulphur atus 

Apparently an uncommon visitor to Chile, since a female (WFVZ 
39,379) collected by LP at Quebrada de Suca on 7 Jul 1986 represents 
only the second specimen for the country. It weighed 54 g, and its ovaries 
were granular. The only previous Chilean specimen was a bird collected 
by F. Behn in Jan 1967 near Los Angeles, Bio-Bio Prov. (Johnson 1967). 

BRAN-COLOURED FLYCATCHER Myiophobus fasciatus rufescens 

In Chile, previously known from only a single specimen taken in Sep 
1949 by F. Behn in Poconchile, Valle de Lluta, Tarapaca Prov. (Philippi 
1964). During LP's surveys in Tarapaca Prov. in Jun and Jul 1986, 5 
additional specimens (WFVZ 39,380M-) were collected at Quebrada de 
Camarones. Four of them (2 males, 1 female, 1 sex undetermined) 
weighed 9 g, and another female weighed 8 g. None of the specimens had 
enlarged gonads. 

TUFTED TIT-TYRANT Anairetes parulus parulus 

Common in central Chile from the coast to the brush-covered valleys of 
the Andean foothills to an elevation of c. 2000 m. However, Philippi 
(1964) and Johnson (1967) reported it north only to Valle de Copiapo, 
Atacama Prov. Between 17 and 19 Jul 1986 LP found it relatively abun- 
dant at Quebrada Paposo, 230 km north of its previous unquestioned 
limit in Chile. Four specimens (WFVZ 39,386—9) were taken: 2 females 
weighing 4 g, a male and an unsexed bird each weighing 5 g. The speci- 
mens agree in colour with a large series of the nominate race in the WFVZ 

PIED-CRESTED TIT-TYRANT Anairetes reguloides reguloides 

Goodall et al. (1946) considered this to be a very rare species in Chile, 
recording it only from Arica, Tarapaca Prov. in extreme northern Chile. 
Between 30 Jun and 3 Jul 1986, LP found it very abundant in Quebrada 
de Camarones, 70 km to the south. The representative series he collected 
includes several immature birds, indicating breeding in the area. Four 
males weighed 6 g, and another weighed 8 g. Three females weighed 5 g, 
and 3 others weighed 6 g. All the specimens have the immaculate yellow 
belly typical of the nominate race. 

PATAGONIAN TYRANT C olorhamphus parvirostris 

Three nests of this flycatcher were found by MM in the vicinity of 
Pichinahuel, 19-20 Jan 1976. The first nest contained 3 well-grown 
chicks, and the others contained 2 tiny nestlings each. All the nests were in 
the thick understory of a beech (Nothofagus) forest, at 50—1 1 cm from the 
ground in 80—120 cm tall shrubs growing along creeks. They were cup- 
shaped structures of grass and moss, lined with fine grasses and some 

Manuel Marin A et al 78 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

feathers. On several occasions the adults were observed feeding butter- 
flies to the young. The only previous nesting record for this species in 
Chile was a set of 3 eggs (WFVZ 55,630) taken in Dec 1938 by C. Jensen 
and T. Peddar in Tierra del Fuego, 1700 km south of the Cordillera de 
Nahuelbuta (Johnson 1967). 

SHINY COWBIRD Molothrus bonariensis 

Hellmayr (1932) summarized the early history of this species in Chile. 
It is not clear whether the Shiny Cowbird became established in Chile as a 
result of deliberate introductions, from natural dispersal of the birds from 
Argentina through low passes in the southern Andes, or both, but the 
species has continued to expand its range steadily from the Santiago 
region since the last century (Johnson 1967). For example, G. R. Millie 
collected the first specimen as far north as the Valle del Huasco, Atacama 
Prov. on 22 Feb 1943 (Goodall et al. 1957), but by the 1960s the species 
was reportedly common from Atacama to Aysen Provinces (Johnson 
1967). The incremental spread of the Shiny Cowbird in Chile, based on 
specimen records given in Hellmayr (1932) and subsequent summaries 
by Philippi (1964) and Johnson (1972), is shown in Fig. 2. 

LP collected a male (WFVZ 39,632) on 15 Jun 1986 at Quebrada de 
Camarones, 910 km north of its previous limit in Chile. We are unaware 
of any reports of Molothrus bonariensis from southwestern Peru and are 
thus inclined to assume that this bird came from more southerly popu- 
lations, rather than from any to the north. It is probable that the species is 
now moving gradually northward along the coast of Chile. 


Common in many areas in Chile, especially in the Andean foothills, but 
previously known only from Atacama Prov. southward. LP collected a 
series of specimens (WFVZ 39,491-39,504) at Quebrada Paposo between 
17 and 21 Jul 1986, a northerly range extension of 230 km. Collected in 
the austral winter, the birds had probably descended from inland breed- 
ing areas located at higher elevations. Measurements (mm) of 14 individ- 
uals were as follows: wing chord 82.3 (75.6-88.9), exposed culmen 13.9 
(12.85—14.5), tail 60.9 (55.25-63.5). These are similar to the figures given 
for the nominate race by Johnson (1967), i.e., wing 86.1, 'bill' 12.5, tail 
63.2, but exceed the equivalent measurements (wing 75.6, 'bill' 12.8, tail 
56.4) he gave for the smaller race, P. gayi minor. Average weights of 8 
Paposo males was 22 g, and of 5 females 19 g. 

To the south this species ranges well into montane elevations, but it has 
not been recorded from the Antofagasta Range lying directly inland from 
Quebrada Paposo, an area occupied by the closely related P. atriceps, 
whose relationships with P. gayi have not been clear. An apparent male 
hybrid (WFVZ 26,147) between atriceps and gayi was collected by LP 
between 24 and 30 Aug 1 982 at Guatin, 300 km NE of Quebrada Paposo. 
A detailed comparison of the hybrid with males of P. atriceps and P. gayi 
is given in Tables 5 and 6. In general, the specimen more closely re- 
sembles P. atriceps than P. gayi in most details, and suggests that further 
study is needed to clarify the relationships between the 2 taxa. They were 
treated as subspecies by Hellmayr (1938), but as species by Meyer de 
Schauensee (1966), Johnson (1967) and Paynter & Storer (1970), whose 

Manuel Marin A et al. 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

T2' \PERU /\ 



1986 -i 


-2 1*- 




-27' — ^> 




-30* ., 




iV^ 1916 
»£— 1868 

fT9io- 1921 

f 1911 

1 9 1 2^ 

-36* »cS 


19 °CS- 


400 kllomete 

Figure 2. Map showing historic range expansion of the Shiny Cowbird Molothrus 
bonariensis in Chile. 

Manuel Marin A et al. 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Measurements of male Chilean Phrygilus specimens 





Wing chord 

P. atriceps 





P. atriceps x gayi 



P. gavigayi 





Exposed culmen 

P. atriceps 





P. atriceps x gayi 



P. gayi gayi 





P. atriceps 





P. atriceps x gayi 



P. gayi gayi 





P. atriceps 





P. atriceps x gayi 



P. gayi gayi 






Colour comparison of Phrygilus atriceps, P. gayi gayi and an apparent hybrid P. atriceps 
xgayi. Numbered colours are from Smithe (1975, 1981) 

P. gayi 


P. atriceps 

Crown, neck, Plumbeous (78) 

throat, and upper 




Vent and crissum 


Wings and tail 

Citrine (51) with 
greyish wash on 
feather tips 

Dark Neutral Gray 

White extends to 

Spectrum Yellow (55) 

Blackish Neutral 
Gray (82) with 
Plumbeous (78) outer 
feather margins 

Dark Neutral Gray (83) Jet Black (89) 

Buff (24) with Medium 
Neutral Gray (84) wash 
across centre 

Medium Neutral Gray 

White extends to 

Spectrum Yellow (55) in 
middle, shading to 
Amber (36) on sides 

Sepia (119) with Medium 
Neutral Gray (84) feather 

Amber (36) 

Jet Black (89) 

Whitish, but 
with yellowish 


Jet Black (89) 
with Dark 
Neutral Gray 

judgement was based largely upon the observations of Philippi (1942), 
who had reported that the species were sympatric in Coquimbo Prov, but 
did not interbreed there. Johnson (1967) later reported finding the forms 
occurring sympatrically from Atacama to Coquimbo Provinces without 
any apparent interbreeding. 

LP took a large series of P. atriceps in the Antofagasta Range, where the 
hybrid specimen was collected, but none of those specimens showed any 

Manuel Marin A et al. 81 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

signs of intermediacy. He encountered no examples of P. gayi. This 
suggests that these 2 forms may interbreed where one of them is scarce, 
but not where they are broadly sympatric. 


Permission to collect in Chile was granted by the Ministerio de Agricultura, Servicio Agri- 
cola y Ganadero. We thank Denys Veas for his assistance in the field, Thomas Howell and 
Ed Tarvyd for their comments on the manuscript, Dominique Pahlavan for preparing the 
figures, and Jon Fisher for his assistance in many ways. We are grateful to Mary LeCroy 
(American Museum of Natural History), Raymond Paynter (Museum of Comparative 
Zoology) and David Willard (Field Museum of Natural History) for the useful loan of 
Chilean specimens. This study was supported by the Western Foundation of Vertebrate 


Baldwin, S. P., Oberholser, H. C. & Worley, L. G. 1931. Measurements of birds. Sci. Publ. 

Cleveland Mus. Nat. Hist. 2: 1-165. 
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Chapman F. M. 1919. Descriptions of proposed new birds from Peru, Bolivia, Argentina 

and Chile. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 41: 323-333. 
Chapman F. M. 1929. Descriptions of new birds from Mt Duida, Venezuela. Am. Mus. 

Novit. no. 380. 
Goodall, J. D., Johnson, A. W. & Philippi B, R. A. 1946. Las Aves de Chile. Vol. 1, 358 pp. 

1951. Vol. 2. 445 pp. Buenos Aires, Piatt Est. Graficos. 
Goodall, J. D., Johnson, A. W. & Philippi B, R. A with Behn, F. & Millie, G. R. 1957. 

Suplemento de las Aves de Chile. Buenos Aires, Piatt Est. Graficos. pp. 349^-25. 
Hellmavr, C. E. 1927. Catalogue of Birds of the Americas. Part V. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Zool. Ser. 13:1-517. 
Hellmavr, C. E. 1932. The birds of Chile. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser., vol. 19. 
Hellmavr, C. E. 1938. Catalogue of Birds of the Americas. Part XI. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Zool. Ser. 8, 13:1-662. 
Johnson, A. W. 1965 and 1967. The Birds of Chile and adjacent Regions of Argentina , Bolivia 

and Peru. Vols. 1 and 2. Buenos Aires, Piatt Est. Graficos. 398 and 447 pp. 
Johnson, A. W. 1972. Supplement to the birds of Chile and adjacent Regions of Argentina, 

Bolivia and Peru. Buenos Aires, Piatt Est. Graficos. 116 pp. 
Kelso, L. H. 1937. A Costa Rican race of Jardine's pygmy owl. Auk 54: 304. 
Koepcke, M. 1970. The Birds of the Department of Lima, Peru. Livingston. 144 pp. 
Marshall, J. T., Jr. 1967. Parallel variations in North and Middle American screech-owls. 

Monogr. Western Found. Vert. Zool. no. 1 . 
Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1 966. The Species of Birds of South America with their Distribution. 

Livingston. 577 pp. 
Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1970. A Guide to the Birds of South America. Livingston. 470 pp. 
Murphv, R. C. 1936. Oceanic Birds of South America. Vol. 2. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. New 

Olrog, C. 1948. Observaciones sobre la avifauna de Tierra del Fuego y Chile. Acta Zool. 

Lilloana 5: 437-531. 
Palmer, R. S. (ed). 1962. Handbook of North American birds. Vol. 1. Yale Univ. Press. 
Parmelee, D. F. & MacDonald, S. D. 1975. Recent observations on the birds of Isla 

Contramaestre and Isla Magdalena, Straits of Magellan. Condor 77: 218-220. 
Paynter, R. A., Jr & Storer, R. W. 1970. Check-list of Birds of the World. XIII. Mus. Comp. 

Zool. Cambridge: Mass. 
Peters, J. A. 1940. Check-listof Birds of the World. IV. Mus. Comp. Zool. Cambridge: Mass. 
Philippi B, R. 1942. Notas sobre aves Chilenas. Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Chile 20: 82-89. 
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Ser. Monogr. no. 1 1 . Punta Arenas, Magallanes, Chile. 253 pp. 
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Address: M. Marin A. and L. F. Kiff, Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Suite 
1400, 1 100 Glendon Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024, U.S.A. L. Pena G, Instituto de 
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*This paper has been supported by page charges. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Notes on behaviour and breeding of the Razo 
Lark Alauda razae 

by C. J. Hazevoet 

Received 12 August 1988 

The Razo Lark Alauda razae lives exclusively on the arid islet of Razo 
(7 km ) in the Cape Verde Islands. It was discovered in 1897 by Boyd 
Alexander, who named it Spizocorys razae, without giving reasons for 
referring it to that genus (Alexander 1898a). Shelley (1902) placed it in 
Callandrella (sic), also without comment. Bianchi (1905) pointed out that 
the species has a small but distinct first primary, this being absent in 
Spizocorys and Calandrella. Although he thought it was close to the latter, 
he found it sufficiently different to erect the monotypic genus Razocorys 
for it. It remained there until Meinertzhagen (1951) lumped both Spizo- 
corys and Razocorys in Calandrella, regarding razae as "a relict species 
developed in isolation from an age-old migration of one of the C. rufescens 
group". Finally, Hall (1963) made it clear that razae, in view of its struc- 
tural characters, is closest to Alauda, especially A. gulgula, and that the 
differences between razae and A. arvensis (small size, less pointed wing 
and longer bill of razae) are all attributable to adaptations for life on a 
small island. She noted that razae in general appearance seems to lie 
between Alauda and Galerida. Burton (1971), who agreed entirely with 
Hall's conclusions, drew attention to the remarkable sexual size dimor- 
phism, especially in bill length, in razae, pointing to a difference in feed- 
ing ecology between the sexes, de Naurois (1969) suggested a relationship 
between razae and Pseudalaemon fremantlii of northeastern Africa on 
account of similarities in structure and plumage pattern. Hall & Moreau 
(1970) submerged Pseudalaemon in Galerida. Earlier, Harrison (1966) 
had already advocated the forming of a wide genus Alauda, combining 
many small or monotypic genera of larks, including Galerida and Pseuda- 
laemon, but not Calandrella. Obviously, there is no agreement about the 
nearest relative of razae, but a recent consensus has developed that it is a 

C.J.Hazevoet 83 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

species of the Alanda-Galerida assemblage. The following notes may 
provide some material for a further taxonomic analysis. 

Observations on behaviour and song 

On 1 Mar 1986 and 3 Jan 1988, I visited Razo and made observations on 
display, vocalizations and breeding of A. razae. Sound recordings were 
made on a Sony WM-D6 cassette recorder with a Nakamichi CM300/ 
CP4 microphone. Sonagrams were made on a Kay Sonagraph 7029 A, 
using wide band frequency. 

On both dates, the larks occurred mainly on the central plateau of the 
island. Smaller numbers were observed nearer the cliffs and between the 2 
hill ridges in the north. Adult birds were seen feeding together and all of 
them appeared to be paired. Singing birds were commonly heard and 
birds in both fresh and worn plumage were observed. Besides these, 
several juveniles were noticed. Altogether, an estimate of 75—100 pairs 
was made. 

Two types of song were distinguishable. The first consisted of short 
phrases of about one second, with pauses in between phrases also lasting 
about one second (Fig. 1A). It was uttered both on the wing or while 
perched on a stone or rock. This appears to be the same song as described 
by Alexander (1898b), consisting of "the call notes constantly repeated". 
It is not unlike the song of A. arvensis when perched, though probably less 
variable. The second song type was of a more continuous nature and only 
heard from birds in song flight, delivered at a height of c. 25 m (Fig. IB). 
The birds remained in a constant position against the strong NNE wind. 
Descent was performed at high speed while the singing continued. 
Generally, the first part of a song flight consisted of the short-phrased 
type, while towards the end and during descent the more continuous song 
was heard. The duration of 3 song flights was timed and lasted 5'1 5", 6'20" 
and 2'10". In addition, several call notes were recorded (Fig. 1C-F). 

When compared with utterances of A. arvensis, it will be seen that both 
song and calls of razae show a great structural resemblance to those of 
arvensis. For sonagrams of A. arvensis, see Glutz & Bauer (1985) and 
Cramp etal. (1988). 

On 3 Jan, a display was observed in which the male hopped several 
times c. 10 cm off the ground with head stretched upwards, chest pushed 
forwards and wings kept off the body a little. Whilst the posturing male 
encircled the female in this manner, the latter seemingly paid little atten- 
tion and continued feeding. This hopping display was similar to that of A. 
arvensis as described by Delius (1963); see also Glutz & Bauer (1985) and 
Cramps al. (1988). 

The observations on song and display support Hall's view, which was 
based on morphological features, that razae is closely similar to the 

Breeding data 

On 3 Jan, several birds were collecting nest material and a couple of empty 
nests were found. These were cup-shaped and undomed, built of dry 

C. J. Hazevoet 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

C.jf. Hazex-oet 85 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

grasses and hidden under a low shrub. Measurements of one nest were: 
outer diameter 10 cm, inner diameter 7 cm and depth 5.5 cm. On the same 
date, birds carrying food in a definite direction were seen several times but 
nests containing young could not be found. It may be noted here that the 
caption for plate 11 in Schleich & Wuttke (1983), stating that the bird 
shown is "digging its breeding hole", suggesting that razae breeds in 
holes under the ground, must be due to a misinterpretation of behaviour 
of an obviously foraging bird. 

On 1 Mar, a nest containing one egg was found and photographed. No 
measurements were taken. The egg was whitish with fine brownish or 
greyish spots, increasing towards the broad end. The only eggs known so 
far were collected by Alexander (1898b) on 7 Oct 1897; they cannot be 
traced and are presumed lost. He described them as resembling those of 
Lullula arbor ea both in coloration and dimensions, an opinion repeated by 
de Naurois (1987). However, comparison of the photograph of the egg 
with plate 79 in Cramp et al. (1988) shows that it is similar in coloration to 
example 4 of Galerida cristata and, to a lesser degree, to example 2 of 
Calandrella rufescens. It does not resemble any of the depicted eggs of L. 
arbor ea. Apart from a nest with eggs found on 7 Mar 1985 (van Harreveld 
1985), the above constitute the only egg-dates known so far. A nest con- 
taining one young was found on 28 Apr (Alexander 1898a). Juveniles 
were reported in Nov (Salvadori 1899), Jan (de Naurois 1969) and Jun 
(Norrevang & den Hartog 1984). These data suggest a prolonged, erratic 
breeding season, probably linked to the degree of rainfall in a particular 
year or season. 


I wish to thank Dr C. Bakels, H. Krieger and Dr M. Proske for providing me with their field 
notes made during our common visit to Razo. I am grateful to R. M. Pop for supplying 
photographs of the nest and egg. Dr C. Chappuis most kindly prepared the sonagrams. 
Finally, I am indebted to Dr G. F. Mees, V. Mees-Balchin and Dr J. Wattel who 
commented on the manuscript of this note. 


Alexander, B. 1898a. An ornithological expedition to the Cape Verde Islands. Ibis 7th series 

(4): 74-118. 
Alexander, B. 1898b. Further notes on the ornithology of the Cape Verde Islands. Ibis 7th 

series (4): 277-285. 
Bianchi, V. 1905. Notices supplementaires sur les alouettes palaearctiques (Alaudidae). 

Bull. Acad. Imp. Sc. St. Peter sbourg Ser. 5, 23: 205-240. 
Burton, P. J. K. 1971. Sexual size dimorphism in Alauda razae. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 91: 

Cramp, S. et al 1988. The Birds of the Western Palearctic , Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. 
Delius, J. D. 1963. Das Verhalten der Feldlerche. Z. Tierpsychol. 20: 297-348. 
Glutz von Blotzheim, U. N. & Bauer, K. M. 1985. Handbuch der Vogel Mitteleuropas, Vol. 

10. Aula Verlag. 
Hall, B. P. 1963. The status of Spizocorys razae Alexander. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 83: 

Hall, B. P. & Moreau, R. E. 1970. An Atlas of Speciation in African Passerine Birds. Brit. 

Mus. (Nat. Hist.). 
Harreveld, A. P. van. 1985. Observations on Razo Lark. Dutch Birding 7: 106-107. 
Harrison, C. J. 0. 1966. The validity of some genera of larks (Alaudidae). Ibis 108: 573-583. 
Meinertzhagen, R. 1951. Review of the Alaudidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 121: 81-132. 
Norrevang, A. & Hartog, J. C. den. 1 984. Bird observations in the Cape Verde Islands (4—22 

June 1982). Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg 68: 107-134. 

L. M. Gonzalez et al. 86 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Naurois, R. de 1969. Notes breves sur 1'avifaune de l'Archipel du Cap Vert. Faunistique, 

endemisme, ecologie. Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. Noire Ser. A, 31: 143-218. 
Naurois, R. de 1987. Contribution a la ecologie des trois Alaudidae de l'Archipel du Cap 

Vert: Ammomanes cincturus, Eremopterix nigriceps et Spizocorvs rasae. Bol. Mus. Mun. 

Funchal 39: 122-140. 
Salvadori, T. 1899. Collezioni Ornitologiche fatte nelle Isole del Capo Verde da Leonardo 

Fea. Ann. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. (Genova) 20: 283-312. 
Schleich, H.-H. & Wuttke, M. 1983. Die kapverdischen Eilande Santa Luzia, Branco und 

Razo — ein Reisebericht. Natur und Museum ( Frankfurt I M) 113: 33-44. 
Shelley, G. E. 1902. Birds of Africa , Vol. 3. R. H. Porter. 

Address: C. J. Hazevoet, Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoologie (Zoologisch Museum), 
Postbus 4766, 1009 AT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Zoogeographic support for the Spanish 
Imperial Eagle as a distinct species 

by L. M. Gonzalez, F. Hiraldo, M. Delibes <S? J. C alder on 

Received 13 August 1988 

Based mainly on morphological and behavioural criteria several past 
authors (e.g. Brehm 1861, Dresser 1873, Swan & Wetmore 1924, Hiraldo 
et al. 1976) have considered the Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila adalberti 
Brehm 1861 as specifically distinct from its Eastern congener, Aquila 
heliaca (Savigny 1809). However, lacking more evidence supporting this 
distinction, most other authors (e.g. Hartert 1914, Vaurie 1965, Amadon 
1 982) divide the Imperial Eagle merely into 2 different subspecies, naming 
Aquila heliaca heliaca the Eastern and Aquila heliaca adalberti the Spanish 
Imperial Eagle. Most recently, Collar & Andrews (1988) in the ICBP 
World Checklist of Threatened Birds distinguish adalberti and heliaca 
specifically from each other. 

At present the ranges of the eagles are separated by a wide gap in central 
Europe (see Cramp & Simmons 1980), and being allopatric, geographi- 
cally isolated populations, the most important of the species criteria, i.e. 
the presence or absence of reproductive isolation (Mayr 1969a), cannot 
thus be used to determine their taxonomic status. The problem could be 
solved if it was possible to show that at some historical period, popu- 
lations of both taxons occupied the same (sympatry) or contiguous (para- 
patry) ranges; in which case the presence of hybrids would prove a lack of 
reproductive isolation, while their absence would confirm the specific 
distinction (Mayr 1969b). 

Gonzalez et al. (in press), revising the distribution of the Spanish 
Imperial Eagle since the 19th century, show that it has bred in the west of 
the Iberian Peninsula and in Morocco, while inmatures during post- 
breeding dispersal have appeared at least in northeastern Spain, southern 
France and Libya. The purpose of this paper is to show that in that period 
the Eastern Imperial Eagle was breeding in the eastern Spanish Pyrenees, 

L. M. Gonzalez et al. 87 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

France and Algeria, and that neither of the Imperial Eagles interbred at 

Material and Methods 

Information presented here comes mostly from the literature and from 
eggs and skins preserved in 13 museums we visited and 22 others which 
we contacted by letter (for details, see Gonzalez et al. in press). Data will 
be presented here by countries. When papers did not indicate the race of 
the cited Imperial Eagle, we used the description of the bird, if available, 
to assign it to one of them. 

In the case of clutches of eggs preserved in museums, we were unable to 
distinguish between those oiheliaca and adalberti, so usually we accepted 
the data on the label. Egg data slips from museum collections can be used 
to examine some aspects of reproductive biology of birds (McNair 1987) 
and their past distribution (Hiraldo etal. 1979, Hoffman & Collopy 1988); 
nevertheless, their reliability has been questioned (Storer 1930). Else- 
where, museum oological data have proved useful in understanding the 
past distribution and population changes of raptor species (Ratcliffe 1 980, 
Bechard 1981). Suspect data, whether apparently falsified or not, are rare 
and usually detectable (McNair 1987). 



One clutch labelled as heliaca and collected by Hiibner in Barcelona on 
16 Apr 1902 (a date usual in heliaca but late for adalberti — Cramp & 
Simmons 1980) is in the Domplatz Museum (DDR). Vayreda y Vila 
(1883) recorded the occurrence oiFalco imperialis in the Gerona province 
and described its plumage as uniform with large white spots on the scapu- 
lars, a pattern typical of heliaca; he also wrote of its breeding on cliffs, a 
nest site unknown for adalberti and rare, but used, by heliaca (Dandford 
1878, Dementiev & Gladkov 1966). Fuset y Tubia (1913) identified an 
adult specimen preserved in a collection from Barcelona and collected in 
the same province, as Aquila melanaetus, Syn. Aquila imperialis, which 
from his description could be Aquila heliaca. 


Before Brehm (1861) described Aquila adalberti, several authors 
reported Aquila heliaca in France. Crespon (1840) recorded the occur- 
rence of Imperial Eagles in the Gard and Rhone departments, and Bailly 
(1853) said that Imperial Eagles which occurred in summer on Mt Cenis 
(Savoie) came from Piemont (southern Alps). From their records it is not 
possible to decide which taxon is referred to. 

Later, several specimens confirmed the presence of Aquila heliaca in 
France. Mayaud (1938) examined a juvenile collected in the Camargue in 
1829 and preserved at the Nimes Museum (NM). Also at NM we found 
another specimen, a juvenile also collected in the Camargue, 7 Apr 1931. 
In the Coimbra Museum we have seen an adult collected in France, 
without any date and precise locality. Loche (1867) identified as heliaca 

L. M.Gonzalez et al. 88 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

an adult eagle collected in Bayonne by Labarraque; according to 
Gurney (1877) this could be the same specimen reported by Jaubert & 
Barthelemy-Lappomeraye (1859). Sushkin (1901) examined an Eastern 
Imperial Eagle (not specifying its age) collected in Boulogne-sur-Mer. 
Glutz et al. ( 1 971 ) referred to the capture of an adult in Montigny (Yonne) 
in 1860, and Delmas (191 2) named as Aquila imperialis another individual 
(without specifying its age) collected in Provence in 1898. L'Hermitte 
(1916) reported the capture of a juvenile Aquila heliaca (without indicat- 
ing the species) in Comps (Var) in 1899 and the same author (L'Hermitte 
1920) described a specimen, collected in 1920 at Marseille, and in transit- 
ional plumage as heliaca; but it is difficult to determine the species from 
his description. 

Besides specimens, other evidence suggests the breeding of Aquila 
heliaca in France. One clutch of eggs from the Pyrenees (lacking the date 
of collection) and corresponding to "Imperial Eagle" (without specifying 
further) was found in the Bordeaux Museum. Companyo (1863), 
recorded Falco imperialis from Cerdaha, Cpacir and La Vail, noting it 
was becoming rare and mentioned some reproductive aspects. Dresser 
(1873) wrote: "In southern France, according to Jaubert & Barthelemy- 
Lappomeraye (1859) it has occurred several times; there appears to be no 
doubt the species is the present one — Aquila heliaca — and not the 
Spanish Imperial Eagle". Paris (1912) reported Aquila heliaca as an 
accidental inhabitant of the eastern Pyrenees and the upper Loire. 
Finally, Menegaux (1932) recorded the species as breeding on trees and 
cliffs in France, but only very occasionally. 

Summarizing: we lack conclusive evidence of the breeding of the 
Eastern Imperial Eagle in France in the 19th century, but the sum of 
information strongly suggests it is likely. All the captured adult 
Imperial Eagles in France and most of the juveniles (see Gonzalez et al. in 
press) belonged to Aquila heliaca, as did most of those mentioned in the 


We have not found any references to the nesting of Imperial Eagles in 
Italy during and since the 19th century (Benoit 1840, Salvadori 1887, 
Giglioli 1889). Nine specimens have been reported (Perco 1969, Massa 
et al. 1979), all of them corresponding to Aquila heliaca. Eight were 
juveniles and one (collected in Savona on 10 Jan 1882) was an adult 

Sushkin (1901) recorded the species as erratic in Italy. Bailly (1853) 
cited it as an inhabitant of Sardinia, but it seems that there are no details of 
observations nor of specimens (A. Mocci-Desmartes). 


Degland & Gerbe (1867) reported the occasional presence of Aquila 
heliaca in the Alps. Fatio & Studer (1889) recorded a juvenile and an adult 
specimen collected in the Jura (both destined for the museums of Geneve 
and Bonjour, according to the authors), another specimen (age not speci- 
fied) in the Oberland of Bern and several observations in the regions of 
Friburg and Saint Gall. 

L. M. Gonzalez et al. 89 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Other European countries In the past century, the northwestern periphery 
of the breeding range of Aquila heliaca in Europe (Fig. 1) was Austria 
(Bauer & Rokitansky 1951), but with isolated breeding pairs in Germany 
(Luhder 1868) and Lithuania (Bree 1859), all of them countries where the 
species does not breed at present (Cramp & Simmons 1980). Glutz et al. 
(1971) reported one observation in 1842 on the island of Malta. 


For some authors (e.g. Heim de Balsac & Mayaud 1962, Glutz et al. 
1971) the Algerian eagles were referred to Aquila adalberti, but most of 
the information from Algeria points to Aquila heliaca. Today the Imperial 
Eagle is extinct in Algeria (Ledant et al. 1981), but it bred there at least 
until the middle of the past century. 

We know of 2 clutches in museums, one collected on Edough Moun- 
tain, Bona, in 1855 by Loche (British Museum Natural History) 
(BMNH) and another collected in the Forest of Zeid, on 9 Apr 1857 
(registered in the B MNH collection but found in Smithsonian Institution 
Nat. Hist. Museum collection). About this clutch, O. Salvininhis "1857, 
catalogue Algerian notebook for eggs", p. 6, wrote: "Aquila Imperialis. Is 
much rarer than the last [Aquila fulvus] as we were able to hear of only two 
eyries during the whole of our stay . . . two eggs in the nest, the nest was 
taken by La Tope and the next day visited by Tristram, who saw the birds 
about; he described the nest as being in a tree growing out of a rock near 
Kef Oulsed Zeid . . .". Also, about the same event, Tristram (1860) wrote: 
"... had the satisfaction of watching a fine Imperial Eagle, who plainly 
exhibited the white feathers of the shoulder . . ., the two eggs which I 
obtained were hard set . . .". 

Malherbe (1855), Tristram (in Bree 1859), Buvry (1857) and Homeyer 
(1863) also mention occurrences of Imperial Eagles in Algeria, but Aquila 
adalberti had not yet been described; heliaca is probably the more likely, 
since Loche (1867), who was familiar with Imperial Eagles, attributed the 
skins of adult and juvenile specimens examined by himself to the Eastern 
population: "... [Aquila heliaca] peu commun en Algerie . . ., ne s'y 
recontre guere que dans les forets montagneuses . . . cet Aigle s'en dis- 
tingue particulierement par les plumes des scapulaires qui forment sur le 
manteau deux taches blanches et allongees . . .". 

Other northwestern African countries 

The only references to Imperial Eagles in Morocco correspond to 
Aquila adalberti (Irby 1895, Gonzalez et al. in press). We have not been 
able to find any data from Tunisia, either in the literature or in museum 


The breeding of Imperial Eagles in northeastern Spain, southern 
France and Algeria in the 19th century has been proved. Conclusive 
evidence does not exist to confirm that these birds were Eastern Imperial 
Eagles Aquila heliaca, but the amount of circumstantial evidence strongly 
suggests it. In fact, neither clutches, skins of adult birds, nor references to 

L. M. Gonzalez et al. 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 


Figure 1. Ranges (shaded) during the 19th century of the Spanish and Eastern Imperial 
Eagle Aquila heliacaj adalberti in western and eastern Europe. Key of localities outside the 
shaded range Localities of skins of adults ( • ), non adults ( O ) and clutches ( I ) deposited in 
museum collections; and records of nests or adults in the breeding season (A) and non- 
adults (A) from the literature and the authors' own data. 

the breeding of Aquila adalberti in these regions have been found, while 
some data for Aquila heliaca do exist. Also, although most authors made 
no comment about the specific identity of Imperial Eagles from these 
countries, those which did so (e.g. Dresser 1873, in France and Loche 
1867, in Algeria) said they were Eastern Imperial Eagles. 

If so, the breeding population of Aquila heliaca in western Europe 
could be partially migrant as in eastern Europe and Asia (Dementiev & 
Gladkov 1966, Cramp & Simmons 1980), making their way to Africa 
through continental Italy and Sicily to Cap Bon (Tunisia), as do other 
Central European raptors (Massa et al. 1 979, Dejonghe 1 980). This could 
explain the relatively important number collected along this route (Fig. 
1). At present, this migrant breeding population has disappeared, but 
some wandering individuals, probably coming from eastern Europe, are 
observed from time to time (Cramp & Simmons 1980). 

There seems hardly any doubt that the breeding ranges of the Eastern 
and the Spanish Imperial Eagles were in contact in the last century, and 
even more probably earlier still, at least in western Europe and probably 
in northern Africa. Such geographic contact (parapatry) would allow 
reproductive exchange and the possibility of hybrids. However, we have 
not detected a single specimen with intermediate plumage attributable to 
a hybrid in the 248 skins we have examined, and reference to hybrids does 
not appear at all in the literature. Failure to interbreed would indicate that 
previous reproductive isolation had led to species formation (Mayr 
1969b, Bush 1975, Cracaft 1983), in which case, according to these last 

L. M. Gonzalez et al. 91 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

authors, the present allopatry of these full species results from their eco- 
logical requirements being so similar that they compete and exclude each 
other mutually. 

Because of the lack of conclusive proof, we cannot claim the recognition 
of Aquila adalberti as a distinct species only on the basis of the above 
evidence. However, the evidence adds support to the reasons previously 
advanced by several of the authors referred to earlier, and in our opinion 
the amount of circumstantial evidence suggesting the reproductive iso- 
lation of both Imperial Eagles justifies the recognition of Aquila adalberti 
as a full species. 


We would like to thank Jose L. Gonzalez and Borja Heredia, F. Palacios and the staff of the 
Unidad de Zoologia Aplicada (Madrid), Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (Madrid) 
and Estacion Biologica de Dohana (Sevilla) for their invaluable assistance in the work, and 
the CAYCIT project Nos 2007 and 994. 

We are grateful to curators at the British Museum of Natural History (Tring), C. J. O. 
Harrison and M. Walters; Royal Scottish Museum (Edinburgh), J. Lyster and B. 
McGowan; Zoologisches Fors. Museum Alexander Koening (Bonn), G. Rheinwald; 
Natur-Museum Senckenberg (Frankfurt am Main); Museum fur Naturkunde (Stuttgart); 
Museum d'Histoire Xaturelle (Nantes); Museum d'Histoire Naturelle (Nimes); Naturhis- 
torisches Museum (Berne); Rijksmuseum van Natuurlikje (Leiden), K. Vouus; Museu de 
Zoologia of University (Coimbra); Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (Madrid), J. 
Barreiro; Oxford University Museum (Oxford), J. Hull; Manchester University Museum 
(Manchester), M. Hounsome; Hancock Museum (Newcastle upon Tyne), P. S. Davies; 
Bristol Museum Natural History (Bristol), S. Swansborough; Delaware Museum Natural 
History (Delaware), D. M. Niles; Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology (Los 
Angeles), L. Kiff; American Museum of Natural History (New York), M. LeCroy; Field 
Museum of Natural History (Chicago), D. Willard; Museum Heineamun Halberstadt 
(Domplatz), B. Nicolai; Museum Gedenstatten Sammlungen (Magdeburgo); Staatliches 
Museum fur Natuurkunde (Gorlitz), H. Ansorge; Naturhistoriska RiksMuseet (Stock- 
holm), C. Edelstam and T. Odsjo; Naturhistorisches Museum (Vienna), H. Schiffer; 
Zoological Institute (Leningrad), V. Loskot; Muzeul Tarii Crisurilor (Oradea), S. 
Dumitrascu; Universita di Palermo Instituto di Zoologia (Palermo), B. Massa; Museo 
Instituto di Zoologia (Turin), O. Eller; Institute Scientifique Cherifien (Rabat) — 
who kindly allowed us access to or sent us the information requested about egg and skin 


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Addresses: L. M. Gonzalez, ICONA, Servicio de Vida Silvestre, Gran V. S. Francisco, 
Madrid 28005, Spain. Remaining authors: Estacion Biologica de Dofiana, CSIC, 
Pabellon del Peru, Avda. M. Luisa s/n, Sevilla 41013, Spain. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989. 

A new breeding record of the Izu Island Thrush 
Turdus celaenops from the Tokara Islands, 
southwest Japan 

by Noritomo Kawaji, Hiroyoshi Higuchi & Hiroaki Hori 

Received 25 August 1988 

The Izu Island Thrush Turdus celaenops is endemic to Japan, and has 
been known to breed only in the Izu Islands (Higuchi 1973, O.S.J. 1974). 
In the migration season it has been recorded as an accidental in the ad- 
jacent parts of Honshu main-island (e.g. Fujimura 1948, Hachisuka 
1950). There are some specimens or sight records from remote islands, 
such as Yakushima Island (Ogawa 1905, Shirai 1956), Danjo Islands 
(W. B.S.J. 1978), and Tairajima Island (Kawaji et al. 1987), which are all 
off the Kyushu main-island; but the status of this thrush in such areas 
some 1000 km distant from the Izu Islands is not certain. 

We observed 4—6 pairs in the 1988 breeding season in Nakanoshima 
Island (29°50'N, 129°48'E), 27.5 km 2 in area, and of the Tokara Islands, 
off Kyushu main-island (Fig. 1) and 2 nests were found there. This is the 
first record of the species breeding in an area other than the Izu Islands. In 
reporting here the breeding habits in Nakanoshima it is of interest to 
discuss the significance of this breeding record from the viewpoint of 

The first nest was found on 12 May. The nesting site was 80 m above 
sea level. The habitat consisted mainly of Persea thunbergii, Castanopsis 
sieboldii, Pleioblastus linearis. The nest was placed 5.6 m above the ground 
in the forked branches of a deciduous tree Mallotusjaponicus, which had a 
diameter at breast height ( = DBH) of 14.0 cm. The nest was hemispheri- 
cal in shape and the mouth opened upward. The inner diameter was 
100 mm and the depth 62 mm. Nest materials were mainly pine leaves, 
moss, and twigs. We saw the female sitting on the nest on 13 May, but, 
unfortunately, the nest was found destroyed on 26 May. 

The second nest was found on 21 June at 180 m a.s.l. It was amongst 
bamboos, Pleioblastus linearis, 2.5 m above the ground, and had been 
built by adding nest materials to a cluster of pine leaves caught on the 
bamboo twigs. The vegetation in the vicinity consisted mainly of Pinus 
thunbergiana and P. linearis. The measurements of the open nest were 

N. Kawaji et al. 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 





» P jo /Kyushu 

Izu Islands 

Nakanoshima /i 
T <z(r 

«o ; \Yakushima 

Tairajima >y/ Tnl , aril 

30 N 



Pacific Ocean 


140° E 

Figure 1 . Map showing some islands (underlined) where the Izu Island Thrush Turdus 
celaenops has been observed. 

101 mm in inner diameter and 70 mm in depth. The DBH of the nesting 
bamboo was 24.3 mm. Nest materials were bamboo twigs and pine leaves. 
There were 5 eggs, pale blue-grey with reddish brown spots, particularly 
on the obtuse end. Their measurements were 28.6-31.1 mm (29.9 + 0.93 
SD) by 20.4-21.2 mm (20.8 ±0.32 SD) and they weighed 6.00 g. 
Fledglings were found in the vicinity of the nest in early July. 

The breeding habitat and nesting habits of T. celaenops in Nakano- 
shima are similar to those of the species in the Izu Islands (Higuchi 1973). 
These breeding records in Nakanoshima suggest the possibility that the 
species breeds in other islands off Kyushu. Shirai (1956) observed it in 
late May and early June 1950 on Yakushima, though no individuals have 
been collected or observed there since the 1960s. Ogawa (1905) and 
O.S.J. (1958) separated the Yakushima population as a subspecies T. c. 
yakushimensis, differing from the Izu Island subspecies T. c. celaenops, 
though its status in Yakushima was not certain at the time. There are no 
endemic subspecies of birds in the Tokara Islands, but if yakushimensis 
is a good subspecies, the Nakanoshima population may be equally and 
possibly similarly distinct in morphology or ecology from the Izu Island 
population. The song of the Nakanoshima population seemed to be 
somewhat different from that of the Izu Island population, but no close 
investigation was made. 

IT". R.J. Dean 95 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

There have been 2 hypotheses on the speciation process of the Izu 
Island Thrush. One is that the species differentiated through geographic 
isolation from the main-island Brown Thrush T. chrysolaus (Fujimura 
1948). The other is that the Izu Island Thrush is a relic species that was 
distributed more extensively in the past and retreated thereafter into 
island refuges (Yamashina 1942). Yamashina considered that T. celaenops 
is more closely related to the Black-breasted Thrush T. dissimilis in 
South-East Asia than to T. chrysolaus. The fact that the Izu Island 
Thrush breeds in the distant Tokara Islands possibly suggests that the 
relic hypothesis is more reasonable. 


We thank Dr Lowell Adams for commenting on a draft of this paper. This study was 
supported in part by a research grant for the Special Bird Project from the Environmental 
Agency of Japan. 


Fujimura, K. 1948. On Turdus celaenops. Tori 12(57): 57-62. (Japanese with English 

Hachisuka, M. 1950. The occurrence of some rare Japanese birds. Tori 13(60): 21-24. 

(Japanese with English resume.) 
Higuchi, H. 1973. Birds of Izu Islands ( 1 ). Distribution and habitat of the breeding land and 

freshwater birds. Tori 22: 14-24. (Japanese with English summary.) 
Kawaji, X., Sako, S. & Kora, T. 1987. Avifauna during spring migration on Taira-jima 

island, Tokara islands. Jap. J. Ornith. 36: 47-54. (Japanese with English summary.) 
Ogawa, M; 1905. Notes on Mr Alan Owston's collection of birds from the islands lying 

between Kiushu and Formosa. Annot. Zool.Japon. 5: 175-232. 
Ornithological Society of Japan (O.S.J.). 1958. A Hand-list of Japanese Birds. 4th, revised 

ed. O.S.J., Tokyo. 
Ornithological Society of Japan (O.S.J.). 1974. Check-list of Japanese Birds. 5th, revised ed. 

Gakken, Tokyo. 
Shirai, K. 1956. Avian/mammal fauna of Yaku island and the so called Yaku dog. Japan 

Wildlife Bulletin 15: 53-79. (In Japanes). 
Wild Bird Society of Japan (W.B.S.J.). 1978. Bird Report for 1978. W.B.S.J., Tokyo. 

175 pp. (In Japanese.) 
Yamashina, Y. 1942. Birds of the seven islands of Izu. Tori 11: 191-270. (In Japanese.) 

Addresses: N. Kawaji, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, P.O. Box 16. 
Tsukuba Xorin Kenkyu Danchi-nai, Ibaraki, 305 Japan (present address: Forestry 
Research Institute, 1 Hitsujigaoka, Tohohira-ku, Sapporo City, Hokkaido 004, Japan); 
H. Higuchi, Research Center, Wild Bird Society of Japan, Higashi 2-24-5, Shibuya- 
ku, Tokyo, 150 Japan; H. Hori, Laboratory of Silviculture, Faculty of Agriculture, 
Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, 890 Japan. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989. 

A review of the genera Calandrella, Spizocorys 
and Eremalauda (Alaudidae) 

byW. R.J. Dean 

Received 22 September 1988 

One of the recurrent problems in the systematics of African larks is the 
question of what species compose the genus Calandrella Kaup 1829, and 

W. R.J. Dean 96 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

whether Spizocorys Sundevall 1872 constitutes a natural group. 
Meinertzhagen (1951) grouped 9 species in Calandrella. This arrange- 
ment was followed (in the main) by Hall & Moreau (1970), who included 
the anomalous Eremalauda dunni in Calandrella, within a species-group 
that contained C. obbiensis and C. personata. Maclean (1969) separated a 
group of 3 southern African species from Calandrella, placing them in 
Spizocorys, and removed one further species (starki) from Calandrella, 
placing it in Alauda L. 1758. A recent checklist of the birds of the 
world (Wolters 1975-82) contains a number of novelties, among them 
Calandrella blanfordi, erlangeri and cheelensis elevated to specific level, 
obbiensis placed in Ammomanes Cabanis 1851 and Botha Shelley 1902 
resurrected for Spizocorys fringillaris. 

In the present paper brachydactyla, cinerea, acutirostris, rufescens, 
somalica, raytal, conirostris, sclateri , fringillaris , obbiensis , personata , starki 
and dunni are considered to be full species. A characteristic common to 
this group of species is that they are all mainly granivorous (Dean in 
prep.) and all drink water regularly. 

The type of Calandrella is C. brachydactyla and the genus was orig- 
inally separated on the reduced outer primary, pointed wing, dark square 
tail, usually with white outer rectrices, short, strong bill, and nostrils 
concealed by bristles or plumelets. Some species in the group have rufous 
on the crown and on the sides of the chest. The type of Spizocorys is S. 
conirostris (Sundevall), and the genus was separated from Calandrella on 
the basis of the short, conical bill. The shape of the bill in larks is an 
adaptive, plastic character, and of limited use as a taxonomic character. 
Similarly, plumage colour is adaptive, but plumage pattern may be less 
subject to selective pressures. Length of 1st primary, on which many 
genera in the Alaudidae have been separated, has apparently some value 
as a taxonomic character, but length of the 1st primary does vary in 
relation to the roundness of the wing in larks — round wings relatively 
speaking having the longest 1st primary (Harrison 1966). 

Maclean (1969) separated cinerea from conirostris, sclateri and fringil- 
laris on the lack of homogeneity in plumage pattern, call, nest and, to 
some extent, display. Because he considered starki sufficiently different 
from the Spizocorys group, and similar to Alauda, Maclean (1969) 
placed starki in Alauda. Display, song-flight and call may provide clues 
to possible relationships in the Calandrella (sensu latu) group. Songs 
and displays may be broadly classified as 'simple' or 'complex'. Simple 
songs are 3—5 note refrains, given in flight or on the ground, and 
usually also include the 'courtship song'; song-flight is weakly devel- 
oped or non-existent. Complex songs have more elements; usually they 
have an introductory phrase or phrases, followed by a main song which 
may include mimicry of other species and other calls; song-flight is well 

Nest architecture in Alaudidae appears to be an important differen- 
tiating characteristic; the presence of a built-up ramp of small stones or 
mud flakes, or an apron of nesting material extending out from the rim 
of the cup, or the absence of either a ramp or an apron, may character- 
ize genera. 

A summary of species characteristics is given in Appendix 1 . 

W.R.J. Dean 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 


Morphological, behavioural and biological characteristics of the Calandrella species group 

(sensu Hall & Moreau 1970) 


Plumage below 





shoulder patch 



open, with ramp 


shoulder patch 



open, with ramp 


shoulder patch 



open, with ramp 


chest band 



open, ramp? 


lightly streaked 



open, ramp? 


lightly streaked 



open, ramp? 


lightly streaked 



open, with apron 


lightly streaked 



open, with apron 


heavily streaked 



open, with apron 


heavily streaked 



open, with apron 


lightly streaked 



open, apron? 


lightly streaked 

pale eye-ring 


open, lacks ramp or 



pale eye-ring 


open, lacks ramp or 


On the basis of shared characters (Table 1), specifically facial pattern, 
flight display and nest architecture, the following groups are separable: — 

Group 1: plumage brown, streaked above, bill brown to black, face 
plain, chest band or shoulder patches below, complex flight display, nest 
usually with ramp = Calandrella. 

Group 2: plumage pale rufous-brown to greyish-brown, streaked 
above and below, bill pink, pinkish-brown or light brown, face patterned, 
simple flight display, nest with apron = Spizocorys. 

Group 3: plumage buffy to pale brown, streaked above, bill whitish- 
horn or yellowish-white, face patterned, pale eye-ring, streaked below, 
complex flight display but song simple, nest without ramp or apron = 
Eremalauda Sclater 1926. 

The following arrangement is then possible: 




Most workers concur that Calandrella brachydactyla, C. acutirostris, C. 
cinerea, C. somalica, C. rufescens and C. raytal form a closely related 
group, since brachydactyla, acutirostris, cinerea and somalica have at one 
time or another been considered races of brachydactyla or races of cinerea 
(Peters 1960). Meinertzhagen (1951) considered somalica and raytal to be 
races of rufescens. 

Similarly, several workers have grouped S. conirostris, S. sclateri and S. 
fringillaris, sometimes including starki in the group (e.g. McLachlan & 
Liversidge 1978). Maclean (1969) considered starki distinct from both 
Calandrella (cinerea) and the Spizocorys group. Recently, Clancey et al. 

W. R.J. Dean 98 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

(1987) decided against the treatment of star&z asamember of the Eurasian 
skylark assemblage {Alauda arvensis and A. gulgula). A novelty proposed 
in the present paper is the linking of dunni with starki, suggested by the 
similarity in flight display, facial and general plumage patterns and nest. 


I thank J. S. Ash for unpublished data, and R. K. Brooke, M. P. S. Irwin and G. L. Maclean 
for their critical comments on a first draft of this paper. 


Allan, D. G., Batchelor, G. R. & Tarboton, W. R. 1983. Breeding of Botha's Lark. Ostrich 

54: 55-57. 
Ali, S. & Ripley, S. D. 1983. Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Oxford University 

Archer, G. & Godman, E. M. 1937-1961 . The Birds of British Somaliland and the Gulf of 

Aden. Vols 1-2, Gurney & Jackson. Vols 3-4. Oliver & Boyd. 
Ash, J. S. 1981. Field description of the Obbia Lark Calandrella obbiensis, its breeding and 

distribution. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 101: 379-383. 
Clancey, P. A., Brooke, R. K., Crowe, T. M. & Mendelsohn, J. M. 1987. SAOS Checklist of 

Southern African Birds (1980) : First updating report. SAOS, Johannesburg. 
Cramp, S. 1988. The Birds of the Western Palearctic Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. 
Dean, W. R. J. in prep. Alaudidae in Birds of Africa (see Urban et al.). Vol. 4. Academic 

de Naurois, R. 1974. Decoverte de la reproduction d' Eremalauda dunni dans le Zemmour 

(Mauritanie septentrionale). Alauda 42: 1 1 1—1 16. 
Hall, B. P. & Moreau, R. E. 1970. An Atlas of Speciation in African Passerine Birds. British 

Museum (Natural History). 
Harrison, C. J. 0. 1966. The validity of some genera of larks (Alaudidae). Ibis 108: 573-583. 
Hockey, P. A. R. & Sinclair, J. C. 1981. The nest and systematic position of Sclater's Lark. 

Ostrich 52: 256-257. 
Maclean, G. L. 1969. South African lark genera. Cimbebasia, Ser. A, 1:79-94. 
Maclean, G. L. 1970. Breeding behaviour of larks in the Kalahari sandveld. Ann. Natal 

Mus. 20:381^101. 
McLachlan, G. R. & Liversidge, R. 1978. Roberts Birds of South Africa. Trustees of the 

John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town. 
Meinertzhagen, R. 1951. A review of the Alaudidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 121: 81-132. 
Peters, J. L. 1960. Family Alaudidae. In E. Mayr & J. C. Greenway, Jr. (eds), Check-list of 

Birds of the World. Vol. 9. Mus. Comp. Zool. Cambridge, Mass. 
Urban, E. K., Fry, C. H. & Keith, G. S. in prep. Birds of Africa. Vol. 4. Academic Press. 
Willoughby, E.J. 1971. Biology of larks (Aves: Alaudidae) in the Namib Desert. Zoo. Afr. 6: 

Wolters, H. E. 1975-1982. Die Vogelarten der Erde. Paul Parey. 

Address: W. R. J. Dean, Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of 
Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa, 7700. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 


Summary of main characteristics of Calandrella, Spizocorys and Eremalauda 


1 . C. brachydactyla. 

Plumage: streaked on back, below lacks streaking on chest, but has small dark patch at 
shoulder. Face not patterned. Bill: horn-brown upper mandible, pale horn lower. Legs and 
feet flesh brown. Song is complex: call in song-flight begins with introductory 'dip dip . . .', 
not infrequently interspersed with mimicry of other species' calls, given as the bird ascends 
steeply in flight on rapidly beating wings to 8-15 m; introductory notes give way to 
main song, a series of 10-20 (up to 60 recorded) phrases, each phrase 8-10 units, repeated 

W. R.J. Dean 99 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

persistently at short intervals. On final note of song-phrase, closes wings and descends, but 
before reaching ground beats wings to effect slower descent, drops down and then beats 
wings in order to begin major ascent again, repeating the sequence of song. Song-flight is 
thus a series of deep undulations, but interspersed with shallow ones. The nest is a cup of 
grass and other dry vegetation, lined with softer material, frequently surrounded by a ramp 
of lumps of soil or small stones (Cramp 1988). 

2. C. cinerea. 

Plumage: streaked on back, plain below except for rufous patches on sides of chest. Face 
not patterned. Bill black. Legs and feet dark brown. Song is complex with a song-flight 
similar to brachydactyla, but remaining longer in the air. Has similar undulations in flight. 
The nest is a cup of dry grass lined with finer material , placed in a scrape in the ground against 
a tuft, shrub, stone or large clod of earth, with a ramp of small stones or lumps of soil present 
on the open side of the nest (data from Dean, in prep.). 

3. C. acutirostris . 

Plumage: streaked, and generally very similar to brachydactyla. Face not patterned. Bill 
yellowish-horn, blackish on edges and tip. Legs and feet flesh brown. Song is complex: 
display similar to brachydactyla and cinerea. The nest is a cup of dry grass, lined with soft 
material, frequentlv with a ramp of small stones around the rim (data from Ali & Ripley 

4. C. rufescens. 

Plumage: heavily streaked above, below streaking on chest forming a distinct pectoral 
band. Face not patterned. Bill horn-grey. Legs and feet flesh brown. Song is complex: display 
similar to brachydactyla, but has a greater repertoire of phrases and mimics songs and calls of 
other larks, including brachydactyla. The nest is a cup of dry grass placed in a scrape. No data 
available on ramp or surround (Cramp 1988). 

5. C. somalica. 

Plumage: streaked above, below whitish, chest tinged pale buff and streaked lightly with 
dark brown. Face not patterned. Bill reddish. Song and display apparently similar to cinerea. 
The nest is an open cup of grass placed in a scrape in the ground (data from Archer & 

6. C. raytal. 

Plumage: lightly streaked above, below whitish, with indistinct streaking on sides of 
chest. Face not patterned. Bill horn-grey, horn-brown to blackish. Legs and feet flesh brown. 
Song-flight is complex; has an undulating aerial display flight similar to rufescens and raises a 
crest when singing. Song is interspersed with mimicry of other species' calls. The nest is a 
cup of dry grass, placed in a scrape, lined with soft material. No data on ramp or surround 
(data from Ali & Ripley 1983). 

7. 5. conirostris. 

Plumage: streaked above, below rufous, lightly streaked on chest. Face patterned. Bill 
pink. Legs and feet pink. Song is simple: consists of 2— 3 notes, 'si si si' given in flight. No flight 
display. The nest is a cup of grass placed in a scrape in the ground, with an apron of grass 
extending out from the rim (data from Maclean 1970). 

8. S. sclateri. 

Plumage: streaked above, below buffy to rufous buff, streaked on chest. Face boldly 
patterned, with dark mark below eye. Bill brownish-pink. Legs and feet light brown. Song 
consists of 3 notes, 'trit trit trit' given in flight. No flight display. The nest is a cup of grass 
with an apron, placed in a scrape in the ground (data from Hockey & Sinclair 1981, J. C. 
Sinclair, W.R.J.D.). 

9. S . fringillaris . 

Plumage: heavily streaked above, below buffy, heavily streaked on chest and flanks. Face 
patterned. Bill pink. Legs and feet pink. Song is simple: 2-3 element call 'chiree' repeated 
several times, given in flight or on ground. No flight display. The nest is a cup of dry grass 
with an apron, placed in a scrape in ground (data from Allan et al. 1981). 

10. S. obbiensis. 

Plumage: streaked above, below greyish, streaked on chest and flanks. Face patterned. Bill 
pinkish-brown. Legs and feet pale brown. Song is simple, a 'tip tip' flight call. No flight 
display in this species was observed by J. S. Ash in a brief study of breeding. The nest is a cup 
in a scrape in the ground (data from Ash 1981 and J. S. Ash). 

H. D. Jackson 100 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

11. S. personate 

Plumage: lightly streaked and mottled on back, below plain grey-brown on chest, rufous 
on belly. Face boldly patterned with black, forming a mask. Bill yellowish-horn. Legs and 
feet flesh white (data from Dean, in prep.). 

12. E.starki. 

Plumage: streaked above, below whitish, plain or lightly streaked. Face not patterned, but 
has bold white eye-ring. Bill whitish-horn. Legs and feet pinkish-white. Song-flight is 
complex: ascends into the air singing a simple mellow song 'prrr prrr preee preee prrr prrr 
preee preee . . .'until it reaches a height of 6— 10 m (even up to 200 m according to Willoughby 
1971), where it continues to sing for several minutes as it hovers into the wind before 
dropping straight down to the ground. The nest is a cup of grass in a scrape, lacking both 
apron and ramp (data from Maclean 1970, Willoughby 1971). 

13. E. dunni. 

Plumage: lightly streaked on back, almost plain, whitish below, streaked dark on chest. 
Face boldly patterned, with dark brown to black moustachial and malar stripes and sur- 
round to cheeks, and white eye-ring. Bill yellowish-white. Legs and feet pale flesh. Song- 
flight is complex: rises into the wind to height of 30-50 m, and sings while remaining more or 
less in one place, swinging from side to side with slow, lazy wing-beats, effecting a floppy 
appearance. At end of song-flight it drops to the ground. The song is a series of short 
rambling phrases, given both in song-flight and on the ground. The nest is a scrape lined with 
fresh vegetation (data from de Naurois 1974, Cramp 1< 

Weights of birds collected in the Mutare 
Municipal Area, Zimbabwe 

by H. D. Jackson 

Received 29 September 1988 

The Mutare Municipal Area, occupying c. 158 km, extends from 
c. 18°56' to 19°02'S, and from c. 32°32' to 32°42'E, so adjoining the 
Mozambique border. Altitude varies from c. 915 to 1740 m a.s.l. and 
there is a diversity of habitat ranging from moist montane evergreen 
forest in the northeast to dry Acacia thornveld in the southwest. The 
Mutare Museum has been conducting an avifaunal survey of this area, the 
results being reported in a series of papers by Jackson (1972, 1976, 1986, 
1987a, 1987b, 1988). 

Most of the birds collected were weighed on a triple-beam balance, 
usually to the nearest decigram. This paper provides a synthesis of the 
weight data, obtained from 2809 individuals of 209 species. Maclean 
(1985) gives no weights for 31 (**) of these species and less than 10 
weights each for another 59 (*). 

Mutare mean weights tend to be lighter than those given by Maclean 
(1 985) for the whole of southern Africa, often more than 10% lighter ( < ), 
sometimes more than 25% so ( <^ ). This is in agreement with Bergmann's 
Rule that, among the forms of a polytypic species, body-size tends to be 
larger in cooler parts of the total range and smaller in the warmer parts 
(Thomson 1964). Weight data in Maclean (1985) are unfortunately 
lumped geographically, except for the following species, all of which 
support Bergmann's Rule (mean weights in grams): 

Anas smithii: Cape <$<$ 688, ?? 598; Transvaal $$ 603, ?$ 572 

Charadrius pecuarius: Cape 42.6; Transvaal 34 

H. D. Jackson 101 Bull B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

C. tricollaris: Cape 34; Transvaal 31.2 

Tringa stagnatilis (Palaearctic visitor): Cape 75.1; Transvaal 58 

Laniarius ferrugineus: South Africa <$<$ 60.2, $$ 57.5; Mozambique <$<$ 

50, $? 44.7 
Telophorus zeylonus: South Africa 64.8; Zimbabwe/Mozambique bor- 
der in the cool montane zone of the Chimanimani Mountains 69.0 
Sporopipes squamifrons : Transvaal 12.4; Botswana 10.3 
Serinus sulphur atus: Cape 28.7; Natal 25.8; Zimbabwe 21.1 
S.gularis: Cape 22.7; Transvaal 20.1; Zimbabwe 15.2 
The Cape to Zimbabwe cline accounts for the lightweight Mutare data, 
where Coturnix delegorguei is about the only species that apparently does 
not conform. Future revisions of Roberts' Birds of Southern Africa should 
take more notice of this cline. 

In those species where at least 5 weights are available for each sex, 
the difference in mean weights between the sexes has been subjected to 
Student's t-test, the statistical significance being shown in brackets 
immediately after the species name. Breeding $$ are not included in these 
comparisons as their increased weight could mask the true difference 
between the sexes. The results generally support Maclean's (1985) data, 
except for the Cossypha spp, where <$<$ are clearly heavier than $$, but 
Maclean lumps them together. 

In the list that follows weights in grams are given by age (J = skull not 
fully ossified) and sex (o = indeterminate). Where 5 or more weights are 
available in any category, the mean, standard deviation and range are 
given. The diameter of the largest oocyte is shown in brackets immedi- 
ately after the weight of a $ in breeding condition (B). Nomenclature and 
order follow Maclean (1985). DOR = Dead on road. 

*Phalacrocorax carbo <$ 1 700 
**Ciconia ahdimii 5 1 5 1 7 
*Anastomus lamelligerus $ 1016 
^Phoenicopterus ruber o 1 538 
<?*P. minor 2 960 

Milvus migrans $ 698 
**Aviceda cuculoides o 296 
<^ *Aquila verreauxii £ 3000 

Kaupifalco monogrammicus 5S<$ 239.6 + 12.4 (220-254); $$ 277/285/342; oo 238/308/ 

Accipiter ovampensis o 249 
*A. minullusSS 75.3/76.1; ? 101.2 
A. badius$$ 122/124 
A. tachiro 5<Jc? 195.4± 18.0 (168-217.5); ?? 302/381/394 

< *Polyboroides typus o 636 
< Falco tinnunculus o 1 54 

>*Coturnix delegorguei £<? 79.2/81.3/82. 9/90.6; 8?? 83. 3 ±7. 5 (72. 2-93. 3) 
*C. adansonii $ 46.6 
Numida meleagris $ 1429 
<*Turnix sylvatica $$ 28.0/35.8; $ 32.8 
**Crex egregia $ \2\ 

*Sarothrura rufa fy 29 .4 
**S. boehmiZ 21. 4- 

**Porphyrula alleni <$$ 132/134; 9 117 
*Gallinula angulata 9 92.4 

< *Rostratula benghalensis $ 1 10 

Gallinago media ^ 126 
**Rhinoptilus chalcopterus £3 160/168; $ 135 

H.D. Jackson 102 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Chlidonias leucopterns o 43.1 

Turtur chalcospilos (n.s.) 6^ 65.9 ±6.3 (58.5-77.0); 5?$ 60.3 + 6.7 (50.2-68.8); B$$ 

T. tympanistria SS 63.4/63.4/68.2/72.5; $$ 63.8/65.5/66.7/82.5; B$$ 70.6 (3 mm)/70.6 

(3 mm); JcJcJ 65.0/71.8 

< *Aplopelia larvata $ 1 46 
*Treron calva ? 215; B? 269 (2 mm) 
*Cuculus gularis $104 

*C. solitarius $$ 66.5/66.5; o 70.0 
**Chrysococcyx klaas <$<$ 26 A 1 27 A; o 38.6 
C.caprius ?$ 33.8/37.3 
*Centropus senegalensis $ 141 

C. superciliosus cj 168 
*Strix woodfordii £ 270.7 
**Otus senegalensis $$ 60.1/61 .6; o 49.2 

<Bubo africanus SS 540/751; 5 ?? 628+ 113.9 (446-729); oo 623/713; J? 612 
*Caprimulgus europaeus S3 56.7/57.0/60.2; $ 74.0; oo 38.3 (DOR)/52.4 
*C. pectoralis (n.s.) 5&J 45.0+5.7 (37.4-51.7); 5?? 47.2±4.6 (41.2-53.2); B$ 52.2 
(2 mm); oo 42.7/43.8/45.6/49.7; ]<$ 32.7 
**C tvistiQtfiQ o 65.7 
*C. fossil SS 39.0/57.0; 7?$ 53.3 + 10.1 (38.5-68.3); oo 32.8/40.0/45.6 
Macrodipteryx vexillaria (n.s.) 9$$ 73.9 + 8.5 (61.0-85.9); 13?? 65.8+11.3 (40.2- 
83,1); oo 61.3/72.2; J(? 49.7 
<^ Apus affinis o 1 8.0 
■4* A. aequatorialis <$ 59.7; $ 73.0 
4 *Cypsiurus parvus B$ 14.3 (2 mm); o 8.6 (DOR) 

Colius striatus SS 42.4/44.6/45.4/52.3; $$ 38.4/44.2/46.5/46.7; B$$ 54.0 (2 mm)/55.7 

(20x13 mm) 
C.indicusdd 58.4/66.8; $$48.4/51.5 

< Alcedo cristata $15.1 

Ispidina picta (n.s.) 20(J<J 13.8 + 1.3 (11.8-17.2); 13$$ 13.5 + 1.2 (11.1-15.4); B$ 15.8 
(2mm); oo 11.3/16.0 

< * Halcyon senegalensis $ 61 .8 

H. albiventris (n.s.) 9cJ<? 55.7 + 3.8 (49.6-61.5); 6$$ 59.3+7.2 (45.6-65.5); J? 51.4 
H. leucocephala S<$ 33.6/39.8/42.4/58.1; o 43.4; 5J&? 34.3 + 3.6 (29.3-39.5); J$$ 


Merops pusillus <$<$ 11.0/12.4/14.7;$$ 12.5/14.1/16.0/17.2; o 9.6 
M. hirundineus c? 22.5 
*Coracias garrulus $ 136 
*C.naeviaS<S 157/167 
**Tockus alboterminatus $ 234 

LyWi« torquatus (n.s.) 14<Jc? 51.1+2.7 (47.9-56.3); 14$$ 50.9 + 2.2 (47.1-54.7); B$ 
50.8 (2 mm); oo 44.0/44.0/48.3 
*Stactolaema whytii <$S 51 .3/52.9/54.8; 7$$ 49.0 + 7.7 (34.1-59.5) 
<Pogoniulus chrysoconus SS 11.3/12.4/12.7/14.2;$$ 11.4/12. 3; J$ 12.6 
P. bilineatusSS 11.8/13.1/13.1; $$ 13.8/15.1/16.6; o 13.7 

< Trachyphonus vaillantii $61.6 
Indicator indicator cJ 49.7 

**/. variegatus <$<$ 47.8/49.1; $$ 35.6/47.3; B$$ 52.7 (3^ mm)/53.5 (5 mm); o 57.0 

/. minor 6<$3 28.8 + 1.5 (26.5-30.5); $$ 24.1/27.8/28.2 
> Prodotiscus regulus $ 17.6 

Campethera abingoni <$ 63.2; $ 64.6 
<? Thripias namaquus $61.7 
** Smithornis capensis 6J J 23. 7 ±1.8 (21. 0-26.1); $2 17 A 1 21. 8 1 23. 9; J J 23. 9 

*Mirafra africana <$ 42. 1 ; J<J 28.2 
**M. rufocinnamomea <$ 26.0 
Hirundo rustica $ 16.8 
*Delichon urbica £ 19.8 
*Pseudhirundo griseopyga oo 9.7/9.8 

Psalidoprocne orientalis $1 1 -9 
*Campephagaflava $<$ 31.6/32.9 

H. D. Jackson 103 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

<$*Dicrurus adsimilis $$ 38.1/39.6/42.4; $ 23.7 

*Oriolus auratus o 79.4 
<*0. larvatus So 59.6/63.3; o 59.3 

Corvusalbus 5$$ 519.2 + 62.2 (421-581) 
**C. albicollis $ 865; o 762 

<Parusniger3d 19.7/19.8/19.8/21.0; $$17.2/17.7/18.5 
*Anthoscopus caroli $ 6.5; $$ 6.2/6.9 
**Turdoides jardineii q 70.6; $ 56.3 

Pxcnonotus barbatus (p<0.001) 50<J(J 40.4 + 2.3 (35.4-44.7); 30$? 36.7 + 2.9 (29.3- 
42.3); 6B2? (2 mm) 37.0 + 3.9 (31.9-42.6); B$$ 38.6/39.8 (3 mm)/424 (4mm)/40.7 
(5mm)/37.8 (6mm)/41.1 (9mm)/44.3 (12mm)/44.8 (22 x l4mm)/41.8 (25 x 
16 mm); o 35.0; J^ 32.0; 5J2$ 35.2 + 2.1 (33.3-38.6) 
Phvllastrephus terrestris (p < 0.001) 5\$$ 33.9 ± 2.7 (29.5^40.5); 40$$ 28.5 + 2.4 (24.3- 
33.3); B£$ 30.4 (8 mm)/30.5 (3 mm)/30.8 (2 mm)/35.3 (6 mm); 8 oo 30.5 + 3.4 (27.0- 
37.3); JS 35.5; J$$ 254/27.1/30.9; Jo 27.7 
P. flarostriatus (p <0.00\) \S$$ 33.9 + 2.5 (30.8-39.8); 7$$ 254 + 2.3 (21.4-28.0) 
Andropadus importunus <$S 31.2/31.3; $$ 24.3/24.8/24.8/28.6; B$$ 25.6 (3 mm)/25.7 

(2imm);J$$ 25.5/25.7 
A. milanjensis ( P <0.001) 40cJ<? 38.7 + 2.7 (34.6-45.9); 18$$ 36.1+24 (32.8-40.8); 

12B9$ 38.0 + 2.3 (35.3-13.9) (2-6 mm) 
CWoro«cWa^ati't"eMtn's(p<0.001)21cJ<J42.0± 3.8 (34.5-51.2); 12$?36.9 + 2.5 (31.9- 
39.6); B$$ 36.2 (2 mm)/394 (2\ mm)/394 (8 mm); J^<J 39.2/40.2; Jo 34.7 
< Turdus libonvana SS 46.2/52.3/594/64.5; $$ 50.8/59.3; J$ 64.3; Jo 59.3 
« T. olivaceus $$ 61 .8/62.5 

Cercomela familiaris $ 21.0; $ 19.5 
*Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris $ 46.7 
Saxicola torquata rj 15.8; 2 13.5 

Cossvpha heuglini (p<0.00\) UJS 37. 5 + 3.7 (30.5-44.1); 10$$ 32. 3 + 1.9 (29. 1-35. 9); 
B12 34.1 (2 mm)'34.6 (5 mm)/41.9 (23 x 17 mm); oo 26.7/27.6; J^ 32.4; J$$ 25.3/ 
*C. natalensis (p<0.001) 25<JcJ 31.5 + 24 (28.3-39.8); 14$$ 28.7 + 2.3 (24.4-33.0); B$ 
30.3 (3 mm); ]$$ 28.2/294/32.9/35.6; J$ 31 4 
C. caffra S3 27.7/28.1/28.9; $$ 22.7/23.8/24.3/25.9 
C. humeralis (p<0.01) 14^22.4+ 1.5 (20. 2-24.7); 8$$ 20. 1 + 1. 5 (19.0-23. 1);B$ 25. 8 

(2 mm); o 24.1; J^V? 19.3/20.1/22.6 
Pogonocichla stellata 6$$ 21.2 + 2.9 (16.7-24.2); $ 22.1; o 17.6; 6Joo 20.0+1.1 (18.0- 
**Pinarornis plumosus <$ 65.8 

< Erythropygia leucophrys (n.s.) 14<Jc? 17.0 + 2.1 (12.9-20.3); 5$$ 16.0+1.1 (15.0-17.9); 
]S 18.6; J22 17.0/22.1 
E. quadrivirgata (n.s.) 20<JcJ 26.6 + 24 (23.4-30.7); 12$$ 25.6 + 2.9 (21.2-31.2); B$ 

26.2 (12 mm); }$ 26.4; J$ 23.6 
Sylvia borin (n.s.) 36<J<J 19. 5 + 2. 6 (15. 3-29. 2); 22$$ 18. 5 + 1.5 (15. 1-21.2); ]<$ 19. 5 
**Hyliota australis rj 12.4; $ 12.3 

Acrocephalus palustris SS 11.2/11.5/12.9; $$104/11.7/12.8 

Phylloscopus trochilus (n.s.) b$S 9.1+2.2 (7.1-13.2); 14$$ 8.0 + 0.8 (6.6-9.3); oo 6.4/ 

7.3/7.5; JJJ 8.2/9.7; J$$ 8.3/8.8/8.9 
Apalisthoracica (n.s.) lOcfr? 10.1+0.8(9.1-11.3); 13$$9. 9 + 0.9(8. 3-11. 5); oo9. 2/9. 6/ 

9.8; Jc? 10.5; J$ 9.6 
A. chirindensis $& 7.6/7.9/8.1/8.9; B$ 7.5 (2 mm) 
**Sylviettawhytii 5^10.0 + 0.5 (9.1-104); $$ 9.7/10.1; B$ 9.2 (2 mm); o 10.0; J$ 10.1 
S. rufescens 6^ 11.3 ±0.8 (10.1-12.7); $$ 9.2/10.9/124 
*Eremomela icteropygialis $ 7.6; $ 7.0 
**E. scotops $ 9.2 

Camaroptera brachyura (p<0.05) 20^ 10.8±0.7 (9.2-12.1); 13$$ 10.2±0.7 (9.1- 
1 1 .5); B2 9.0 (2 mm)/9.7 (2 mm); o 8.2 
**C. stierlingiU 12.3/134/14.0; $ 13.1; J? 10.6; Joo 10.7/11.5/12.1/13.9 
Sphenoeacus afer $£ 32.3/51. 5(?); $ 28.3; B$ 33.7 (oviduct egg broken) 
Cisticola lais 44 134/14.0/15.6; $ 10.8 
C. chiniana $ 19.6; $ 12.8; o 12.4 
*C. cantans $$ 11.1/12.1/12.6; B$ 10.2 (2 mm); o 10.2 

H. D. Jackson 104 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

<C.erythropsd3 13.7/14.9/16.4;?? 12.2/12.6/12.7/14.2 

*C. natalensis $ 24.8; $15.7; o 14.5 
C. aberramS^ 15.3+0.9 (14.1-16.9); ?? 12.4/12.7/13.9 
C.fulvicapilla SS 8.4/9.1; B? 8.1 (4 mm); J^c? 8.5/8.6/9.4 
**Heliolais ervthroptera SS 12.4/13.0; ?? 10.6/12.0/12.3 

Prinia subflava (n.s.) 1SS 9.3 ±0.7 (8.1-10.2); 5?? 8.5 ± 0.9 (7.1-9.6); B?? 8.3 (5 mm)/ 

10.4 (14x10 mm); Jo 8.8 
P. robertsi g 9.5;? 8.3 

Muscicapa striata $<$ 13.6/14.7/16.0;?? 14.1/14.1; o 13.9; J? 17.7 
*M. adusta ? 9.6 
**M. caerulescens 7<J(J 17.4+1.2 (15.2-18.4); ?? 16.3/16.4/16.4; J<^ 15.2/18.4; J? 13.8 
**Melaenornis pallidas <$<$ 22.3/23.2; ? 21.1 

Batis capensis (n.s.) 13^ 11.5 ±1.3 (9.3-14.2); 16?? 11. 2± 1.0 (9.6-12.9); o 11.3; Jc? 
11.4; Joo 10.4/10.9/11.4/11.5 

< B. molitor (n.s.) 6<Jc? 10.3 ± 1 .0 (9.1-1 1 .7); 7?? 10. 1 ± 0.7 (9.3-1 1 .2); oo 9.0/1 1 .9; J<J(J 

10.0/10.2; J? 9.9; Jo 10.1 
*Trochocercus albonotatus SS 8.2/8.3; ? 7.0; oo 7.1/7.1/7.9 
<Terpsiphone viridis 9<J<J 13.3 ±1.1 (11.1-14.7); ?? 11.6/12.7/13.6; o 12.6; J<J<J 12.4/ 

*Anthus similis <$<$ 23.8/25.1 
**A. vaalensis ? 29.7 

A. lineiventris SS 30.3/34.8; ?? 31.8/34.8 
*A.trivialis2$ 21.4/21.7 
Lanius collaris S3 39.8/41 .4; ? 41 .2; J^ 29.2/30.0/38.4; J?? 35.6/38.4; Jo 20.3 
L. collurio SS 24.1/32.8; ?? 24.5/27.4; o 30.2 
*Lan»ariMSfl«*/wo/w'citf(p<0.05)8c?cJ 51.2 + 4.3 (42.4-55.5); 6?9 46.3 ±3.9 (40.1-50.3); 

B? 51.1 (2 mm) 
*Dryoscopus cubla (p < 0.002) 1 2cJ<J 27.4 ± 1 .8 (23.6-29.8); 1 1?? 24.9 ±1.5 (23.2-28.7); 

B? 30.8 (8 mm); ]SS 24.1/25.6/28.7/30.8; J?9 20.6/26.6 
*NilausaferJ$ 22.5 
Tchagra australis9<$ ( $ 34.9±5.3 (30.6^5.8); 9 31.1; B99 29.6 (3 mm)/32.9 (6 mm); JcJ 
29.3; J9 30.9 
*T. senegala B9 61 .8 (12 mm); J9 54.6 
*Telophorus quadricolor SS6 36.5 ±4.5 (29.6-40.5); 99 37.5/37.8; J9 32.7; Jo 33.8 

T. sulfur eopectus $$ 27.8/28.5; 99 25.1/27.8/30.2 
*T. olivaceus 5SS 34.4±2.8 (31.1-37.9); 99 26.2/28.1/32.4/36.1; B9 35.8 (2 mm) 
**Malaconotus blanchoti <$ 75.9; 9 72.3 

Prionops plumatusfa <0.05)16<33 31. 9±2. 6 (27.3-35.8); 1799 34.4 ±3.4 (29.7-40.7); 

B9 39.2 (7 mm); J&? 26.1/33.8/38.7; J$ 31.4 
P. retziiSS 37.9/42.5; 99 46.4/46.7 
*Cinnyricinclus leucogaster <$$ 39.5/48.2; 99 45.5/55.6 
**Onychognathus morio $ 125; 9 146; o 120 

<Nectariniafamosa S^S 15.3 ±1.0 (14.3-16.5); ?? 11.5/12.4/15.0 
*iV. kilimensis r? 18.0 
N. manoensis (p<0.002) 15<$<$ 9.8±1.0 (8.4-12.8); 899 8.4±0.8 (7.4-9.3); oo 8.6/8.7; 

Jc? 8.5; J? 8.9 
N. venusta (n.s.) 21 SS 7.0±0.7 (5.4-9.0; 1599 6.7±0.8 (5.3-8.5); 5B99 6.4±0.6 (5.6- 

7.1) (2-2^ mm); 9oo 6.9±0.8 (6.0-8.1); J(J<J 6.7/6.9; J9? 6.5/7.4 
N. talatala SS 6.7/8.0; ? 6.0 
N. olivacea (p<0.001) 20<JcJ 10.5 ±0.8 (9.2-12.4); 19?? 9.4±0.7 (8.0-10.5); 8B?? 

9.8±0.8 (8.2-10.5) (2-2^ mm); oo 8.6/9.5/10.3/10.1; J<J<J 10.5/11.5; J? 8.8 
N. senegalensisSS 13.7/14.2; ?? 11.2/12.0/13.8; oo 11.7/13.0/13.0 
<N. amethystina (p<0M) 2333 11.0 + 1.0 (9.2-12.8); 11?? 9.8± 1.0 (8.3-11.4); 16oo 
10.1 ±1.1 (8.3-12.5); Jc?c? 11.2/11.3/11.8 
Anthreptes collaris (p <0.05) 10<JcJ 8.3 ±0.7 (7.0-9.3); 5?? 7.4±0.7 (6.5-8.3); o 7.6; J? 

Zosterops senegalensis (n.s.) 17&? 9.8±0.9 (8.1-10.9); 20?? 9.4±0.8 (8.1-10.8); B?? 

1 1.0 (6| mm)/l 1 .3 (2 mm)/l 1 .6 (7 mm)/l 1 .8 (3 mm); JcJ 8.6; J? 10.0; Jo 10.1 
Passer domesticus $ 23.7; o 16.8 
<Petronia superciliaris <3$ 21.0/23.4/25.9; ?? 23.4/26.0 

< Amblyospiza albifrons S 43.3; ? 31.4; oo 29.6/64.4 

H. D. Jackson 105 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

<Ploceus ocularis 6<$<$ 25.0±1.9 (21.6-27.2); 9? 21.7/22.6/24.6; B$9 23.4 (2mm)/26.9 

(6 mm); J? 23.7 
<P. cucullatus (p<0.001) 12&J 35.6 + 4.0 (29.2-41.7); 23?? 30.6±2.4 (26.8-38.3); 
5B2? 30.5 ±2.3 (27.5-33.6) (2-3mm)/35.2 (19x12 mm); 8J<J<J 34.0±3.3 (28.5- 
37.7); J22 29.3/29.7/30.6/30.8; Joo 25.6/27.6/38.6 
•P. xanthops SS 46.2/47.8; $$ 36.3/38.3/39.3; B2 34.6 (2 mm); oo 35.0/37.4/40.2 
** '' JL7lQl)l6Ct6S vtibTiccps ^ 24.6 

Oueleaquelea{p< 0.001) 138<JcJ 19.2 + 1.5 (15.2-22.8); 138?? 18.0+ 1.3 (13.7-21.2); 
~ 5B22 16.8 + 2.8 (12.6-19.2) (2mm); 8B$? 17.5 + 1.4 (14.9-19.1) (3mm); 4B?$ 

18.0 + 0.6 (17.1-18.5) (4mm); 5B$? 18.4 + 2.1 (15.4-20.7) (5 mm); B?$ 18.5 
(6 mm)/17.2 (7 mm)/20.3 (8 mm); o 19.6 

<£ , M p/^e<ro7- ? 'x(p<0.001)8^18.6 + 1.3(16.2-20.6);15??16.5±1.0(14.3-18.0);J c ?c? 

*E. hordeaceus B? 18.8 (2 mm) 
**E. capensis (p<0.001) \1$S 20.0 + 1.1 (17.7-21.9); 19?? 16.2 + 1.2 (12.8-19.1); 
B£ 18.9 (4 mm); 6oo 15.8 + 2.0 (16.3-18.1); }$ 17.6; 5J2? 16.7 + 1.6 (15.1-19.2); Jo 
<E. arrfe»i(p<0.001)76^<J18.6± 1.5 (15.6-23.3); 100?? 16.0 + 1.2 (13. 1-19.3); 10B?? 
16.3 + 1.5 (13.1-18.7) (2-5 mm); B?$ 16.7 (15 x 11 mm)/17.8 (20.5 x 14mm)/18.3 
(25x11 mm); 9oo 15.9 + 1.7 (14.5-18.7); 8J<^ 17.0 + 3.1 (11.7-21.7); J22 15.2/ 
15.2/15.4/15.4; Jo 18.8 
*Pytilia afra §15.5 

<P~. melba (n.s.) 19<J(J 13.4 + 1.2 (10.7-15.3); 14?? 13.4 + 1.7 (10.0-15.4); B?$ 12.4 
(3 mm)/13.2 (2 mm)/14.4 (6 mm)/14.6 (2 mm)/16.2 (12x9 mm); ]<$ 13.7; J?? 13.4/ 
Mandingoa nitidula 7SS 8.8 + 0.5 (8.3-9.7); 2? 8.1/8.6/9.3/9.8; 5B22 9.8+1.0 (8.6- 

1 1 .2) (2-4 mm); JSS 8.6/9.8; Jo 8.5 
Cryptospiza reichenovii 8^ 12.9 + 1.0 (11.6-14.3); 22 12.2/13.3/15.2; B2? 13.8 
(2 mm)/14.0 (2£mm)/15.0 (7 mm)/17.1 (3 mm) 
•Hvpargos niveoguttatus (n.s.) 21<J(J 15.1 ±0.9 (13.2-17.1); 20?? 14.8 ±1.4 (12.5-17.9); 
B?2 13.4 (2mm)/16.2 (4mm)/16.3 (3mm); 7oo 13.6 + 1.2 (11.4-15.3); ]SS 14.3/ 
14.3; J2 14.7 
LagonostictarubricatabJS 9.9 + 0.8 (9.0-11.2); $$ 8.0/8.6/11.2/11.7; B?? 8.8 (5 mm)/ 

10.2 (4 mm); 12oo 10.3 + 0.8 (8,7-11.6) 

L. rhodopareia (n.s.) 10<JcJ 8.9 + 0.6 (7.5-9.5); 62$ 8.7 ±0.9 (7.1-9.5); B?$ 7.4 (2 mm)/ 
9.0(5mm)/10.1 (5 mm) 
<L. senegala 6\J 6.0/7 .4; 2 8.8 

< Uraeginthus angolensis (n.s.) 21^ 9.0±1.0 (6.8-10.9); 12$? 9.0 ±0.9 (8.3-10.3); B?$ 

10.3 (4 mm)/11.2 (13 x 9 mm)/12.3 (2 mm)/l 1.8 (15x9 mm); oo 7.2/8.0 

< U. granatinus $$ 8.6/9.9/10.3/12.2; B? 10.8 (2 mm); oo 8.6/9.0; Joo 9.6/10.4 
<Estrilda astrild J 7.5; 2$ 6.5/7.3/8.3/8.3; B22 7.5 (3 mm)/9.0 (2 mm); oo 6.4/6.8/7.2/ 

8.1; JJ 8.4; J2$ 7.4/7.8/8.1/8.2 
**E.perreini S<S 7.2/7.6; 2 7.5; oo 6.1/7.1/9.0 
**E. quartinia <J<$ 5.7/6.2; B22 7.0 (2 mm)/7.2 (3 mm) 

Sporaeginthus subflavus $ 7.3; o 7.0 
<Spermestes cucullatus S3 8.2/9.1/9.2/9.6; 52$8.7±0.6 (8.1-9.5); 17oo 8.6 + 1.1 (6.2- 
10.2); ]$ 8.1; J2$ 7.1/9.3; Joo 6.6/7.4/8.7/9.0 

S. bicolor S3 8.4/8.9/9.1/9.3; 622 8.6 + 0.7 (8.0-9.8); oo 8.0/8.5; ]<$ 8.5 
**S.fringilloidesSS 16.1/17.4/18.9; 22 16.2/17.0 

Vidua macroura 2 13.8 

V. paradisea B2 22.2 (3 mm) 

V.purpurascens 2$ 12.5/13.5/13.7; B2 11.7 (6 mm) 

10.1 (4 mm)/11.2 (5 mm); oo 10.0/10.0/10.3/10.4; J<^ 12.4; J$2 10.2/10.7 
S. sulphuratus $ 16.6; 2? 17.4/17.5/21 .8; 5oo 19.3 + 1 .5 (17.5-21.6) 

S. pilaris J $ 14.3/14.5/16.8; 522 15.9 + 3.4(10.5-19.5) 
*S. mennelli ]S 15.1 
*Emberiza cabanisi S 22.3 

E. flaviventris (n.s.) 5<?<J 18.5 + 2.0 (15.1-20.5); SS 28.3(?)/28.4(?); 5?? 17.6±1.0 
(16.1-18.5); B$$ 18.3 (2 mm)/21.2 (10 mm); J? 18.1 

E. capensis S 18.2 

E. tahapisi g 13.2; B2 14.5 (2 mm) 

B. L. Munroe 106 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 


Jackson, H. D. 1972. Avifaunal survey of the Umtali Municipal Area. I. The Muneni River 

collection: a comparison of samples from riparian forest and miombo woodland. 

Arnoldia Rhod. 6(1): 1-10. 
Jackson, H. D. 1976. Ditto. II. The Cecil Kop collection: a comparison of samples from 

montane grassland, montane thicket and montane forest. Arnoldia Rhod. 8(5): 1-1 1 . 
Jackson, H. D. 1986. Avifaunal survey of the Mutare Municipal Area. III. The Gimboki 

collection: a comparison of samples from riparian thicket, miombo woodland on sand- 
flats and miombo woodland on rocky slopes. Arnoldia Zimbabwe 9(25): 325—332. 
Jackson, H. D. 1987a. Ditto. IV. The Matika collection: a comparison of samples from 

grassland, thicket, woodland and riparian forest. Arnoldia Zimbabwe 9(28): 353-360. 
Jackson, H. D. 1987b. Ditto. V. The Birkley South collection: a comparison of samples from 

grassland, woodland and thicket. Arnoldia Zimbabwe 9(29): 361-367. 
Jackson, H. D. 1988. Ditto. VI. Further Mutare specimens in the collections of the Natural 

History Museum, Bulawayo, and the Mutare Museum. Arnoldia Zimbabwe 9(31): 

Maclean, G. L. 1985. Roberts' Birds of Southern Africa. John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, 

Cape Town. 
Thompson, A. L. (ed.) 1964. A New Dictionary of Birds. British Ornithologists' Union. 

Address: H. D. Jackson, Director, Natural History Museum, P.O. Box 240, Bulawayo, 

® British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

The correct name of the Terek Sandpiper 
by Burt L. Monroe, Jr. 

Received 3 October 1988 

The recent trend of merging most forms of tringine sandpipers into the 
single genus Tringa has produced a case of apparent secondary homo- 
nymy in the Terek Sandpiper. Often recognized in a monotypic genus as 
Xenus cinereus, this species is now frequently placed in Tringa, producing 
the name Tringa cinerea in apparent conflict with the older Tringa cinerea 
Briinnich 1764, a synonym of Calidris canutus (Red Knot). The original 
description of the Terek Sandpiper was based on Scolopax cinerea 
Giildenstadt 1775; the next available name is Scolopax terek Latham 

It should be pointed out that this is not a case of secondary homonymy , 
inasmuch as both species' descriptions as 'cinerea' were allocated to 
different genera {Scolopax and Tringa, respectively, for the Terek 
Sandpiper and Red Knot) and are currently placed in different genera 
{Tringa and Calidris, respectively); at no time have both species been 
concurrently placed in the same genus, thus no secondary homonymy 
exists. This case is precisely the same as the one in America of the 
Blackpoll Warbler: originally described as Muscicapa striata Forster 
1772, the Blackpoll Warbler is now recognized as Dendroica striata, the 
name unaffected by the presently recognized Muscicapa striata (Spotted 
Flycatcher) based on Motacilla striata Pallas 1 764 (see Lowery & Monroe 
in Peters (1968) Check-list of Birds of the World, 14: 32, footnote). In 
both cases, there was no instance of concurrent homonymy, thus no 

D. Parish & C. Prentice 107 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

secondary homonymy exists and the original names must stand. The 
Terek Sandpiper is properly known as Tringa cinerea or Xenus cinereus, 
depending on one's generic viewpoint. 

Address: Burt L. Monroe, Jr., Dept. of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 
40292, U.S.A. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Chestnut-cheeked Starling Sturnus philippensis: 
a first record for mainland South-East Asia 

by D. Parish & C. Prentice 

Received 3 October 1988 

Whilst examining a flock of over 400 Purple-backed Starlings Sturnus 
sturninus feeding in a tree in the garden of the Asian Wetland Bureau 
office in Section 12, Petaling Jaya, Selangor State, Peninsular Malaysia 
(3°06'N, 101°39'E) on 21 January 1988, we independently noticed an 
individual with rufous-chestnut cheek patches sitting with them on a 
branch c. 6 m above ground level. 

After c. 1 5 minutes, the flock took flight, flying c. 200 m to other trees 
nearby. A number returned, but the unusual bird was not seen again. 
Purple-backed Starlings were observed in the area regularly over the next 
2 weeks, but never in such large numbers and the bird with chestnut 
cheeks was not seen again. 

Whilst under observation for c. 10 minutes, a detailed plumage 
description was made, and the bird was compared with illustrations and 
descriptions in King et at. (1975). The bird in general matched the 
description for the adult male Purple-backed Starling, but clearly showed 
chestnut cheeks, ear coverts and sides of the neck and had dusky grey 
flanks and no pale tips to the greater coverts. It was not possible to deter- 
mine conclusively whether or not there was a purple nape patch owing to 
the angle of view. No discernible call was heard. 

These observations enabled us to identify the bird as an adult male 
Sturnus philippensis — English names: Red-cheeked Myna (Wild Bird 
Society of Japan 1982), Violet-backed Starling (Smythies 1981) or Chest- 
nut-cheeked Starling (White & Bruce 1986, Meyer de Schauensee 1984). 
This species is similar to but slightly larger than the Purple-backed Starl- 
ing, and the chestnut cheeks, sides of neck and upper breast, together with 
a single white wing bar (median coverts white), dusky flanks and no 
purple nape-patch are diagnostic. 

During the breeding season, S. philippensis occurs in northern Japan 
and southern Sakhalin (Wild Bird Society of Japan 1982, White & Bruce 
1986, Meyer de Schauensee 1984). In the non-breeding season it occurs 
in the Ryu Kyu Islands and the Philippines, and is an irregular winter 
visitor to northern Borneo, not recorded south of the Kuching area in 
Sarawak (Smythies 1981). It has also been recorded in northern Sulawesi, 

C. Chappuis et al. 108 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Bacan and Siau in Indonesia (White & Bruce 1986). There are 3 records 
from Hong Kong (Chalmers 1986); and in China the species is noted as 
"Transient through eastern China from Shaweishan Is. off Kiangsu 
southward through Fukien; winters on Lanyu Is.; vagrant in Taiwan" 
(Meyer de Schauensee 1984). The species has not been recorded in 
Thailand (P. D. Round). 

Coinciding with the present sighting, R. Subharaj tells us he observed a 
single S. philippensis in Singapore on 8 December 1987, also in the com- 
pany of Purple-backed Starlings. It has not been recorded previously in 

Prior to these 2 records, S. philippensis had not been recorded on the 
Malay Peninsula or elsewhere in mainland South-East Asia. It must be 
noted, however, that there is a possibility that the birds were escapes, 
although none of the bird traders contacted in Petaling Jaya admitted to 
handling this species. Juvenile 5. sturninus are, however, imported into 
Malaysia from China in spring. 


The authors are grateful to Dr David Wells and Dennis G. C. Yong for their comments, and 
to R. Subharaj for information on his sighting. 


Chalmers, M. L. 1986. Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Hong Kong. 4th Edn. Hong Kong 

Bird Watching Society, Hong Kong 
King, B., Woodcock, M. & Dickinson, E. 1975. A Field Guide to the Birds of South-East 

Asia. Collins. 
Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1984. The Birds of China. Smithsonian Institution Press. 
Smythies, B. E. 1981. The Birds of Borneo . 3rd Edn. Sabah Society, Kota Kinabalu. 
White, C. M. N. & Bruce, M. D. 1986. The Birds of Wallacea {Sulawesi, The Moluccas and 

Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia). An Annotated Checklist. British Ornithologists' 

Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Wild Bird Society of 

Japan, Tokyo. 

Address: Duncan Parish & Crawford Prentice, c/o Asian Wetland Bureau, IPT, Universiti 
Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Type specimens oi Prinia subflava (Gmelin) 
and Prinia fluviatilis Chappuis 

by C. Chappuis, C. Erard & G. J. Morel 

Received 6 October 1 988 

In a paper presented at the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress 
(Chappuis, Erard & Morel, in press), we discuss the morphological, 
acoustical and ecological separation between Tawny-flanked and River 
Prinias Prinia subflava and P . fluviatilis , with notes on their geographical 
distribution. We also show that some morphological differences exist 

C. Chappuiset al. 109 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

between fluviatilis populations from Chad and from Senegal; however, 
further study is needed to determine whether this geographical variation 
is a clinal one or concerns 2 separate subspecies. 

A problem is that neither Chappuis (1974) nor Chappuis, Erard & 
Morel (in press) mention any type specimen for Prinia fluviatilis. The 
original description was based on 3 specimens. For practical reasons, it 
seems advisable, indeed necessary, to designate the following specimen as 
a lectotype: adult 3\ tape recorded and collected on 18 Jun 1972 by C. 
Chappuis at Fort Lamy ( = N'Djamena), Chad, registered in the Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, No. C.G.I 979-654. 

The other 2 syntypes ( = paralectotypes) are 2 adult £$, also tape 
recorded and collected at Fort Lamy: one on 18 Jun 1972, coll. C. 
Chappuis, No. C.G. 1979-655, and one on 10 Oct 1972, coll. C. Chappuis 
& C. Erard, No. C.G.1979-656. 

The existence in Senegal of both P. subflava and P. fluviatilis might 
raise some nomenclatural problems. Indeed, 2 names have been applied 
to 'Tawny-flanked' Prinias in that country: Motacilla subflava Gmelin 
and Drymoica superciliosa Swainson. It is thus necessary to make clear 
what these latter 2 names designate. 

Gmelin (1789, in Systema Naturae 1: 982) based his description of 
Motacilla subflava on the "Figuier blond du Senegal" in Daubenton's 
Planches Enluminees (1765—81, pi. 584, fig. 2); but unfortunately no 
reference was made to a particular specimen for that plate. Drymoica 
superciliosa Swainson (1837, Birds of Western Africa 2, Jardine, ed., 
Naturalist's Library, 19, Ornith.8:40, pi. 2) is also described from 
Senegal and based on a plate, without specification of a specimen (pers. 
comm. from the late C. W. Benson). As plates cannot be properly 
identified as to species, specimens are a pre-requisite for the distinction 
between subflava and fluviatilis. In order to avoid any confusion in the 
future, it seems necessary to designate a neotype for Motacilla subflava 
Gmelin. This specimen must have been definitely identified by song 
and come from the type locality "Senegal". Therefore we propose the 
following specimen as neotype: adult $, tape recorded and collected on 
19 Aug 1987, 35 km south of Linguere, Senegal, by G. J. Morel, regis- 
tered in the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, No. 
C.G. 1988-607. 

We follow the established usage, e.g. White (1962) and Traylor (1986), 
and keep Drymoica superciliosa Swainson as a synonym of Prinia subflava 

Details on colouration and measurements of both species are given in 
Chappuis, Erard & Morel (in press). We may simply mention here that 
P. fluviatilis can be distinguished from sympatric P. s. subflava and P. s. 
pallescens by its greyer upperparts, much whiter, less buff underparts, and 
particularly by a quite different tail-length/wing-length ratio; wing- 
length is the same in both species, but P . fluviatilis has a longer tail than 
P. subflava. 


Chappuis, C. 1974. Illustration sonore de problemes bioacoustiques poses par les oiseaux de 
la zone ethiopienne. Alauda 42: 467-500. 

J. D. Wilson 110 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Chappuis, C, Erard, C. & Morel, G. J. in press. Morphology, habitat, vocalisations and 

distribution of the River Prinia Prinia fluviatilis Chappuis. Proc. 7th Pan-African 

Ornith. Congr. (1988). 
Traylor, M. A., Jr. 1986. Family Sylviidae (African). In E. Mayr, & G. W. Cottrell (eds), 

Check-list of Birds of the World. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
White, C. M. N. 1962. A check list of the Ethiopian Muscicapidae (Sylviinae). Part II. 

Occas. Papers Nat. Mus. South. Rhodesia, N°26B: 685-693. 

Addresses: C. Chappuis, Les Chardonnerets, Lotissement du Fer a Cheval, La Bouille, 
76530 Grand-Couronne, France. C. Erard & G. J. Morel, Laboratoire de Zoologie 
(Mammiferes et Oiseaux), Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 55 rue Buffon, 
75005 Paris, France. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Range extensions of some bird species of 

by Jeremy D. Wilson 

Received 11 October 1988 

During the 3 months Jul-Sep 1985, D. Reavey, C. W. A. Dee, K. 
Chapman, R. J. Cameron and I carried out a survey of the status of the 
montane forest avifauna of Mount Oku(6°15'N, 10°26'E) in the Bamenda 
Highlands of Cameroon, under the auspices of the International Council 
for Bird Preservation and the University of Oxford (Wilson 1987). In the 
course of this study, and during travel within Cameroon, observations 
were made which represent extensions of the known range of a number of 
species, and these are presented here. Two species are recorded for the 
first time in Cameroon. All co-ordinates are taken from Louette (1981). 
References to Louette are all from that same source. 

HAMERKOP Scopus umbretta 

One bird, of undetermined race, was seen at Lake Oku on 29 Jul. 
Louette lists S. u. umbretta as resident from the Adamawa Plateau north- 
wards and S. u. minor as a dry season visitor, breeding in coastal areas of 
Cameroon and leaving the country to the west between Jul and Dec. Our 
record is extralimital to both these ranges. 

OVAMPO SPARROWHAWK Accipiter ovampensis 

A single adult was seen at Ngaoundere (7°19'N, 13°35'E) on 5 Sep. 
Louette lists only one record from Cameroon, of a bird collected Sep 
1936, but also lists this species from Bouar, Central African Republic 
(5°57'N, 15°36'E), which Bannerman (1930) gives as a locality in eastern 
Cameroon. Our record is therefore only the second or third for 

TAWNY EAGLE Aquila rapax 

Single adults were seen at 2000 m on Mount Oku on 29 Jul and 24 Aug. 
Louette lists A. r. belisarius as "a common raptor in northern Cameroon", 

J. D. Wilson 111 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

but I can find no record of this species from the Bamenda Highlands and 
the onlv record of Stuart (1986) from this region of Cameroon was at 
2100 m on Mount Manenguba (5°00'N, 9°50'E) in Feb 1984. 

LESSER KESTREL Falco naumanni 

One adult male was seen at Ngaoundere on 7 Sep. Bannerman (1930) 
and Louette list no records from Cameroon, but Louette noted that this 
species had been recorded in neighbouring Chad and expected that it 
would be found in Cameroon. Bannerman (1953) records the Lesser 
Kestrel as "common" on the Bauchi Plateau, Nigeria (10°16'N, 9°50'E), 
Oct— Mar; so it is clear that this Palaearctic migrant does winter in this 
part of west Africa. Our record appears to be the first for Cameroon. 

FOX KESTREL Falco alopex 

Single birds were seen at 1800 m on Mount Oku on both 27 Jul and 23 
Aug. T. Gullick has since recorded 3 birds on Mount Oku, 14-15 Feb 
1987. Louette lists this species only from the dry savanna in the north of 
Cameroon and considers a record from near Bamenda (5°56'N, 10°10'E) 
in Bannerman (1930) to be "questionable". However, Bannerman (1953) 
also lists this species from Bambulue (5°50'N, 10°20'E) and Stuart (1986) 
recorded it in the Bamenda Highlands in March 1984. The range of the 
Fox Kestrel, therefore, extends much further southwest than was 
previously thought. 

AFRICAN WOOD PIGEON Columba unicincta 

Four birds were seen in the forests around Lake Oku (2200 m) between 
26 Jul and 25 Aug. This secretive forest species was not recorded in the 
Bamenda Highlands by Stuart (1986) and is not generally considered to be 
a bird of montane habitats, although Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1970) 
state it to be a bird of "highland forest" . Previously, Serle's (1 954) record of 
this species from Mount Kupe (4°47'N, 9°43'E) at 5000 ft (1 520 m) was the 
highest altitude at which it had been observed in Cameroon. 

LAUGHING DOVE Streptopelia senegalensis 

Two birds were seen in the Oku forests between 26 Jul and 25 Aug and a 
third at Bamenda on 12 Aug. Louette lists this species as occurring from 
the Adamawa Plateau northwards and Bannerman (1931) records it as 
occurring from Ngaoundere northwards. Although Germain et al. (1973) 
observed it as far south at 5°45'N, Stuart (1986) did not record it from the 
Bamenda Highlands and the only record from this area is that of Serle 
(1965) at 4500 ft (1370 m) in the Sabga Pass (6°01'N, 10°19'E), Nov 1956. 
Our records therefore represent an extension of known range. 

GREY-HEADED KINGFISHER Halcyon leucocephala 

One was seen at Bamenda on 18 Jul. Serle (1950) reported a "rush of 
migrants of this species" at Kumba (4°38'N, 9°25'E) during early Dec 
1947 and noted that a few individuals of this species spent the dry months 
in that vicinity, but that none was seen during the rains. Louette 
lists this species as present throughout Cameroon during the dry season 
but restricted to north of 10°N during the rains Jul-Oct. Stuart (1986) 

J. D. Wilson 112 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

had a record from Mount Oku in Mar-Apr 1 984 and T. Gullick noted one 
at the same locality on 14—15 Feb 1987. In this context, our record as far 
south as Bamenda during the height of the wet season is noteworthy. 

GREY-RUMPED SWALLOW Hirundo griseopyga 

Small flocks were seen near Bamenda on 14 Aug and over the agricul- 
tural land below Lake Oku during late Aug. Bannerman (1939, 1953) lists 
records from 3 localities on the Adamawa Plateau and northwards and 
Louette lists this species from the Adamawa Plateau and Benue Plain, but 
notes that it "could possibly turn up anywhere". Stuart's (1986) only 
record was at 2000 m on Mount Manenguba in Feb 1984 and Hall & 
Moreau (1970) do not record this species from any montane area of 
Cameroon. Our records may therefore be the first for the Bamenda 

WHITE-THROATED SWALLOW Hirundo albigularis 

One adult at Kumbo (6°12'N, 10°40'E) on 20 Jul was identified by its 
chestnut forehead, white chin and throat, narrow but complete black 
breast band and greyish underparts. Neither Bannerman (1953) nor 
Louette record this species from Cameroon and Hall & Moreau's (1970) 
nearest recorded locality is at 9°S, 14°E in the Cuanza Norte region of 
Angola. Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1973) list it from as far north as the 
southern border of the Congo. Our record for Cameroon is thus as much 
as 1250—1750 km north of the species previously recorded range. 

GREY-HEADED GREENBUL Phyllastrephus poliocephalus 

One adult was seen in roadside forest near Lake Oku at 2250 m on 24 Jul 
and was identified on the basis of the description in Wilson (1987). This 
species is endemic to montane forests in Cameroon and Nigeria (Hall & 
Moreau 1970) and has previously been recorded from all the forests south 
and west of Foto (5°31'N, 9°55'E) (Reichenow 1892, Bannerman 1915, 
Serle 1950, 1954, 1965, Eisentraut 1973, Stuart 1986) but never above 
2000 m (Stuart 1 986). Stuart thought it to be absent from the higher, drier 
forests of Mount Manenguba and the Bamenda Highlands. This record 
extends the known range of this species above the 2000 m contour and 
further north along the mountain ridge of western Cameroon. 


Single birds were recorded at 2400 m in dense forest around Lake Oku 
on 5 and 27 Aug and were identified on the basis of the description in 
Wilson (1987). This montane forest species has been recorded from the 
wetter forests of southwest Cameroon (Serle 1950, 1954, 1965, Eisentraut 
1963, Stuart 1986) but was believed to be absent from the drier, northern 
forests of Mount Manenguba and the Bamenda Highlands (Louette 1981, 
Stuart 1986). Our records are the first for the Bamenda Highlands and 
extend the range of this species northward along the mountain ridge of 
western Cameroon. 

WHITE-CROWNED ROBIN CHAT Cossypha albicapilla 

Two birds were seen in small patches of woodland at Bamenda between 
9 and 13 Aug. Neither Hall & Moreau (1970) nor Louette record this 

J. D. Wilson 113 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

species from south of the Adamawa Plateau, so our records represent a 
southwesterly range extension into the Bamenda Highlands. 

RED-WINGED WARBLER Heliolais erythroptera 

This species was found to be common at Bamenda between 9 and 1 3 
Aug and also in the agricultural land below Lake Oku between 23 and 29 
Aug. Hall & Moreau (1970) and Louette each map only one locality at the 
northern end of the Bamenda Highlands, so our records extend the range 
further south within this region of Cameroon. 

WHITE-TAILED WARBLER Camaroptera lope si 

A single bird (probably a juvenile female) was seen in forest-edge 
habitat 2 1 00 m near Lake Oku on 1 7 Aug and was identified on the basis of 
the description in Wilson (1987). This species is endemic to the montane 
forests of Fernando Po, western Cameroon and eastern Nigeria (Hall & 
Moreau 1970). It has been recorded from the lower, wetter forests of 
southwest Cameroon (Bannerman 1915, Serle 1950, 1954, 1965, Boulton 
& Rand 1952, Eisentraut 1963, Stuart 1986) but was considered to be 
absent from the Bamenda Highlands by Stuart (1986), who believed that 
the comment of Louette that this species occurs in "patches of montane 
forests near Bamenda" was an error. Our record confirms the existence of 
the White-tailed Warbler in the Bamenda Highlands and T. Gullick's 
record of it in roadside forest near Lake Oku on 1 4—1 5 Feb 1 987 confirms 
its continued presence. 

YELLOW-BELLIED EREMOMELA Eremomela icteropygialis 

One adult was seen in thorn scrub at Ngaoundere on 4 Sep. Bannerman 
(1939) records this species (under the name E. griseoflava alexanderi) from 
Lake Chad and from "Gashaga in Adamawa", and Hall & Moreau (1970) 
map 2 records from the Lake Chad area. On the basis of these records, 
Louette refers to this species as occurring "in all probability in North 
Cameroon", although the location of 'Gashaga' is uncertain, being either 
Gashiga (9°26'N, 1 3°22'E) on the Adamawa Plateau or Gashagar, Nigeria 
(13 = 22'N, 12 C 47'E) near Lake Chad, from where one of Hall & Moreau's 
(1970) records is mapped. Our record confirms the presence of this sahel 
species in Cameroon; its occurrence as far south as 7°19'N is noteworthy, 
being either 225 or 675 km south of the previously recorded range. 


One pair of this little-known (Mackworth-Praed & Grant 1973) species 
was seen in a clump of trees in grassland on the outskirts of Ngaoundere 
on 5 Sep. Bannerman (1936) records it from Yaounde (3°52'N, 11°31'E), 
Efulen (2°47'N, 10°32'E), Bitye (3°01'N, 12°22'E) and the Ja River. Cor- 
respondingly, Louette lists it only from forest habitats east of the Sanaga 
River and Hall & Moreau (1970) do not map any records north of 4°N. 
Our record extends the geographical range in Cameroon by over 650 km 
to the north and is the first away from equatorial forest habitats. 

OLIVE SUNBIRD Nectarinia olivacea 

Three individuals of this widespread species were recorded in the 
montane forest around Lake Oku between 26 Jul and 25 Aug. Although 

J. D. Wilson 114 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1973) refer to this as a "forest or mountain 
species", Bannerman (1948, 1953) does not list any records from above 
4000 ft (1220 m) in British Cameroon and Serle (1950) did not record this 
species above 3500 ft (1070 m) on Mount Kupe. Stuart (1986) recorded it 
at 1500 m on Mount Nlonako (4°53'N, 9°55'E), at 1000 m on Mount 
Cameroon (4°1 2'N, 9° 1 1 'E) and 1 200 m on Mount Kupe and at 1 200 m in 
the Rumpi Hills (4°50'N, 9°06'E) in early 1984, but did not record it from 
the Bamenda Highlands. Our records are an altitudinal extension to the 
range of this species of at least 700 m, since confirmed by T. Gullick, who 
recorded 6 individuals on Mount Oku, 14—15 Feb 1987. 


A probable immature bird was seen in mature montane forest near 
Lake Oku on 30 Jul and was tentatively identified as this species on the 
basis of the description in Wilson (1987). On 14-15 Feb 1987, T. Gullick 
recorded 4 individuals in the same area, thus confirming its presence in 
these forests. N. ursulae is endemic to Fernando Po and the mountains of 
the west Cameroon highland ridge (Hall & Moreau 1970), and has been 
recorded in the lower, wetter forests of the southern part of the ridge 
(Bannerman 1948, Serle 1950, 1954, 1965, Eisentraut 1973, Stuart 1986). 
Stuart (1986) considered this to be a species of intermediate altitudes, 
avoiding the higher forests of Mount Cameroon and those of Mount 
Manenguba and the Bamenda Highlands. These records from Mount 
Oku thus represent both a geographical and altitudinal extension to the 
known range. 

LAVENDER WAXBILL Estrilda caerulescens 

Two pairs were seen on waste ground in the Bastos area of Yaounde on 
1 4 Jul. Hall & Moreau ( 1 970) do not map any records of this species south 
of the Benue Plain and Louette concurs with this. If our record refers to 
wild birds, then it represents a range extension of 1 1 50 km to the south of 
the most southerly record mapped in Hall & Moreau (1970). 

SPECTACLED WEAVER Ploceus ocularis 

One pair was observed building a nest in streamside scrub at 1 900 m on 
Mount Oku in late Aug. Serle (1950) recorded it at 5000 ft (1520 m) on 
Mount Manenguba and 4500 ft (1370 m) at Bamenda in 1947, but 
Louette does not regard it as a montane species and Stuart (1986) did not 
find it in the Bamenda Highlands in Mar— Apr 1984. Our record may 
therefore be an interesting extension to the known altitudinal range. 


The Mount Oku Survey was made possible by the support of the International Council for 
Bird Preservation, the University of Oxford and the many other individuals and organiza- 
tions listed in Wilson (1987). T. Gullick kindly allowed the use of his unpublished obser- 
vations from Mount Oku and I must thank D. Reavey, C. W. A. Dee and R. J. Cameron for 
comments on the manuscript. 


Bannerman, D. A. 1915. Report on the birds collected by the late Mr Boyd Alexander (Rifle 

Brigade) during his last expedition to Africa. Part 4. Birds of Cameroon Mountain. Ibis 


N. Stronach 115 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

Bannerman, D. A. 1930—1951. The Birds of Tropical West Africa. 8 Volumes. London: 

Crown Agents for the Colonies. 
Bannerman, D. A. 1953. The Birds of West and Equatorial Africa. 2 Volumes. Oliver & Boyd 
Boulton, R. & Rand, A. L. 1952. A collection of birds from Mount Cameroon. Fieldiana 

Zool. 34: 35-64. 
Eisentraut, M. 1963. Die Wirbeltiere des Kamerungebirges . Hamburg & Berlin: Paul Parey. 
Eisentraut, M. 1973. Die Wirbeltierfauna von Fernando Po und West-kamerun. Bonn. 

Zool. Monogr. 3. 
Germain, M., Dragesco, J., Roux, F. & Garcin, H. 1973. Contribution a l'ornithologie du 

Sud-Cameroun. Oiseauet R.F.O. 43: 119-182. 
Hall, B. P. & Moreau, R. E. 1 970. An Atlas of Speciation in African Passerine Birds. Trustees 

of the British Museum (Natural History). 
Louette, M. 1 981 . The Birds of Cameroon. An Annotated Check-list. Verhandeling Vetens- 

chappen, Jaargang 43, no. 163. 
Mackworth-Praed, C. W. & Grant, C. H. B. 1970. African Handbook of Birds. Series 3. 

Birds of West Central and Western Africa. Volume 1 . 1 973. Volume 2. Longman. 
Reichenow, A. 1892. Zur Vogelfauna von Kamerun. Erster Nachtrag. J. Orn. 40: 177-195. 
Serle, W. 1950. A contribution to the ornithology of the British Cameroons. Ibis 92: 343— 

376, 602-638. 
Serle, W. 1954. A second contribution to the ornithology of the British Cameroons. Ibis 96: 

Serle, W. 1965. A third contribution to the ornithology of the British Cameroons. Ibis 107: 

60-94, 230-246. 
Stuart, S. N. (Ed.) 1986. The Conservation of the Montane Forests of Western Cameroon. 

International Council for Bird Preservation. 
Wilson, J. D. (Ed.) 1987. The Status and Conservation of the Montane Forest Avifauna of 

Mount Oku, Cameroon in 1985. International Council for Bird Preservation. 

Address: Jeremy D. Wilson, Department of Zoology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains 
Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Notes on the ecology and nesting of the 
Spangled Kookaburra Dacelo tyro in 
southern New Guinea 

by Neil Stronach 

Received 13 October 1988 

The nest of the Spangled Kookaburra Dacelo tyro is described here for the 
first time. The lack of data on nesting has been noted by Rand (1938), 
Rand & Gilliard (1967), Bell (1981), Forshaw & Cooper (1983) and 
Coates (1985). I observed nesting by this species on 2 occasions near the 
Bensbach River, in the Transfly area of southwestern Papua New Guinea. 
The first nest was discovered on 25 Mar 1981 near Km 4.5 on the 
Balamuk (8°55'S, 141°16'E) to Morehead road. The habitat was mature 
savanna woodland dominated by Acacia, Melaleuca and Alstona, with 
scattered small evergreen thickets. The nest was a chamber excavated in 
an arboreal termitarium, with the entrance at the side of the roughly 
spherical termitarium, which was c. 45 cm in diameter and attached to the 
main vertical trunk of a mature Alstona scholaris tree, 4 m above the 
ground. Observations from about 20 m distance showed that the nest 

N.Stronach 116 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

contained at least 2 large young, which called whether or not an adult was 
nearby. Food items brought to the nest were not identified, neither was 
there more than one adult in evidence at the nest at any one time. 

On 27 Mar 1981 a second nest was discovered c. 3 km east of Balamuk. 
The habitat was mature closed canopy woodland dominated by Acacia 
mangium and Melaleuca spp. The tree canopy was higher and denser than 
that at the first nest and the evergreen thicket understorey was more 
continuous, though partly opened up by fires of the previous year. The 
nest was excavated in an arboreal termitarium, which was spherical and 
c. 60 cm in diameter, the entrance hole being at the side. The termitarium 
was situated in the main fork of a mature Acacia mangium tree c. 5 m above 
the ground. The nest contained an undetermined number of young. 
Adults bringing food visited the nest one at a time. 

Local people told Rand (1938) that D. tyro used tree holes for nesting, 
and that the Blue-winged Kookaburra D. leachii nested in arboreal termi- 
taria. No D. leachii nests were found in the area, although the species is 
common there. Rand (1938) observed D. leachii excavating an arboreal 
termitarium in September (the dry season); its breeding season around 
Port Moresby is also during the dry season (Coates 1985). Rand (1938) 
reports that 6 female D. tyro collected in December and January were in 
breeding condition, including one ready to lay, although none of the 
males taken at the same time had enlarged testes. Two males collected in 
southeast Irian Jaya in October were not in breeding condition (G. F. 
Mees). It is likely that D. tyro tends to breed in the wet season and 
D. leachii in the dry season. On the Bensbach River heavy rain can be 
expected from mid-Dec to end Apr, the remainder of the year having 
much less rain. 

D. tyro is the commonest kookaburra in the Bensbach area, occupying 
all wooded habitats from open savanna woodland to dense monsoon and 
riverine forest. D. leachii was also observed in all these habitats, but in 
addition it occupies open grassland with scattered trees, where D. tyro 
was never seen. D. leachii was also seen once in the lower storey of dense 
Peltophorum forest at Bulla. In general, however, D. leachii occupies 
more open habitats than D. tyro and makes use of more exposed perches. 
At Bensbach, the Rufous-bellied Kookaburra D. gaudichaud was most 
often seen perched high in the canopy of monsoon and riverine forest, 
while D. Zyro spends most of its time in the understorey. Bell (1981) noted 
that D. gaudichaud at Brown River is a bird of the forest canopy. Thus 
differences in habitat preferences tend to separate the three Dacelo species 

D. tyro was most commonly noted in 3 vegetation types. These were: 
(1) riverine forest, with or without adjoining Melaleuca woodland or 
Barringtonia parkland; (2) strips of Dillenia alata thicket which grow 
along the edges of seasonal swamps, bordered on lower ground by either 
Melaleuca swamp woodland or seasonal open swamp, and on higher 
ground by mixed savanna woodland or a mosaic of woodland and mon- 
soon forest/thicket; (3) savanna woodland forming a mosaic with mon- 
soon forest and thicket, which occupies a much greater area than the other 
2 habitats in the Bensbach area. Hoogerwerf (1964) states that in south- 
east Irian JayaZ). tyro "prefers large complexes of forest and shrubbery", 

R.B.Payne 117 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

which may be equivalent to this third habitat type. Ninety per cent of over 
300 sightings were equally distributed between these 3 habitat types. 

Most observations of D. tyro were made in the Bensbach River area as 
far north and east as Morehead. However, the species was also observed 
near Dimississi (8°39'S, 142°14'E) in areas of woodland and Banksia sp./ 
Synoga lysicephala shrubland on poor soils; and at Bimitj (north of 
Dimississi, 24 km south of the Fly River at D'Albertis Island) in Mela- 
leuca woodland bordering an open seasonal watercourse with Dillenia 
alata thicket and Barringtonia parkland in close proximity. These records 
extend the observed range of D. tyro further north and east. Hoogerwerf 
(1964) suggested that Rand's (1942) observations increased the known 
range (Mayr 1941) of D. tyro, but the specimens referred to are the same 
as those discussed in Rand (1 938), all of which were from the area between 
the Morehead and Wassi Kussa Rivers. Hoogerwerf (1964) provided the 
first records for southeastern Irian Jaya. 


I am grateful to Bruce Beehler, Nigel Collar and Keith Eltringham for comments on the 
manuscript, and to G. F. Mees for data on specimens from Irian Jaya. 


Bell, H. L. 1981. Information on New Guinea Kingfishers, Alcedinidae. Ibis 123: 51—61. 

Coates, B. J. 1985. The Birds of Papua New Guinea. Vol. 1 . Dove, Alderley. 

Forshaw, J. M. & Cooper, W. T. 1983. Kingfishers and Related Birds. Part 1 , Vol. 1, 

Kingfishers (Alcedinidae) Ceryle to Cittura. Lansdowne, Melbourne. 
Hoogerwerf, A. 1964. On birds new for New Guinea or with a larger range than previously 

known. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 84: 153-161. 
Mayr, E. 1941. A List of New Guinea Birds. The American Museum of Natural History, 

New York. 
Rand, A. L. 1938. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 19. On some non-passerine 

New Guinea birds. Amer. Mus. Novit. 990. 
Rand, A. L. 1 942. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 42. Birds of the 1936-1 937 New 

Guinea Expedition. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 79: 289-366. 
Rand, A. L. & Gilliard, E. T. 1967. Handbook of New Guinea Birds. Weidenfield and 


Address: Neil Stronach, Dept. of Applied Biology, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3DX. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Commentary on the Melba Finches Pytilia 
melba of Djibouti and the requirement of a 
specimen for a taxonomic description 

by Robert B. Payne 

Received 9 February 1989 

Welch & Welch (1988) recently reported a "new subspecies" of Melba 
Finch Pytilia melba from Djibouti based on a photograph of a bird in the 
field, but not collected or captured and examined in the hand. Their 
description (1988) of a new subspecies "Pytilia melba flavicaudata" 
duplicates their earlier description in Welch et al. (1986), a privately- 

R.B.Payne 118 Bull. B.O. C. 1989 109(2) 

published report to their expedition sponsors. Copies of Welch et al. 
(1986) were sent in March 1 987 to the British Museum (Natural History), 
Sub-Department of Ornithology, at Tring and the BM(NH) library in 
South Kensington, and to the EG I library at Oxford, satisfying a minimal 
condition of publication, though not satisfying review by the scientific 
editorial process. Welch et al. (1986) has been recognized as a publication 
by other ornithologists (Porter & Christensen 1987), but the authorship 
of the nomenclatural description is in question: either Welch & Welch 
1986, or Welch et al. 1986 as cited in Welch & Welch 1988. 

In fact, neither publication appears to meet the standards for descrip- 
tion of a new taxon because no specimens were collected. The Inter- 
national Code for Zoological Nomenclature requires a specimen in the form 
of "an animal, or any part of an animal" (Article 72c (i)). In cases where an 
illustration is involved, "the specimen illustrated or described and not the 
illustration or the description" is considered to be the type (Article 72c 
(v)). The Code recommends but does not require deposition of the type 
specimen in a museum (Recommendation 72D). Photographs were 
deposited with the BM(NH), but the photograph designated cannot be 
considered a type specimen under Article 72c (v). 

G. R. Welch has provided copies of photographs including one (no. 1) 
that he regards as "the holotype" . The birds in Djibouti are more yellowish 
in plumage than other known populations of P. melba, the males lacking a 
definite area of red. Nevertheless in the photographs the males are slightly 
reddish or orangish around the face, especially no. 1 . The forehead appears 
more pinkish than the bill; and in the absence of a specimen or of a colour 
standard in the photograph, the bill, described as reddish, as in other forms 
of P. melba, by Welch et al. (1 986), provides an indication of the colour of 
the plumage. Males from neighbouring northwestern Somalia have a 
reddish rump and tail, but approach the Djibouti birds in having reddish 
plumage otherwise restricted to the region of the chin (Senckenberg speci- 
mens 1833-1835 taken in January 1900 by Erlanger at Dadab, c.40 km 
from Djibouti) and these are regarded as P. m.jessei (which grades into P. 
m. soudanensis) . The red or grey colour of the lores, emphasized by Wolters 
(1963) and Welch et al. (1986) as distinguishing geographic forms of P. 
melba, actually is quite variable, with many specimens from Ethiopia and 
Somalia having mixed red and grey feathers in the lores, and also a few 
having other unusual carotenoid pigmentation with orangish outer webs 
on the primaries and primary coverts (e.g. USNM 598,655 from Weyfo 
River, Ethiopia). In addition, an adult male that appears identical to the 
photographs of the Djibouti males is known from a specimen collected by 
G. Nikolaus south of Lado, Sudan (Stuttgart Museum 59, 1 50). 

The main point is not that the Djibouti birds may not be differentiated 
at a level that would be recognizable as a subspecies, but that the publi- 
cations of Welch & Welch did not meet the standards of nomenclatural 
publication in usual practice and as described in the Code, and that with- 
out a specimen there are insufficient grounds for describing a new taxon. I 
recommend that the name proposed by Welch et al. (1986) be regarded as 
invalid until specimens have been collected. 

Changing cultural conditions make it difficult to collect bird and other 
specimens in many areas. Ornithologists have the opportunity to 

W. E. Boles 119 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

convince local authorities of the significance of obtaining specimens in 
order to document the biological diversity of their areas. Where collecting 
is contraindicated, it might be possible to meet the standards of the Code 
and to obtain material evidence for direct comparison with other speci- 
mens by capturing birds and retaining samples such as distinctive 
feathers and preserving material such as the growing feather pulp or 
tissue biopsies for genetic studies. With unusual forms that may be new 
species-group taxa one may describe the birds in the general, and not the 
nomenclatural sense, as has been done for other birds (Williams 1963:18, 
Field 1979:12), and to take care to restrict systematic descriptions to 
collected specimens (Wolters 1974, Prigogine 1981). 


G. R. Welch provided copies of photographs of the Pytilia melba from Djibouti and dates of 
mailing of publications. The curators of several museums loaned specimens and I thank the 
Natur-Museum und Forschungs-Institut "Senckenberg," Museum Alexander Koenig, 
Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde in Stuttgart, American Museum of Natural History, 
Field Museum of Natural History and US National Museum. G. S. Cowles, J. F. Monk and 
D. W. Snow commented on publications received and R. O. Prum commented on the 


Field, G. D. 1979. A new species of Malimbus sighted in Sierra Leone and a review of the 

genus. Malimbus 1 :2— 1 3. 
International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. 1985. International Code of Zoological 

Nomenclature, 3rd Ed. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, British 

Museum (Natural History), London. 
Porter, R. F. & Christensen, S. 1987. The autumn migration of raptors and other soaring 

birds in North Yemen. Sandgrouse 9:121—124. 
Prigogine, A. 1981. A new species of Malimbus from Sierra Leone? Malimbus 3:55. 
Welch, G. R. & Welch, H. J. 1988. A new subspecies of Pytilia melba from Djibouti, East 

Africa. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 108: 68-69. 
Welch, G. R., Welch, H. J., Coghlan, S. M. & Denton, M. L. 1986. Djibouti II- Autumn '85 

Expedition Report. Privately published by the authors, Whittlesey, UK. 
Williams, J. G. 1963 . A Field Guide to the Birds of East and Central Africa. London: Collins. 
Wolters, H. E. 1963. Zur Rassengliederung von Pytilia melba (L.).jf. Orn. 104: 185-190. 
Wolters, H. E. 1974. Aus der Vogelsammlung des Museums Koenig. Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 25: 


Address: Professor Robert B. Payne, Museum of Zoology, The University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

A new subspecies of the Green-backed Robin 

P achy cephalop sis hattamensis , comprising the 

first record from Papua New Guinea 

by Walter E. Boles 

Received 24 October 1988 

The Australo-Papuan robin genus Pachycephalopsis Salvadori 1879 
(Eopsaltriidae) of New Guinea comprises 2 species, which are roughly 
east-west counterparts, although there is overlap in the Weyland, 
Nassau and Oranje Mountains (Fig. 1; map in Diamond 1985: 89). The 

J. D. Wilson 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

"i I I r 


— 5°S 





Adelbert Mts. 

uon Peninsula 


135 c 

140 c 



Figure 1 . Map showing known distributions of Pachycephalopsis hattamensis (rightward 
diagonal) and P. poliosoma (leftward diagonal). The range of P. poliosoma at the western 
end of central New Guinea overlaps that of P. hattamensis (cross hatching). Type locality 
(Magidobo) of P. h. lecroyae, relative to Papua New Guinea-Irian Jaya border, is indicated. 
Modified from Diamond (1985: 89). 

White-eyed Robin P. poliosoma Sharpe 1882, the eastern member, 
is a mid-montane (1000-1700 m) species of the Central Ranges, 
Adelbert Mountains, North Coastal Range and mountains of the Huon 
Peninsula. Whereas this distribution extends through Papua New 
Guinea into eastern Irian Jaya, Indonesia, that of the Green-backed 
(or Western White-eyed) Robin P. hattamensis (Meyer) 1874 has 
been considered restricted to slightly lower altitudes (600— 1640 m) in 
Irian Jaya (Vogelkop, Wandammen, Weyland, Nassau, Oranje and Foya 
Mountains, and Yapen Island) (Beehler et al. 1986, Mayr 1986). 

A recent collection of birds made by Ken Aplin from Magidobo 
(06°H'S, 142°46'E; 1450 m a.s.L), Papua New Guinea, and received in 
spirit, contained one specimen of P. poliosoma and 2 of P. hattamensis, the 
latter extending the range of the species eastward by some 400 km and 
constituting the first record from the Papuan side of the island (Fig. 1). 

Four subspecies of P. hattamensis are currently recognized (Diamond 
1985, Mayr 1986): hattamensis (Meyer 1874) (Vogelkop); ernesti Hartert 
1930 (Wandammen Mountains); axillaris Mayr 1931 (Weyland, Nassau 
and Oranje Mountains); and insularis Diamond 1 985 (Yapen Island). The 
Magidobo birds most closely resemble hattamensis and axillaris, but plu- 
mage differences are apparent between the new specimens and each of the 
named forms. Accordingly, I name the Magidobo population as a new 

Pachycephalopsis hattamensis lecroyae subsp. nov. 
Holotype. Australian Museum registration number 0.59035. Collected 

W. E. Boles 121 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

11 October 1985; o, testes enlarged (left testis 9x4 mm); wing (flattened) 
99 mm; tail 61 mm; culmen (to skull) 21.0 mm; tarsus 31.4 mm; no moult; 
stomach contents small insects; field no. G55; partially skinned and dried 
as a skin; blood and liver samples taken by Aplin. 

Paratype. AM 0.59036. Collected 13 October 1985; ?, oviduct straight 
and thin, oocytes undeveloped; wing (flattened) 91 mm; tail 51 mm; cul- 
men (to skull) 19.5 mm; tarsus 30.4 mm; no moult; field no. G76; retained 
in spirit. Onlv the second such specimen of this species in collections 
(Wood et al. 1982). 

Wing lengths of the Magidobo specimens agree with the findings of 
Diamond (1985) that measurements of males average about 10 mm longer 
than those of females. 

Distribution. Known only from the type locality. 

Diagnosis. Differs from ernesti and insularis in having the undertail 
coverts orange rather than yellow-orange, the throat white like the chin 
and the lower breast without a grey wash. From hattamensis and axillaris 
it is separated by having the axillaries much more olive with only a trace 
of orange. Additionally, the upperparts and underparts, particularly the 
centre of the belly, are darker than in most specimens of the last 2 

Etymology. This form is named in honour of Mary LeCroy, 
Department of Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History, 
in recognition of her long-standing and on-going contributions to our 
understanding of the avifauna of New Guinea. 

Discussion. As both the holotype and paratype had been preserved and 
stored in alcohol prior to receipt, special care was taken when judging 
colours, particularly when the subspecific diagnoses are based primarily 
on the presence of alcohol-soluble carotenoid pigments. There is no evi- 
dence of colour alteration, however, as the potentially vulnerable orange 
undertail coverts remain the same colour as those of specimens of hatta- 
mensis and axillaris that had never been stored in alcohol. Additional 
specimens, not stored in spirit, are obviously desirable. 


I wish to thank Mr Ken Aplin (University of New South Wales) for making the specimens 
available to me and for providing details on their collection, Mrs Mary LeCroy (American 
Museum of Natural History) for arranging the loan of specimens for comparison, Miss 
Lynne Albertson for drawing the map, and Messrs Ian McAllan, Shane Parker, Terry 
Lindsey and Wayne Longmore for comments on the manuscript. 


Beehler, B. M., Pratt, Y. K. & Zimmermann, D. A. 1986. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton 

University Press. 
Diamond, J. M. 1985. New distributional records and taxa from the outlying mountain 

ranges of New Guinea. Emu 85: 65-91. 
Mayr, E. 1986. Eopsaltriinae. In: Mayr, E. & Cottrell, G. W. (eds.), Check-list of Birds of the 

World, XI: 556-583. Mus. Comp. Zool.: Cambridge, Mass. 
Wood, D. S., Zusi, R. L. & Jenkinson, M. A. 1982. World Inventory of Avian Spirit 

Specimens, 1982. American Ornithologists' Union and Oklahoma Biological Survey. 

Address: Walter R. Boles, Division of Vertebrate Zoology (Birds), Australian Museum, 6-8 
College St., Sydney, New South Wales 2000, Australia 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

In Brief 122 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 



Batis Boie was proposed in the Isis von Oken, 1833, col. 880 at a time when 
only 3 species of the genus as presently interpreted were known to science, 
these being B. capensis (Linnaeus), 1766, B. senegalensis (Linnaeus), 
1766, and B. pririt (Vieillot), 1818. The type-species was subsequently 
fixed by Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 1879, vol. 4: 133, as Muscicapa 
capensis Linnaeus, 1766. Boie did not indicate which gender his genus 
Batis should take, but the original references of valid taxa and their syno- 
nyms given by Traylor, in Peters' Check-list of Birds of the World, 1986, 
vol. XI: 378—385, reveal that all given the name of Batis have the gender of 
the specific (or subspecific) name feminine, with one exception, namely 
Batis minor suahelicus Neumann, 1907, a synonym of nominate B. minor 
Erlanger, 1901. In Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 1984, 104: 144-146, W.J. Lawson 
described as a new species Batis occultus from Mt Nimba, Liberia, which 
is closely allied to the insular B. poensis Alexander, 1903, of Fernando 
Poo; but in his later revision of the evergreen forest species of Batis in 
Durban Mus. Novit., 1986, vol. 13, (21): 285-304, he changed the name to 
B. occulta. In this he followed the guidance of the present author who had 
access to the 1986 paper while it was still in proof. 

In their recent paper on the occurrence of B. minima (Verreaux & 
Verreaux), 1855, in Cameroon, Erard & Colston, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 
1988, 108: 182-184, refer to Lawson's new form from Mt Nimba as either 
B. occultus or Batis poensis (occultus) , overlooking its correction in 1 986 to 
occulta. As the status of this latter taxon is certain to figure again in future 
communications, it is desirable to settle the question of the gender of the 
genus Batis. On the basis of consensus in usage over the past century and 
more and its adoption by Traylor, op. cit., the gender of Batis requires to 
be seen as feminine. 

Fernleigh Gardens, p. A. clancey 

8 Lambert Road, 

Morningside, Durban 4001 , 

South Africa. 1 7 February 1 989 


Dwarf eggs, in the sense of small eggs without yolk or with very little yolk, 
are well-known in many species of birds. The frequency of their occur- 
rence, however, is much less documented. From 1973 to 1988 I regularly 
visited a colony of Black-headed Gulls Larus ridibundus near Amsterdam 
to count the numbers of clutches and eggs. Since dwarf eggs can be readily 
recognized amongst the thousands of normally sized eggs they could be 
counted accurately. In a total of 107,500 eggs, 40 were dwarf eggs, which 
means only 0.037%. Thirty-nine were measured (Table 1). 

Books Received 123 Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 


Measurements of dwarf eggs in the Black-headed Gull 

Larus ridibundus (n = 39) 




33.47 mm 

25.73 mm 

Standard deviation (SD) 

3.183 mm 

1.877 mm 

SD as % of the mean 



Range: Minimum 

23.8 mm 

19.7 mm 


39.3 mm 

29.5 mm 

As could be expected, the ranges of length and breadth are larger than 
in normal eggs (in 334 normal eggs the standard deviation was 4.15% of 
the mean length (50.75 mm) and 3.34% of the mean breadth (36.0 mm)). 
The smaller range in breadth than in length, which is dictated by the 
capacity of the oviduct in normal eggs, is — without apparent need — also 
found in dwarf eggs. 

The dwarf eggs were found equally spread over the laying period. 
Thirty-eight nests contained one dwarf egg, mostly together with 1-2 
normal sized eggs. Only once did a nest contain 2 dwarf eggs. 

Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, j. Walters 

P.O. Box 4766, 

1009 AT Amsterdam, 

The Netherlands 2 March 1 989 

© British Ornithologists Club 1989 


Cocker, M. & Inskipp, C. 1988. A. Himalayan Ornithologist. Pp. 87. 49 colour plates. 

Oxford University Press. £40. 1 8 x 24 cm. Hardback. 

Brian Hamilton Hodgson, who died at the age of 94, was born in 1800 and was British 
Resident in Kathmandu for 24 years, during which time he collected the astonishing 
number of 124 birds new to science. He trained a team of Nepalese artists to provide 
watercolours of the Nepalese fauna, which eventually filled 1 1 25 sheets on birds and 487 on 
mammals in 8 large folio volumes. These were presented to the Zoological Society of 
London, where they have remained almost unknown and unseen until now. The 49 plates 
here provide an intriguing and amusing collection of bird portraits, some more amateurish 
and untrue to life than others. 

Hodgson must have been of a remarkable mould, a product of the Victorian era, but 
inspired with ideas well in advance of his time, though it appears he was given little credit for 
most of them or the developments which followed from them. His early advocacy of employ- 
ing Gurkha troops and their use in helping to quell the Indian mutiny, thus opening the door 
to regular recruitment, is entirely ignored in a very recent book on the Gurkhas. The authors 
have done a service in revealing the magnitude of his intellectual talents, his erudite grasp of 
many disparate subjects, such as in particular ethnology and, importantly, the nature of the 
Buddhist religion, for which he was renowned as an authority in his own day. 

Hodgson's immense contribution to natural history and his collections were unrivalled at 
the time; they included a large osteological collection (which contained 95 human skulls), 29 
amphibian specimens, 28 reptiles, 903 mammals (31 new to science), and above all 9572 bird 
specimens of 672 species, 613 from within Nepal, of which 80 of the 1 24 new to science were 

Books Received 124 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(2) 

credited to Hodgson himself; the credit for the others was in general purloined by "museum 
men" and "closet naturalists", to his great and expressed disgust. They included the Grey 
brothers, Blyth and Gould. Many of his specimens, too, "for want of having been opened 
and examined were not in very good shape" when eventually they received attention. 
Hodgson published 146 notes or papers (1826-58), 64 of them on birds, on subjects varying 
from probably the first consideration of migration over the Himalayas to the field behaviour 
of some of his new species. 

He returned home in 1844, but returned to India, to Darjeeling, for some years, and his 
collections from there have probably caused confusion with his Nepalese specimens, mainly 
owing to neglect and misinterpretation, though the written sources of his data have not 
always been clear. This and his own driving personality probably did not readily provide 
him with friends and, of course, at that time professional jealousy was rife. The latter, 
together with financial restrictions and a failure to procure sufficient subscribers eventually 
made Hodgson abandon a long struggle to publish a book on Nepalese fauna, which would 
have included the water-colours. 

To the lapse of time, some 25 years and more, from Hodgson's fading from the world of 
natural history until his death at 94, is due to the fact that his achievements, at least in the 
ornithological field, were but little recognized when he died; even in Ibis, only his achieve- 
ments as a collector were acknowledged, a single sentence covering all his papers and the 
water-colours merely noted. With strange finality the Ibis obituary stated: "every mark of 
distinction which the learned societies of Europe could confer was deservedly bestowed on 
Hodgson but as might be expected he was never knighted nor asked to become a member of 
the House of Lords." 

In trying to sum up this brilliant individual's importance in numerous fields in the 19th 
century, the authors state: "so many things that should have secured his reputation or 
signalled his triumphs were taken from him both by the connivance of others and a tissue of 
adverse circumstances." In the light of the facts given in this soberly written book one 
cannot escape the authors' conviction that Hodgson was unjustly overlooked. 


Papers, from Club Members or non-members, should be sent to the Editor, 
Dr J. F. Monk, The Glebe Cottage, Goring, Reading RG8 9AP, and are 
accepted on the understanding that they are offered solely to the Bulletin. 
They should be typed on one side of the paper, with treble-spacing and a 
wide margin, and submitted with a duplicate copy on airmail paper . Scien- 
tific nomenclature and the style and lay-out of papers and of References 
should conform with usage in this or recent issues of the Bulletin. Inform- 
ants of unpublished observations should be cited by initials and name only, 
e.g.". . .catches wasps (B. Eater)", but"B. B.C. Gull informsmethat . . .". 
Photographic illustrations, although welcome, can only be accepted if the 
contributor is willing to pay for their reproduction. Authors are requested 
to give their title, initials, name and full address (in the form they wish to be 
corresponded with) at the end of the paper. 

An author wishing to introduce a new name or describe a new form 
should append nom.,gen., sp. or subsp. nov., as appropriate, and set out the 
supporting evidence under the headings "Description", "Distribution", 
"Type", "Measurements of Type" and "Material examined", plus any 
others needed. 

A contributor is entitled to 10 free offprints of the pages of the Bulletin in which his 
contribution, if one page or more in length, appears. Additional offprints or offprints of 
contributions of less than one page may be ordered when the manuscript is submitted and will 
be charged for. Authors may be charged for proof corrections for which they are responsible. 


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club notes. Annual General Meeting 61 

CLEM fisher. The discovery of new Australian species bv John 

Gilbert, 1838-1845 64 

M. marin A, L. F. kiff & L. pena G. Notes on Chilean birds, with 

descriptions of two new subspecies 66 

c. j. hazevoet. Notes on behaviour and breeding of the Razo Lark 

Alanda razae 82 


geographic support for the Spanish Imperial Eagle as a distinct 

species 86 

N. kawaji, H. higuchi & H. HORI. A new breeding record of the Izu 

Island Thrush Turdus celaenops from the Tokara Islands, 

southwest Japan 93 

w. R. j. dean. A review of the genera Calandrella, Spizocorys and 

Eremelauda (Alaudidae) 95 

H. D. jackson. Weights of birds collected in the Mutare Municipal 

Area, Zimbabwe 100 

b. l. monroe, jr. The correct name of the Terek Sandpiper 106 

D. parish & c. prentice. Chestnut-cheeked Starling Sturnus 

philippensis : a first record for mainland South-East Asia 107 

C. CHAPPUIS, C. erard & G. j. morel. Type specimens of Prinia 

subflava (Gmelin) and Prinia fluviatilis Chappuis 108 

j. d. wilson. Range extensions of some bird species of Cameroon . 110 
N. stronach. Notes on the ecology and nesting of the Spangled 

Kookaburra Dacelo tyro in Southern New Guinea 115 

R. B. payne. Commentary on the Melba Finches Pytilia melba of 

Djibouti and the requirement of a specimen for a taxonomic 

description 117 

w. e. boles. A new subspecies of the Green-backed Robin 
Pachycephalopsis hattamensis , comprising the first record for 

Papua New Guinea 119 

in brief 122 

books received 123 

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R. E. F. Peal (Chairman) (1989) J. H. Elgood (V ice-Chairman) (1989) 

Dr J. F. Monk (Editor) (1975) Mrs D. M. Bradley (Hon. Treasurer) 

Mrs A. M. Moore (Hon. Secretary) (1989) (1978) 

R. H. Kettle, B.A. (1988) N. H. F. Stone (1986) 

D. Griffin (1989) S.J. Farnsworth(1989) 

Published by the BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB and printed by 
Henry Ling Ltd., at the Dorset Press, Dorchester, Dorset 


ISSN 0007-1 595 

Bulletin of the 

British Ornithologists' Club 

Edited by 

Volume 109 No. 3 

September 1 989 


Tuesday, 7 November 1989 at 6.15 p.m. for 7 p.m. in the Senior 
Common Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, London SW7. 
Mr Peter Robinson will speak on "Enforcement of Conservation 
Management — What is the RSPB actually achieving through its 
Investigations Work?". 

Those wishing to attend should notify the Hon. Secretary at 1 
Uppingham Road, Oakham Rutland LEI 5 6JB, enclosing their cheque 
for £5.00 per person, by Tuesday, 24 October 1989*. 

Mr Robinson is the Enforcement Officer of the RSPB. 

Tuesday, 28 November 1989 at 6.15 p.m. for 7 p.m. at the same 
place, Dr Peter Jones will speak on "The Migration Strategies of 
Palaearctic Migrants in West Africa in relation to Sahelian 

Those wishing to attend should notify the Hon. Secretary, as above, by 
Tuesday, 14 November 1989.* 

Dr Peter Jones is Lecturer in Ecology at Edinburgh University 
and the present editor of Ibis. 

Thursday, 14 December 1989 at 6.15 p.m. for 7 p.m. in the same 
place. The speaker will be Ben King. 

Those wishing to attend should notify the Hon. Secretary, as above, by 
Thursday, 30 November 1 989.* 

Ben King, who is senior author of the Field Guide to the Birds of 
S. E. Asia, and also works at the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, is widely known for his great knowledge of 
birds in the field in Asia and has made a number of expeditions to 
study birds in China. He will speak on China, in particular on his 
expeditions there. 

Tuesday, 16 January 1990 at 6.15 p.m. for 7 p.m., in the same place. 
Jeffery Boswall will show a film "Moving Images in the Cause of 
Bird Protection". 

Those wishing to attend should notify the Hon. Secretary, as above, by 
Tuesday, 3 January 1990.* 

Jeffery Boswall is the Head of the Film and Video Unit of the 

*It is possible to take acceptances up to the weekend before a Meeting, but 
Members are asked to accept by 14 days before a Meeting, if possible. A 
plan showing Imperial College will be sent to Members on request. 

125 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

Bulletin of the 


Vol. 1 09 No. 3 Published: 25 September 1 989 

The seven hundred and eighty-eighth Meeting of the Club was held in the Senior 
Common Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, London, SW7 on Tuesday, 9 May 
1989 at 7 p.m., 25 members and 14 guests attended. 

Members present were: R. E. F. Peal (Chairman), M. A. Adcock, Miss H. Baker, P. J. 
Belman, Mrs D. M. Bradley, Cdr. M. B. Casement, R.N., P. J. Conder, Dr R. A. F. Cox, 
J. H. Elgood, S. J. Farnsworth, B. Gray, Revd. T. W. Gladwin, C. Helm, S. Howe, 
R. H. Kettle, Revd. G. K. McCulloch, Dr J. F. Monk, Mrs A. M. Moore, R. G. 
Morgan, Mrs M. N. Muller, R. S. Pritchett, V. J. Sawle, Dr R. C. Self, A. R. Tanner, 
J. W. Wall. 

Guests present were: Mrs B. Adcock, Dr R. J. Baker, D. Brooks, Mrs W. Brooks, Dr 
J. D. Bradley, P. Blackmore, Mrs F. M. Farnsworth, Mrs J. M. Gladwin, Lieut-Cdr 
W. Houghton, R.N., Mrs I. McCulloch, P. J. Moore, C. A. Muller, Ms K. Hoff, Mrs 
N. Wall. 

Dr Robin Cox, former Vice-Chairman and Secretary of the North Sea Bird Club, spoke 
on "North Sea Birds", giving a brief description of life and work in the North Sea Oil Fields, 
followed by an account of the extensive data collected by the Club which has greatly 
increased the information on birds in the North Sea. 

The seven hundred and eighty-ninth Meeting of the Club was held in the Senior 
Common Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, London, SW7 on Tuesday, 13 June 
1989 at 7 p.m., 20 members and 13 guests attended. 

Members present were: R. E. F. Peal (Chairman), M. A. Adcock, Mrs D. M. Bradley, 
D. R. Calder, P. J. Conder, H. P. Q. Crick, J. H. Elgood, S. J. Farnsworth, A. Gibbs, 
Revd. T. W. Gladwin, B. Gray, R. H. Kettle, Revd. G. K. McCulloch, Dr J. F. Monk, 
Mrs A. M. Moore, R. G. Morgan, V. J. Sawle, Dr R. C. Self, R. E. Sharland, M. W. 

Guests present were: Mrs B. Adcock, C. Bell, Dr J. D. Bradley, Mrs J. B. Calder, 
Miss C. Dovey, Mrs F. M. Farnsworth, Mrs B. Gibbs, Mrs J. M. Gladwin, Ms K. Hoff, 
Mrs N. Lidell, Mrs I. McCulloch, P. J. Moore, Mrs B. J. Woodcock. 

After supper Dr J. H. Elgood showed members an illustration of Malimbus ibadanensis 
painted by Martin Woodcock which he had just received. 

The Revd . Tom Gladwin spoke on ' ' Birds around Lake Erie' ' . He described the habitat of 
the southeastern and northeastern shores of Lake Erie, an area which includes Long Point. 
He illustrated, with slides, areas of wetland and Carolinean forest of the region, and spoke 
particularly of the birds breeding in the area, outlining the migration patterns in the 
short spring and early summer. He also gave an indication of the impressive conservation 
management in the areas of the United States and Canada bordering Lake Erie. 

Dr Werner Suter sent the following abstract of his talk to the Club on 
14 March 1989: 

Feeding ecology of Cormorants wintering in Switzerland 

The exponential increase of the North Sea/Baltic population of the Cormorant Phalacro- 
corax carbo is reflected by the bird numbers wintering in Switzerland, where January counts 
have risen from 330 in 1967 to 7250 in 1989 (including the total area of L. Constance and L. 

P.C.Gonzales & R.S.Kennedy 126 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

Geneva). A sigmoid curve fits the data very well and predicts about 10,000 Cormorants for 
1996. The increase did not affect the Swiss waters evenly; it was noticeable first on the 4 
larger lakes where Cormorants had been wintering regularly from the early 1930s onwards. 
Afterwards L. Zug was 'colonized', then some of the larger rivers, mainly along dammed 
sections, and recently some smaller lakes. Several lakes along the edge of the Alps that are 
still rather oligotrophic, but also the lakes along the southern fringe of the Alps in Ticino, 
hold only few or no Cormorants. The largest roosts comprise up to 3600 birds at Lake Zug 
and up to 2800 at Lake Geneva in late autumn, when migrants are present. 

On some lakes already occupied by Cormorants for many years, there is now a grow- 
ing difference between peak counts in autumn and rather stable midwinter counts. The 
winter numbers may be near the carrying capacity of these lakes, but on the national 
scale they still follow the population increase of the species closely. However, when the 
total national breeding population remained fairly stable between 1920 and 1970, Swiss 
wintering numbers were already increasing slowly but steadily, probably attributably to 
the eutrophication of the lowland lakes, which produced higher biomasses of fish, no- 
tably of Cyprinid species and Perch Perca fluviatilis. Though the Cormorants take a 
broad range of fish species and fish sizes, from fry (average weight 2 g) to large adults of 
up to 900 g, the diet on lakes is predominately Cyprinids, mainly Roach Rutilus rutilus 
and Perch. Proportions may vary between lakes and from year to year, but the 2 species 
generally make up 60-90% of the individuals or biomass ingested. Roach and Perch are 
both common in the eutrophicated Swiss lakes and account for much of the fish bio- 
mass present, although precise figures are lacking. Whitefish Coregonus sp. are also 
common and are the main component of the commercial catch, but are taken by Cor- 
morants in a small percentage only. 

Roach and Perch both form shoals, often mixed ones concentrated in different areas, 
attracting foraging Cormorants. The birds feed socially in groups of up to 800 (sometimes 
even 2000 individuals) on these shoals, which stay in depths of 20-30 m, at least in mid and 
late winter. Areas with little Cormorant activity may also hold many fish at similar depths, 
but not in shoals, only in small groups; evidently only large shoals ensure the hunting 
success that makes diving to such depths worthwhile. 

On dammed rivers the diet is similar to lakes, but on free-running sections, Grayling 
Thymallus thymallus and Trout Salmo trutta often form up to 80% of the diet. Fish sizes 
taken are generally larger than in the lakes, and the hunting success may be equally good. 
Lakes are still preferred, but the circumstances leading to Cormorants entering rivers are 
not fully understood. 

Pilgerweg 15, 8803 Ruschlikon, Switzerland 

Notes on Philippine Birds, 14. 
Additional Records for the Island of Palawan 

by Pedro C. Gonzales & Robert S. Kennedy 

Received 1 7 October 1988 

In a recent paper, Kennedy et al. (1986) reported 12 sight records and 3 
specimen records of birds previously unrecorded for the island of 
Palawan in the Philippines. Since then, we have examined the extensive 
collection of birds from Palawan in the Philippine National Museum 
(PNM) and have found 1 1 additional specimen records previously unre- 
corded from there and 2 new specimen records, 1 for Busuanga and 1 for 
Culion, both in the Calamianes Group north of Palawan. Of the Palawan 
specimens, Charadrius hiaticula is the first record for the Philippines. 
Here we report on these new records and on 2 important records of bifds 
rare to Palawan. Based on specimens in the Delaware Museum of Natural 

P. C. Gonzales & R.S.Kennedy 127 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

History (DMNH), we also present the first records of Terpsiphone 
atrocaudata from Palawan and Dendronanthus indicus from Negros. 
We follow King et al. (1975) for English names. 

CHINESE GOSHAWK Accipiter soloensis 

1 adult $ (PNM 15555) collected 29 May 1978 from Singnapan, 
Ransang, Quezon by R. Sison. Kennedy et al. (1986) reported sight 
records of this species. This first specimen record was originally misiden- 
tified and published (Sison 1983) as Accipiter gular is. 

RED-LEGGED CRAKE Rallina fas data 

1 $ (PNM 16120) in adult plumage collected 18 Aug 1981 from Igay, 
Culion Island, Province of Palawan by D. Blanchard & P. Gonzales. 
Although known to McGregor (1909) from Palawan, this is the first 
record from Culion in the Calamianes Group. 

BAILLON'S CRAKE Porzana pusilla pusilla 

1 $ (PNM 13318) collected 28 Apr 1970 from Iwahig, Puerto Princesa 
by T. Oane. McClure & Leelavit (1972) report one ringing record from 
Iwahig in 1966, the only previous record from Palawan. 

COMMON RINGED PLOVER Charadrius hiaticula 

1 2 (PNM 13284) in winter plumage collected 9 Feb 1969 from Iwahig, 
Puerto Princesa by T. Oane. Although this Palaearctic breeder has been 
recorded from northern and eastern Australia (Condon 1975, McKean 
1980), there are no previous records of this species from the Philippines 
(duPont 1971), nor from Taiwan (Severinghaus & Blackshaw 1976), nor 
Borneo (Smythies 1981). White & Bruce (1986: 176) list it as one ". . . to 
be expected in Wallacea". This first record for Palawan and for the 
Philippines belongs to C. h. tundrae. 

GREEN SANDPIPER Tringa ocrophus 

1 <J (PNM 11543) collected on 13 Nov 1968, 2 ? (PNM 11539, 11540) 
and 1 cJ (PNM 11541) on 15 Nov 1968, and 1 $ (PNM 13286) on 30 Sep 
1969, all from Iwahig, Puerto Princesa by T. Oane. These are the first 
Palawan specimens. The species was previously known from birds 
trapped and ringed at Iwahig: 1965 (3), 1966 (1), 1967 (1), 1968 (3), 1969 
(12) and 1970 (4) (McClure & Leelavit 1972). 

TEMMINCK'S STINT Calidris temminckii 

1 $ (PNM 8208) collected 23 Jan 1967 from Iwahig, Puerto Princesa by 
T. Oane. Parkes (1986) recently reidentified the first and previously only 
known Philippine specimen of C. temminckii as C. minuta. However, 
since then, Dickinson & Kennedy (in prep) have found a specimen 
(USNM 201690) of this species collected 6 Feb 1907 from Laoag, Ilocos 
Norte, Luzon by E. A. Mearns. The present record is thus the first 
specimen for Palawan and the second known specimen for the Philip- 
pines. This record adds credence to the previously reported (but ques- 
tioned) Temminck's Stints trapped and ringed at Iwahig: 1965 (2), 1966 
(1), 1968 (4) and 1969 (5) (McClure & Leelavit 1972). 

P.C.Gonzales & R.S.Kennedy 128 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

SHARP-TAILED SANDPIPER Calidris acuminatus 

1 $ (PNM 8207) collected on 13 Jan 1967, 1 $ (PNM 11544) 18 Apr 
1969, 1 (J (PNM 13289) 19 Apr 1969, 1 <J (PNM 13290) 27 Apr 1969, 1 $ 
(PNM 13291) 13 May 1969, 1 $ (PNM 13319) 24 May 1970, 1 $ (PNM 
13320) 12 Apr 1970, 1 ? (PNM 13321) 4 May 1970, 1 $ (PNM 13322) 28 
Apr 1970 and 1 # (PNM 13536) 17 Sep 1969 all from Iwahig, Puerto 
Princesa by T. Oane. First records for Palawan. 

CURLEW SANDPIPER Calidris ferruginea 

Kennedy et al. (1986) reported this species new to Palawan based on 4 
specimens and 1 sighting. We have found an additional specimen (PNM 
11993) collected 17 Sep 1969 from Iwahig, Puerto Princesa by T. Oane 
that was originally identified as a Dunlin Calidris alpina. Based on this re- 
identification and the lack of any other records of the Dunlin from the 
Philippines, we do not accept the 2 ringing records of this species from 
Iwahig in 1967 and 1970 reported by McClure & Leelavit (1972). 

RUFF Philomachus pugnax 

1 $ (PNM 11992) collected 24 Sep 1969 and 1 $ (PNM 13537) 8 May 
1969, both in winter plumage and both from Iwahig, Puerto Princesa by 
T. Oane. First records for Palawan. 

METALLIC WOOD PIGEON Columba vitiensis 

1 <J (PNM 13086) collected 12 Apr 1971 and 1 $ (PNM 13087) 16 Apr 
1971 from Mt Gurangbato, Brooke's Point by P. Gonzales and T. Oane. 
First records for Palawan. This species has previously been recorded 
from Comiranand Lumbucan (Manuel 1937), small islets east of Balabac 
in the Palawan Group. Hachisuka (1939) described Columba vitiensis 
anthracina from 2 specimens from Lumbucan, the subspecies subse- 
quently being supported by Ripley & Rabor (1958). We have not had 
the opportunity to compare the Palawan birds with specimens of C. v. 
anthracina nor with adequate material of C. v. griseogularis from the 
rest of the Philippines. Thus, we do not wish to assign them to either 
of these subspecies until we obtain more specimens from Palawan or 
we amass additional comparative material, or both. 

GRASS OWL Tyto capensis amauronota 

1 unsexed (PNM 15908) collected 4 Jan 1981 from Irawan, near 
Iwahig, Puerto Princesa by M. D. Bruce. First specimen record for 
Palawan. Previously known from captured and ringed birds from Iwahig: 
1965 (2), 1966 (5), 1967 (1), 1968 (4) and 1969 (10) (McClure & Leelavit 

SHORT-EARED OWL Asio flammeus flammeus 

1 ? (PNM 11555) collected 9 Dec 1968 from Iwahig, Puerto Princesa 
by T. Oane. First record for Palawan and 5th record for the Philippines: 
Luzon — one by McGregor & Manuel (1936) and one previously unpub- 
lished sight record by Kennedy on 20 Nov 1981 in a reclaimed portion of 
Manila Bay at Pasay, Manila; Mindanao — one by Hachisuka (1941); and 
Mindoro — one by Temme (1974). 

P. C. Gonzales & R. S. Kennedy 129 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

SAND MARTIN Riparia riparia ijimae 

1 S (PNM 8134) collected 3 Dec 1965,1 ^ (PNM 8257) 5 Jan 1967, and 
1 $, 1 unsexed (PNM 13307, 13308) 31 Oct 1969 all from Iwahig, Puerto 
Princesa by T. Oane. duPont (1971) listed Palawan within the range of 
this species, without details, apparently on the basis of one specimen 
(DMNH 3837) collected in Dec 1969 from Iwahig, Puerto Princesa. Also 
previously known from captured and ringed birds from Iwahig: 1965 (4), 
1966 (2), 1967 (3), 1968 (3) and 1969 (5) (McClure & Leelavit 1972). 

EYE-BROWED THRUSH Turdus obscurus 

1 £ (PNM 13150) collected 22 Apr 1971 and 1 $ (PNM 13151) 23 Apr 
1971 both from Mt Langka, Brooke's Point by P. Gonzales and T. Oane; 
1 ? (PNM 13313) collected 2 May 1969 from Iwahig, Puerto Princesa by 
T. Oane; and 1 $ (PNM 14741) taken 11 Apr 1975 from Salvacion, 
Busuanga Island (Province of Palawan) by R. Sison. First specimen 
records for Palawan and for Busuanga. Previously known from one 
ringing record from Kabigaan, Palawan in 1965 (McClure & Leelavit 


1 immature £ (DMNH 74666) collected 1 8 Oct 1 980 from Buena Vista, 
Palawan at c. 100 m. This is the first record of this species for Palawan and 
represents the greatest distance this subspecies has been found from its 
breeding grounds in the Batan Islands in the northern Philippines and 
Lan Yii Island off southern Taiwan. 

FOREST WAGTAIL Dendronanthus indicus 

1 <$ (PNM 9092) collected 15 Mar 1968 from the Marble Mts, 
Cabayugan by P. Gonzales and J. Ramos. Second record for Palawan and 
5th record for the Philippines; Balabac — one by Everett (1895); 
Calayan — one by McGregor (1904); Palawan — one by Baud (1978); and 
one previously unpublished specimen (DMNH 38406) record from 
Barrio Oringao, Kabangkalan, Negros Occidental collected in Mar 1974 
by D. S. Rabor, the first record for Negros. 


We are grateful to A. Castro, M. Celestino, R. Sison and the late T. Oane for their untiring 
efforts in the field collecting for the PNM. E. C. Dickinson and K. C. Parkes kindly read an 
earlier draft of this paper. We also wish to thank K. C. Parkes for confirming the identifi- 
cation of many of the specimens reported here and informing us of the Forest Wagtail 
specimen from Negros, D. M. Niles for locating the Sand Martin specimen in the DMNH, 
and C. A. Ross for his help in many ways throughout the preparation of this paper. RSK 
gratefully acknowledges the support of his Philippine studies by Joe and Jan Herron and 


Baud, F. J. 1978. Oiseaux des Philippines de la collection W. Parsons. II. Luzon, Mindoro 

et Palawan. Rev. Suisse Zool. 85: 55-97. 
Condon, H. T. 1975. Checklist of the Birds of Australia. Part 1. Non-Passerines. R.A.O.U. 
duPont, J. E. 1971. Philippine Birds. Delaware Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Everett, A. H. 1895. A list of the birds of the island of Balabac, with some notes on and 

additions to the avifauna of Palawan. Ibis Ser. 7 (1): 21-39. 
Hachisuka, M. 1939. New races of a rail and a fruit pigeon from Micronesia and Palawan. 

Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 59: 151-153. 

P. A. Clancey 130 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

Hachisuka, M. 1941. Further contributions to the ornithology of the Philippine Islands. 
Tori 11: 61-89. 

Kennedy, R. S., Glass, P. O., Glass, E. J., Gonzales, P. C. & Dickinson, E. C. 1986. Notes 
on Philippine birds, 1 1 . New or important records for the island of Palawan. Bull. Brit. 
Orn.Cl. 106:173-179. 

King, B. F., Dickinson, E. C. & Woodcock, M. W. 1975. A Field Guide to the Birds of South- 
East Asia. Collins. 

McClure H. E. & Leelavit, P. 1972. Birds Banded in Asia during the MAPS Program, by 
Locality , from 1963 through 1971. US Army Research and Development Group, Far 
East, Report No. FE-31 5-7. 

McGregor, R. C. 1904. Birds of Calayan and Fuga, Babuyan Group. Bull. Philipp. Mus. 4: 

McGregor, R. C. 1909. A Manual of Philippine Birds. Part I. Bur. Sci., Manila. 

McGregor, R. C. & Manuel, C. G. 1936. Birds new and rare in the Philippines. Philipp. J. 
Sci. 59:317-326. 

McKean, J. L. 1980. A sight record of the Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula in the 
Northern Territory. Aust. Bird Watcher 8: 236—237. 

Manuel, C. G. 1937. A review of Philippine pigeons, V: Subfamilies Columbinae, Geopelii- 
nae, Phabinae and Caloenadinae. Philipp. J. Sci. 63: 175-184. 

Parkes, K. C. 1986. Notes on Philippine birds, 9. Reidentification of a unique stint speci- 
men. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 106: 133-136. 

Ripley, S. D. & Rabor, D. S. 1958. Columba vitiensis anthracina (Hachisuka), a reconsider- 
ation. Condor 60: 192-193. 

Severinghaus, S. R. & Blackshaw, K. T. 1976. A New Guide to the Birds of Taiwan. Mei Ya 
Publ. Inc. 

Sison, R. V. 1983. The birds of Singnapan Valley. Pp. 51-72zw J. T. Peralta(ed.) Tau'tBatu 
Studies. Monogr. 7. Natl. Mus. Philipp., Manila. 

Smythies, B. E. 1981 . The Birds of Borneo. 3rd Edition. The Sabah Soc. 

Temme, M. 1974. New records of Philippine birds on the island of Mindoro. Bonn. Zool. 
Beitr. 25: 292-296. 

White, C. M. N. & Bruce, M. D. 1986. The Birds of Wallacea (Sulawesi, the Moluccas & 
Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia). British Ornithologists' Union Check-list No. 7. 

Addresses: P. C. Gonzales, Zoology Division, Philippine National Museum, Rizal Park, 
Manila, Philippines; R. S. Kennedy, Cincinnati Museum of Natural History, 1720 
Gilbert Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Subspeciation in the Larklike Bunting of the 
southwestern Afrotropics 

by P. A. Clancey 

Received 4 November 1988 

The present species of bunting was introduced to science as Emberiza 
impetuani by Dr Andrew Smith in the report on the results of the ex- 
pedition led by him for the exploring of central Africa from the Cape of 
Good Hope in 1836 on material collected in 1834 in the country to the 
north of Kuruman in the northeastern northern Cape. The species is 
virtually confined to the relatively harsh South West Arid Zone with 
peripheral, local and largely seasonal extensions in mesic but ecologically 
suitable country to the east of the main range. The Larklike Bunting 
affects relatively arid, often stony terrain with sparse grass, low scrub and 

P. A. Clancey 131 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

few trees as cover, and appears to be no more than locally nomadic when 
not breeding. Many populations are, however, on occasion subject to 
major eastward movements in years when drought and protracted winter 
cold occur over the steppe-like plateau regions normally affected by it (see 
Irwin 1981). 

Macdonald (1957) showed on the basis of the small series in the British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.) (BMNH) that the species is subject to quite marked 
variation, but that the conclusion reached by earlier workers that the 
demonstrable variation is a seasonal manifestation was incorrect. He con- 
cluded that it is in fact a geographical correlate, and arranged the popu- 
lations present in the Karoo system to the south of the Orange R. in a new 
subspecies: E. i. sloggetti (Macdonald) 1957: Deelfontein, southwest of 
De Aar, Cape, based on 14 specimens taken by Seimund in the early 
1900s, in so doing confining the nominate form to north of the Orange R. 
At the same time he restricted the type-locality of nominate E. i. 
impetuani — given as "the country between the Nu Gariep and Tropic" by 
Smith (1836) — to eastern Botswana, which was in some respects an 
unfortunate choice, as Smith's party scarcely penetrated the country now 
included in Botswana, and the original material of the present species 
almost certainly came from northeast of Kuruman in the northern Cape 
and the western Transvaal. 

Macdonald separated sloggetti from E. i. impetuani on paler colour- 
ation, narrower dorsal streaking and smaller size, a conclusion reached 
through comparing the Deelfontein sample with one of some 15 skins 
collected in South West Africa/Namibia by personnel of the BMNH 
expedition of 1950. A recent re-assessment of the variation in this dull 
coloured bunting revealed that sloggetti is distinguishable from nominate 
impetuani, as determined on an adequate series of the latter from the 
Kuruman district, on the basis of paler and greyer dorsal surfaces. The 
other characters in the differential diagnosis are invalid, having been 
arrived at by comparing the Deelfontein sample with South West African 
rather than northeastern Cape, western Transvaal and eastern Botswana 
material, from which general area the species was described. E. i. sloggetti 
is larger than impetuani and is similarly streaked above. The South West 
African sample with which it was initially compared is now seen as having 
been drawn from an undescribed subspecies distributed to the west from 
the northwestern Cape, north through South West Africa to reach south- 
western Angola. This form is similar in size to sloggetti, generally redder 
in coloration and has the dorsal streaking heavier than in either sloggetti or 
nominate impetuani. It is formally described below. 

One's interpretation of the variation in the present species is con- 
ditioned by a range of factors such as local post-breeding nomadism and 
major occasional, but short term, climatic-based eruptions of many popu- 
lations from their breeding grounds. Others are the obscuring of sub- 
specifically important features through rapid colour fading and feather 
wear to which this semi-desertic species is highly prone; and the finding 
that first-year birds carrying juvenile plumage remiges are shorter winged 
than adults of the same population. Yet another factor is that in one race 
(the nominate), the sexes are closely alike, whereas in the other popu- 
lations males are generally larger than females (see Table 1). 




8 73-75 




12 70-75 




. sloggetti 

10 77-80.5 




5 75-77.5 
X of 15 (J? 77.5, 





. eremica 

19 75-80 




15 _ 72-78 



P. A. Clancey 132 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


The wing-length (mm) parameter in adults of the Larklike Bunting Emberiza impetuani of 

the South West Arid Zone of the Afrotropics, showing the close agreement between the 

sexes in the nominate race of the Kalahari system, and the larger size of males of the other 2 

subspecies affecting karooid country. 

Localities Sex n Range X SD 

N. Cape (Kuruman dist.) and S.W. 

Cape S. of Orange R., Griqualand 
West and Orange Free State 

Damaraland and Kaokoland, 
South West Africa 

99 i< 

X of 34 <?9 76.4, SD1.81 

While subspecies are recognized in McLachlan & Liversidge (1970) 
and in the SAOS Checklist (Clancey 1980), Paynter, in the continuation 
of Peters' Check-list (vol. XIII, 1970), treats the species as monotypic. 
The research reported here is based on a larger body of material than was 
available to Macdonald, and confirms the desirability of recognizing 3 
subspecies, defined as follows: 

(a) Emberiza impetuani impetuani Smith 

Emberiza impetuani A. Smith, Kept. Exped. Expl. Centr. Afr., 1836, p. 48: 
"country between the Nu Gariep and Tropic", restricted to eastern 
Botswana by Macdonald, Contr. Orn. West. S. Africa, 1957, p. 169. 

Dorsum vinaceous Tawny-Olive (Ridgway 1912), with narrow fuscous 
shaft- streaking. On underside with breast deep Pinkish Buff; sides huff- 
ish, and light mid-ventral surface relatively restricted. Size small, and 
sexes virtually alike in wing-length. 

Measurements. Means of wings of 33 73.9 and of $$ 73.2 mm (Table 1). 

Range. Breeds from Gordonia and the northern Cape to the north of 
Griqualand West, western, southern and eastern Botswana, adjacent 
South West Africa/Namibia, the western Transvaal, and locally in the 
Limpopo R. drainage of southern Zimbabwe, east to the lower Bubye R. 
In west of range apparently extends southwest to Bushmanland (at 
Pofadder). Subject to local post-breeding nomadism and occasional east- 
ward eruptive movements (as outlined above), these latter taking 
elements to north of the Zambezi in south-central Africa. Centred on the 
Kalahari system of the arid interior of the Southern African Subregion. 

Remarks. Two moderately worn specimens taken at Orupembe, 
Kaokoland, northwestern South West Africa, on 20 May 1963, by P. J. 
Buys and in the State Museum, Windhoek, are of the nominate race. This 

P. A. Clancey 133 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

locality lies well west of the breeding range. Carp Expedition material 
from the same locality, but taken in a different year, are E. i. eremica 
(Transvaal Museum collection). 

(b) Emberiza impetuani sloggetti (Macdonald) 

F . ( ringilla ) (sic) i.(mpetuani) sloggetti Macdonald, Contr. Orn. West. S. 
Africa, 1957, p. 170: Deelfontein, southwest of De Aar, Cape. 

Compared with nominate impetuani greyer above (feather edging near 
Wood Brown), and shaft-streaking tending to be heavier. Below with 
breast ranging lighter, and white mid-venter more extensive with flanks 
paler. When fresh, with white edges to tertials and adjacent wing-coverts. 
Size larger, and sexes largely disparate in wing-length, with male longer 
winged than female. Juvenile also paler. 

Measurements. Means of wings of 33 78.5 and of 9? 75.7 mm (Table 1). 

Range. Karooid regions of the interior of the southwestern and western 
Cape, east through the interior to the Fish R. drainage, Griqualand West 
in northern Cape, western Orange Free State and adjacent southern 
Transvaal. Less vagile than in case of the nominate subspecies. 

Remarks. The type-specimen of sloggetti is a January 1901 bird taken by 
Seimund for Col. A. T. Sloggett, OC of a British military medical facility 
established at Deelfontein, in the BMNH. A specimen collected in 
January would be in faded and worn condition. Macdonald's mistaken 
use of the genus Fringilla in describing sloggetti was due to an oversight, as 
he clearly intended to employ Fringillaria, a Swainson genus of 1 837. The 
type-species of Fringillaria is Emberiza capensis Linnaeus, 1766. 

(c) Emberiza impetuani eremica, subsp., nov. 

Type. 3, adult. Klipkop farm, 18 miles south of Otjiwarongo, northern 
South West Africa/Namibia. 25 May 1959. Collected by Durban 
Museum personnel. In the collection of the Durban Natural History 
Museum, DM Reg. No. 9477. 

Description. Compared with sloggetti redder or more vinaceous above 
(feather edging Sayal Brown), with heavier and blacker shaft-streaking. 
Ventrally, with yellower throat when fresh; breast darker (near Clay 
Color), and lateral surfaces and flanks deeper coloured with the pale mid- 
venter constricted (as in nominate impetuani). In wings, tertials and other 
remiges redder. Size about the same as sloggetti, and sexes again disparate 
in wing-length. 

Measurements. Means of wings of 33 77.3 and of $$75.3 mm (Table 1). 

Material examined. 114 specimens {main localities: Rosh Pina, 
Kochena, NEof Grunauatc. 27°00'S, 18°50'E (38 specimens), Bethanie, 
Keetmanshoop, Mt Brukaros, Gorob Mine (23°34'S, 15°24'E on Kuiseb 
R. in Namib), Windhoek, Okahandja, Usakos, Otjiwarongo, Sanitatas, 
Ohopoho, Orupembe, 50 miles E of Torra Bay and Brandberg. 

Range. Northwestern Cape on the Orange R. and in rubble desert 
and karooid country of South West Africa/Namibia from Great 
Namaqualand, north to Damaraland and Kaokoland, and in south- 
western Angola. Penetrates the interior edge of the Namib. Movement 
pattern, if any, uncertain. 

P. A. Clancey 134 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

Measurements of the type-specimen (mm): wing (flattened) 77.25, culmen 
from base 13, tarsus 18.5, tail 57. Contour plumage moult virtually 

Remarks. The breeding season of E. i. eremica is later than that of 
sloggetti, being more influenced by uncertain rainfall, and many birds of 
the topotypical population and of Kaokoland examined were still in 
bleached and worn dress or in the early stages of moult in mid-June. An 
unsexed specimen taken on the Maxohue R., in the Matopos Hills of 
southwestern Mazohwe Zimbabwe, during a major influx of migrants in 
late July 1964, with a wing 78.5 mm, and in the collection of the Durban 
Natural History Museum, would seem attributable to eremica. 


For access to collections and research facilities, during which 1 89 skins were examined, I am 
grateful to Dr J. M. Mendelsohn, State Museum, Windhoek, and to Dr Aldo Berruti, 
Durban Natural History Museum. Dr A. C. Kemp, Ornithologist of the Transvaal 
Museum, Pretoria, kindly lent all their South West African material. To those named I 
tender my thanks. 


Clancey, P. A. (Ed.) 1980. SAOS Checklist of Southern African Birds, p. 297. Southern 

African Ornithological Society, Johannesburg. 
Irwin, M. P. S. 1981. The Birds of Zimbabwe. Pp. 427^-28. Quest Publishing. 
Macdonald, J. D. 1957. A Contribution to the Ornithology of western South Africa. Pp. 

169-170. British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 
McLachlan, G. R. & Liversidge, R. 1970. Roberts' Birds of South Africa (3rd ed.). p. 602. 

Trustees J. Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town. 
Paynter, R. A. 1970. Family Emberizidae in Check-list of Birds of the World, 13: 16-17. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 
Ridgway, R. 1912. Color Standards and Color Nomenclature. The Author, Washington, DC. 
Smith, A. 1836. Rept. Exped. Expl. Centr. Afr. from the Cape of Good Hope. p. 48. Cape 


Address: Dr P. A. Clancey, Fernleigh Gardens, 8 Lambert Road, Morningside, Durban 
4001 , South Africa 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

The southern isolate of Par us rufiventris 
pallidiventris Reichenow, 1885 

by P. A. Clancey 

Received 4 November 1 988 

The Rufous-bellied Tit Parus rufiventris Bocage, 1877, of south-central 
Africa, and an endemic of Brachystegia (Miombo) woodland savanna, is 
broadly divisible into 2 major population complexes on the basis of ven- 
tral plumage and iris colouration. The western group consists of 3 sub- 
species with the lower venter Cinnamon (Ridgway 1912) and the eye 
colour pale yellow. A fourth, the eastern subspecies, in contrast has the 
underside a dilute greyish vinaceous and the eyes dark brown. This latter 

P. A. Clancey 135 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

taxon — Parus rufiventris pallidiventris Reichenow, 1885; Kakoma, 
Tabora district, western Tanzania, which has Parus rovumae Shelley, 
1 892: near the Rovuma R. , southeastern Tanzania, as a synonym — ranges 
from northwestern Tanzania at Kibondo (3°33'S, 30°30'E) east to 
Morogoro, thence south to northern Mozambique, southern Malawi east 
of the Rift, and as an isolate over the plateau of eastern Zimbabwe and the 
adjacent Manica district of southern Mozambique. This latter detached 
population has been shown by Hall & Moreau (1970) to have both dark 
and light brown irides as opposed to dark brown in the norm of topotypi- 
cal pallidiventris. The status of this isolate was discussed in Clancey 
(1974), when it was postulated that it seemed to comprise 2 distinguish- 
able subspecies: P. r. pallidiventris and an undescribed form, the latter 
presumably a relict of an earlier (of 2) southward colonizing thrusts on the 
part of the pale ventralled eastern elements. Later, Irwin (1981) 
expressed the view that the birds occurring to the south of the Zambezi 
are inherently unstable, with the abdomen colour either pinkish buff or 
pale vinaceous and the eyes either dark or light brown. 

Few additional specimens from critical areas to the south of the 
Zambezi have come to hand since I dealt with this issue 1 5 years ago, and, 
unfortunately, no more are likely to be collected in the foreseeable future. 
In the light of these circumstances, it seems desirable to re-examine the 
case on the available material in museums in association with an appraisal 
of the evolutionary and ecological backgrounds. 

The facies of the available specimens comports with the criteria laid 
down for the 2 populations outlined in my 1974 paper, showing that in 
addition to the characters enumerated for the Zimbabwean plateau birds 
they exhibit a marked white speculum over the visible base of the primar- 
ies. This important additional feature was not highlighted in the report on 
the earlier study, though the overall whiter nature of the wings was 
emphasized. In so far as variation in shades of brown of the irides as a 
taxonomic character is concerned, this is only employable with caution as 
it is essentially subjective, the data used to-date by workers having been 
taken from museum specimen labels rather than by direct field sampling 
with the evaluation of eye-colour variation in mind. Individual variation 
in all 4 presently recognized subspecies of the Rufous-bellied Tit is con- 
servative; a higher incidence of such in an isolate, such as that occurring 
on the interior plateau south of the Zambezi, is viewed here as unlikely, 
the variation in the entire detached population segment being seen as the 
result of 2 chronologically remote colonizing events, the descendants of 
which now constitute discrete yet contiguous forms. 

As demonstrated by Irwin (1981), in Zimbabwe P. rufiventris is re- 
placed in otherwise suitable tracts of moist miombo in parts of the central 
plateau by the local subspecies of the Southern Black Tit Parus niger 
ravidus, the 2 tits being largely allopatric. On the other hand, the Rufous- 
bellied Tit is fully sympatric with a second miombo endemic parid in the 
Miombo Grey Tit Parus griseiventris parvirostris. North of the Zambezi 
and west to Angola, similar niche partitioning among these tit species 
and the White-winged Black Tit Parus leucomelas insignis is found (see 
in particular comment by Benson et al. 1971). The relatively limited 
range of the Zimbabwean population of P. rufiventris results from the 

P. A. Clancey 136 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

constraints of competition with P. niger and the limited expanse of suit- 
able moist miombo woodland savanna, much of western and southern 
Zimbabwe being too dry for its requirements. 

Viewing the birds present to the south of the Zambezi as derived from 2 
separate colonizations from regions to the north of the river, those 
stemming from the second expansionary event are indistinguishable from 
P. r. pallidiventris , but the descendants of the primal invasion, showing 
distinctive characters, require a name: 

Parus rufiventris stenotopicus, subsp. nov. 

Type. cJ. Mt Maienji (Mwenji), Odzi district, Mashonaland, Zimbabwe, 
at 18°56'S, 32°21'E, 12 December 1953. Collected by M. P. Stuart Irwin. 
In the collection of the Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe, 
Bulawayo, Mus. Reg. No. 16 347. 

Description. Differs from P. r. pallidiventris in having the black fore- 
throat abruptly terminated and not bled down over the upper and mid- 
breast as in Tanzanian specimens. The wings are overall whiter, the 
coverts more broadly edged and tipped with white, the remiges with 
broader fringes to the outer vanes, the primaries with a pronounced white 
speculum which extends some 7-9 mm, versus 2— 4 mm in pallidiventris, 
beyond the apex of the primary-coverts. Subtle differences include a 
slightly paler grey mantle, duller, less jet black surfaces to the entire head 
and fore-throat, paler grey to the sides of the lower breast, and a lighter 
greyish vinaceous mid-ventral surface. I rides light brown. Size ranging 

Measurements. Wings of 5 <$<$ 84-87 (85.9), SD 1 .14 and of 1 $ 82 mm. 

Material examined. 6 (Mermaid's Pool, N. of Harare, at 17°39'S, 
31°22'E; Mt Maienji, Odzi; Banti Forest Reserve (19°20'S, 32°46'E); 
Haroni R. valley; Makurupi-ni R. Valley. 

Range. The moist miombo woodland savanna of Manicaland and 
Mashonaland, Zimbabwe, from the rain-shadow aspects of the eastern 
Highlands, at c. 32°46'E, west to c. 31°00'E, and north in Mashonaland to 
Mrewa and Shamva (17°18'S, 31°34'E). Intergrades to the east of its 
range on the seaward facing versant of the Eastern Highlands with 
pallidiventris, which extends eastwards to the Manica district of 
Mozambique. Somewhat sparse throughout its established range. 

Etymology, stenotopicus, from Greek (and modern ecology), occupying 
a restricted or narrow environmental niche. 

Measurements of the Type. Wing 87, tail 72 mm. 

Remarks. The wing-measurements of the other subspecies of the 
Rufous-bellied Tit are as follows (mainly from Clancey 1979): 

P. r. diligens: 4 $$ 86.5-89 (87.8), SD 1.31; 2 $$ 82, 82 

P. r. rufiventris: 30 £$ 83-89 (85.3), SD 1.70;13 $? 80-86 (82.4), SD 

P. r. masukuensis: 12 $$ 83-87 (85.1), SD 1.54; 12 $$ 77.5-83.5 (80.7), 

P. r. pallidiventris: 10 &£ 80-84.5 (82.1), SD 1.51. 

The tail-length also varies geographically, with <$<$ of pale yellow-eyed 
subspecies diligens with a tail of > 70 mm, and rufiventris and masukuensis 

C. B. Frith & C.J. O. Harrison 137 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

with tails of < 69 mm. In the case of the race with dark brown eyes — 
pallidiventris — tails measure < 66 mm; in stenotopicus tails measure 
>69 mm. 

While the range of P. r. stenotopicus over the Manicaland and Mashona- 
land plateau has been shown by Irwin to be restricted to stands of moist 
Brachystegia woodland savanna (Miombo) , the ecological backgrounds of 
the other 4 races are on the whole more expansive in nature. In the case of 
P. r. diligens Clancey 1979; Andara, Okavango R., northeastern South 
West Africa/Namibia, this subspecies of the western cinnamon- 
ventralled plexus affects the dry woodlands of the Kavango region of 
Namibia, which constitute the ecotone between the Brachystegia 
savannas of Angola and Zambia and the Acacia steppe of the South West 
Arid Zone. In this ecotone, Parus rufiventris diligens and the local race of 
the Southern Black Tit Parus niger xanthostomus are largely sympatric, 
this combination probably effected in part by the absence of a local form 
of the Miombo Grey Tit Parus griseiventris. 


For research facilities at the Durban Natural History Museum I am grateful to the Acting 
Director. Mr H. D. Jackson, Director of the Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe, 
Bulawayo, and members of his staff kindly provided information on specimens in the collec- 
tion under their control. To those concerned I extend my thanks. 


Benson, C. W., Brooke, R. K., Dowsett, R. J. & Irwin, M. P. S. 1971. The Birds of Zambia. 

p. 206. Collins. 
Clancey P. A. 1974. Subspeciation studies in some Rhodesian birds. Arnoldia (Rhodesia) 

6(28): 10-11. 
Clancey P. A. 1979. A further race of Parus rufiventris Bocage from the middle and lower 

Okavango R. drainage. Misc. Tax. Notes on African Birds 55, Durban Mus. Novit. 

12(5): 52-54. 
Hall, B. P. & Moreau, R. E. 1970. An Atlas of Speciation in African Passerine Birds. British 

Museum (Natural History). 
Irwin, M. P. S. 1981 . The Birds of Zimbabwe, p. 253. Quest Publishing. 
Ridgway, R. 1912. Color Standards and Color Nomenclature. The Author, Washington, DC. 

Address: Dr P. A. Clancey, Fernleigh Gardens, 8 Lambert Road, Morningside, Durban 
4001, South Africa. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

An undescribed plumage of the Crested Bird of 
Paradise Cnemophilus macgregorii 

by C. B. Frith and C.J. O. Harrison 

Received 11 November 1988 

The Crested Bird of Paradise Cnemophilus macgregorii is a little known, 
medium-sized, sexually dimorphic bird of paradise (Paradisaeidae) of the 
subfamily Cnemophilinae living in upper montane forests and subalpine 
shrubbery of the mountains of the Central Highlands, Eastern Highlands 

C. B. Frith & C.J. O. Harrison 138 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

and the southeast of Papua New Guinea at altitudes between 2300 and 
3500 m (Cooper & Forshaw 1977, Beehler et al. 1986). In general appear- 
ance the adult male is a brilliant flame golden-orange above and black 
below, and the female is uniform brownish-olive throughout, both sexes 
with a small filamental sagittal crest (for detailed plumage descriptions 
see Gilliard 1969 and Cooper & Forshaw 1977). 

The Crested Bird of Paradise is of considerable systematic interest, 
being originally placed in the bowerbird family Ptilonorhynchidae (De 
Vis 1890, Mayr 1941, Iredale 1950) and subsequently in the birds of 
paradise, Paradisaeidae (Marshall 1954, Gilliard 1969, Cooper & 
Forshaw 1977). Anatomical studies clearly showed that Cnemophilus is a 
bird of paradise (Mayr & Gilliard 1954) and Bock (1963) demonstrated 
that this monotypic genus was most closely related to the other monotypic 
genera Loria and Loboparadisaea and that these 3 genera, perhaps 
together with Macgregorii, form the subfamily Cnemophilinae — this 
group representing the ancestral stock of the bird of paradise and bower- 
bird complex. Bock expressed the view that the position of Macgregorii 
within the Cnemophilinae was far less certain than the other 3 genera 
because it shares characters with both subfamilies of the Paradisaeidae. In 
fact Macgregorii was subsequently placed in the Paradisaeinae (Gilliard 
1969, Diamond 1972, Schodde 1976, Cooper & Forshaw 1977). Diamond 
(1972) suggested that Loria be placed in Cnemophilus and Schodde (1976) 
suggested that Loboparadisaea, may also be merged into Cnemophilus. 
Some subsequent authors have transferred only Loria into Cnemophilus 
(Beehler & Finch 1985, Beehler et al. 1986) and whilst Frith (1987) con- 
sidered the grouping of Loria and Cnemophilus reasonable, he felt inclined 
to retain Loria until more knowledge of the birds' life histories was 

Having described a previously unknown grey plumage in Loria's Bird 
of Paradise L. loriae (Frith 1987), CBF came across notes he made on 2 
unusual Cnemophilus macgregorii specimens among some bird of para- 
dise skins casually examined during a brief visit to the Alexander Koenig 
Museum in Bonn, West Germany in 1971. His brief notes made at the 
time read: "Two immatures in very interesting plumage, ashy-grey with 
russett on primaries and brown-black tails." The skins in question are 
specimens: 19.9.1963. Wurup, Kubor Range. Sex ? and 29.12.1963. 
Tomba, Mt Hagen. $. 

In view of their similarity to the grey Loria plumage that Frith (1987) 
had recently discovered, CBF requested the loan of the specimens, in 
order to re-examine them in conjunction with a study of other skins, while 
on a brief visit to the British Museum (Natural History), Tring. The $ 
29.12.1963 was sent to Tring from Bonn but arrived too late for CBF to 
study it. CJOH examined it, comparing it with 2 BMNH skins of females 
with typical brownish-olive (female) plumage, satisfying himself that the 
grey feathering of the Koenig Museum skin represents an undescribed 
plumage and is not the result of fading or foxing. We cannot, however, 
confirm if the bird is an immature or an adult. 

In appearance this bird resembles the typically plumaged females 
except that all evidence of yellow pigment is lacking. The belly is pale ash- 
grey, with flanks and under-tail coverts slightly darker, and a drab grey on 

C. B. Frith & C.J. O. Harrison 139 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

thighs. Breast and throat are a pale mid-grey with very slightly darker 
edges to the feathers giving a faintly scaly pattern, which is also apparent 
on the normal female-plumaged birds. Head and neck are a uniform mid- 
grey. The mantle is a deeper grey with a distinct brownish wash, becom- 
ing greyer again on the rump. The wing coverts are brownish-grey like 
the mantle; the flight feathers are blackish on the hidden inner webs and 
are warm brown on the outer webs. The underside of the wings is dull 
light-grey with pale basal inner edges to the primary webs, forming a 
small very pale-grey patch. Upper-tail coverts and the tail are a warm 

It would appear that the above Cnemophilus macgregorii plumage is a 
colour-morph equivalent to the grey plumage found in some Loria loria 
individuals (Frith 1987), thus providing a further character strongly link- 
ing these 2 species. Given the limited knowledge of Cnemophilus macgre- 
gorii and its populations, it is difficult to assess the significance of the grey 
plumage described above within the species. However, it is important to 
note that the grey plumaged specimens are from 2 separate populations. 
Birds of the Kubor Range were treated as the subspecies C. m. kuboriensis 
(Mayr & Gilliard 1954), until synonomised with C. m. sanguineus 
(Diamond 1972), which is the subspecies found on Mt Hagen and other 
mountains of the Central and Eastern Highlands (Beehler et al. 1986). 

The grey plumage may merely be an infrequent form of dimorphism, 
perhaps a simple recessive variation. On the other hand it might be a 
singe-moult immature plumage rarely seen and collected to date. It is 
noteworthy that Loboparadisea sericea, the third member of the Cnemo- 
philinae, was considered unique among birds of paradise in having an 
immature plumage distinctly different from the adult female (Gilliard 
1969, Cooper & Forshaw 1977). It would now appear that all 3 species of 
the Cnemophilinae do at least have a plumage different from that of their 
respective adult male and female in some individuals or populations, but 
in the case of Loria loriae and Cnemophilus macgregorii the status and 
significance of their grey plumage is unknown. 

Since pointing out that nesting data for Loria and Loboparadisea are 
much needed in order to further understand these peculiar birds of para- 
dise and the status of grey plumaged Loria (Frith 1987), Frith & Frith 
(1989 in press) express serious doubt about the identification of the nest 
and only egg attributed to Cnemophilus macgregoriae (Rothschild 1898, 
Gilliard 1969, Cooper & Forshaw 1977), although there is no doubt about 
it raising a single young in a domed mossy nest (Loke 1958). 

We thank the authorities of the Alexander Koenig Museum and the British Museum 
(Natural History), and their ornithological staff, for the opportunity to examine material in 
their care. Dr Bruce M. Beehler kindly commented on a draft of this note. 


Beehler, B. M. & Finch, B. W. 1985. Species-checklist of the birds of New Guinea. RAOU 

Australasian Ornithol. Monogr. 1: 1—127. 
Beehler, B. M., Pratt, T. K. & Zimmerman, D. A. 1986. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton 

Univ. Press. 
Bock, W. J. 1963. Relationships between the birds of paradise and the bower birds. Condor 


J. R. King 140 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

Cooper, W. T. & Forshaw, J. M. 1977. The Birds of Paradise and Bower Birds. Collins. 
DeVis, C. W. 1890. Report on birds from British New Guinea. Ann. Rep. Brit New Guinea 

for 1888-89. Appx. C. 105-116. 
Diamond, J. M. 1972. Avifauna of the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea. Publ. Nuttall 

Ornithol. Club No. 12. 
Frith, C. B. 1987. An undescribed plumage of Loria's Bird of Paradise Loria loriae. Bull. 

Brit. Orn. CI. 107: 177-180. 
Frith, C. B. & Frith, D. W. in press. Nesting biology and relationships of the Lesser 

Melampitta Melampitta lugubris. Emu 89. 
Gilliard, E. T. 1969. Birds of Paradise and Bower Birds. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 
Iredale, T. 1950. Birds of Paradise and Bower Birds. Georgian House. 
Loke, Wan Tho 1957. A Company of Birds. Michael Joseph. 

Marshall, A. J. 1954. Bower-birds : their displays and breeding cycles. Oxford Univ. Press. 
Mayr, E. 1941 . List of New Guinea Birds. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Mayr, E. & Gilliard, E. T. 1954. Birds of Central New Guinea. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

Rothschild, Lord W. 1898. Family Paradiseidae. Das Tierreich, Aves 2: 1—52. 
Schodde, R. 1976. Evolution in the birds-of-paradise and bowerbirds, a resynthesis. Proc. 

16th Int. Orn. Congr.: 137-149. 

Address: Clifford B. Frith, 'Prionodura', Paluma via Townsville, Queensland, Australia 
4816. Dr Colin J. O. Harrison, 48 Earl's Crescent, Harrow, Middlesex HA1 1XN, 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Notes on the birds of the Rio Mazan Valley, 
Azuay Province, Ecuador, with special 

reference to Leptosittaca branickii, 

Hapalopsittaca amazonina pyrrhops and 

Metallura baroni 

by J. R.King 

Received 3 December 1 988 

Currently, no detailed studies have been published on the avifauna of the 
montane forests around Cuenca, Azuay Province, southern Ecuador. 
Casual observations as part of more general work by a number of workers 
(e.g. R. S. Ridgely, D. Pitman, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia) in 
the neighbouring Llaviuco Valley and its adjacent paramo have been 
summarized in a list produced by M.A.G. (1986), but this is not widely 

I present the findings of ornithological studies of the Rio Mazan Valley 
(2°52'S, 79°7'W) undertaken in 1986 and 1987 by British ornithologists, 
supplemented by records from the Llaviuco valley. 

The Rio Mazan valley is situated c.l 5 km west of Cuenca and runs due 
east from its source lakes on Las Cajas (4000 m) to its confluence with the 
Rio Tomebamba (2760 m). Most observations were made above 3000 m 
in a 3300 ha area, designated an ecological reserve since 1981. Much of 
this is paramo grassland with stands of Puya hamata (Bromeliaceae) and 

J. R. King 141 Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

with scattered patches of Polylepis (Rosaceae) woodland. Below 3400 m, 
the valley is densely wooded with Podocarpus-dominated primary forest. 
This extends down to 3050 m. though most areas below 3200 m are grass- 
land, scrub and regenerating secondary forest, following logging in the 
1970s. The forest covers an area of 500 ha, bordered, particularly on the 
north-facing side, by extensive cliffs. Outside the reserve only a little scrub 
remains, and most of this area is now grazed pasture. Recently, large tracts 
have been replanted with Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), including the 
very lowest parts of the reserve. Llaviuco valley, 4 km north of Mazan, and 
separated by a ridge of up to 3850 m, is similarly vegetated, though more 
intense logging has reduced the forested areas to c. 300 ha, with a smaller 
proportion of primary forest. It is less steep throughout, and is occupied by 
Laguna Llaviuco, a roughly circular lake 350 m in diameter. 

Intensive field observations were made in Mazan throughout the 
periods 26 July-27 September 1986 and 30 July-29 October 1987. In 
addition, mist netting took place at 7 forest sites between 3050 and 3350 
metres on 72 dates. Records from Llaviuco pertain to brief periods of 
observation in mid July 1978, September 1985 and the austral summer 
1985/86, as summarized in M.A.G. (1986), with the addition of those 
obtained on short visits by Mazan workers in late July 1986 and August 

All the species recorded in the Rio Mazan valley are listed in Appendix 
1, with those found only in Llaviuco listed in Appendix 2. A few of the 
Mazan species are not currently known from Llaviuco, but Llaviuco has 
received far less ornithological coverage; conversely, Llaviuco species 
could all eventually be found in Mazan, though the intense coverage this 
valley has received in the August— October period suggests that those 
missing from Mazan (Appendix 2) do not occur there at that time of 
year — such avifaunal differences being possibly due, especially for forest 
species, to variation in valley characters. It should be noted that some 
intervalley movements were observed in large non-passerines (e.g. 
Cathartidae, Accipitridae, Columba fasciata and Leptosittaca branickii). 

A number of species listed in Appendix 1 are worthy of discussion, 
most notably the following 3 IUCN/ICBP Red Data Book species (as 
defined by Collar & Andrew 1988). 


In 1986, one flock of 20-22 was seen at the head of the Mazan valley 
(3300-3400 m) throughout Aug and Sep, and a flock of 8 at 3100-3200 m 
in early Aug. Members of this smaller group were seen displaying and 
mating on 7 Aug. The main flock numbered 28 in 1987, occupying the 
valley head again in Aug, but dispersing subsequently. A second flock 
(1 5-20 birds) was also present in Aug, but after the break up of the main 
flock, records became confused. In Sep and Oct daily records involved 
groups of 3-19 birds. Temporary groups of consistently the same size 
were maintained over short periods (3-5 days). There were occasional 
records of pairs from 30 Sep, and after 4 Oct the largest flock seen was 7. 
At least 12 birds remained in the valley on 28 Oct. 

Although not recorded from Llaviuco, L. branickii is probably regular 
there. On 7 Sep 1986 a flock of 41—42 was at the head of Mazan and 

J. R. King 142 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

divided itself into 2 equal flocks; it is believed that a flock of c. 20 had 
flown in from elsewhere (A. Gretton). Most notably, a group of 18 were 
seen flying toward Llaviuco low over the paramo north of Mazan 
(3600 m) on 13 Aug 1987. 

Many observations indicated that the tree Podocarpus aff. sprucei was 
this conures' main food source. These trees, average height 11.5 m, were 
most abundant at the valley head where L. branickii sightings were most 
frequent, and mapping of flock movements over many hours showed that 
80-85% of the trees visited were Podocarpus. It proved difficult to 
ascertain exactly which parts of the tree were being utilized for food, 
Podocarpus only fruiting on its uppermost branches. It is believed that 
intraspecific variable seasonality in Podocarpus would however result in 
potential food items (e.g. fruit, buds or leaf petioles) being available 
throughout the year. 

The only call heard from L. branickii was a characteristic, soft, con- 
tinuous chatter, which often located a feeding flock long before it was 

These notes are detailed for they represent the first records of 
Leptosittaca branickii from Ecuador for over 50 years, and also the first 
outside El Oro and Loja Provinces (R. S. Ridgely 1987), although there 
are possible sightings and tape-recordings from the Zapa Te Najda 
mountains, Azuay/Morona-Santiago border, in 1984 and 1987 (N. 
Krabbe 1988). The species has a disjunct distribution in the northern 
Andes, from Cuzco to Cajamarca in Peru, a few localities in Southern 
Ecuador (Ridgely 1980b) and Cauca, Huila and Caldas in Colombia 
(Hilty & Brown 1986). The species has recently been found to be wide- 
spread, though still uncommon, in Peru, but is rare and declining in 
Colombia, from where there are few recent sightings (Ridgely 1980b, 
Hilty & Brown 1986). The observations from Mazan suggest L. branickii 
may well be seasonal, flocking in favoured areas, probably for much of the 
year, then dispersing to breed. Such areas, as with Mazan and possibly 
Llaviuco, can clearly support quite large non-breeding flocks (contra 
Ridgely 1980b). 


At least 10 sightings in Mazan, 28 Aug to 27 Sep 1987. Apart from 5 
on 26 Sep, all sightings were of singletons or pairs, at 3150— 3350 m. 
Frequently seen flying high across the valley, often located by a character- 
istic, loud, disyllabic and repeated call, "chak-chak . . . chak-chak" . When 
perched, it was usually in exposed locations on treetops, and, notably, in 
established secondary growth on the north side of the valley, a habitat 
choice possibly characteristic of this subspecies (Ridgely 1980b). Though 
not confirmed, the sequence of records suggested the possibility of breed- 
ing during the observation period. Interestingly, the species was not 
recorded during 1986 fieldwork. Although there is only one record from 
Llaviuco, of 2 on 18 Jul 1978 (Ridgely 1980a), Llaviuco could be a 
favoured site if the apparent liking for secondary forest is proven. 

H. amazonina has declined markedly this century to become rare 
throughout its range, with the subspecies fuertisi and pyrrhops now 
seriously threatened (Collar & Andrew 1988). In addition to the records 

J. R. King 143 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

detailed above, pyrrhops is known only from 4 other sites in Ecuador 
(Ridgely 1980a), though it has also recently been found in northernmost 
Peru (Ridgely 1980b). None of the other 3 subspecies is known from 
further south than the head of the Magdalena Valley, Colombia, and 
there is therefore a gap southwards of c. 500 km between them and the 
northernmost pyrrhops. The taxonomic status oipyrrhops as a subspecies 
is uncertain; in view of its geographic isolation from the rest of the 
amazonina group, its marked plumage differences (Meyer de Schauensee 
1970) and possible differences in its call structure (cf. H. a. amazonina — 
Ridgely & Gaulin 1980) and in its habitat choice, its former specific status 
may well be valid. 


A large number of sightings during both years between 3150 and 
3670 m, though rarely below 3350 m, were usually in scrubby areas of the 
timberline, but also regularly around Polylepis patches (c. 3650 m) and on 
areas of adjacent paramo. In 1986, 9 were trapped (biometrics are given in 
Table 1). M. williami, which forms a superspecies with M. baroni and M. 
oeneocauda (Graves 1980), was also found in Mazan, but only between 
3100 and 3200 m. At the time of year observations were made, M. baroni 
appeared to feed exclusively on the nectar of Castelleja fissifolia 
(Scrophulariaceae), and was probably the commonest hummingbird in 
Mazan at higher altitudes, with the valley clearly supporting a large 
number of individuals. 

To date, most authors have been of the opinion that this species 
inhabits arid or semi-arid habitats (e.g. Meyer de Schauensee 1970, 
Ridgely 1980a, Collar & Andrew 1988). Though M. baroni obviously 
occurs in such areas, our extensive series of records and that of Ortiz- 
Crespo (1984), clearly show it has a preference for moist montane forest 
edges, typical of the other members of the superspecies (Graves 1980). 

A number of other species are worthy of briefer comments. 


The subspecies A. f. andinus was recorded regularly on the paramo 
lakes above Mazan. On 26 Oct 1987 one individual, seen at close range, 
had an obviously yellow bill, and thus appeared to be of the nominate 
subspecies. The possibility of confusion with A. georgica was eliminated 
on tail shape and plumage pattern. I am not aware that A. f . flavirostris has 
been recorded north of Peru (Hilty & Brown 1 986), though clarification of 
the status and taxonomy of the subspecies is needed. 


Seven records of 3 birds in 1986 and at least 30 records of 5 birds in 
1987. Courtship and 'prospecting' behaviour by a pair of adults in 1987 
suggested the Mazan cliffs could be a nesting site. Though formerly 
considered potentially endangered (Collar 1 985) this species has a healthy 
population in Ecuador (N. Hilgert de Benavides). Indeed it has been 
rediscovered in Venezuela (Zonfrillo 1977) and was not considered 
endangered by Collar & Andrew (1988). 

J. R. King 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


Biometrics of Metallura hummingbirds trapped in the Rio Mazan Valley, 1986-87 











to skull 










M. baronid(n = 3) 







M. baroni $ (n = 6) 







M. williami atrigularis (n = 7) 







M. tyrianthina <J (n = 54) 







M. tyrianthina $ (n = 39) 








Recorded on 13 and 16 Sep 1987 (1 and 2 adults respectively) on 
paramo north of Mazan (3500-3600 m), with possible sightings on a 
number of August dates. Identified at 50 m by a combination of small size 
and wholly pale head and underparts, thus eliminating Polyborus plancus. 
These records greatly increase the published altitudinal range of this 
species, given as up to 2600 m by Hilty & Brown (1986). Possibly Milvago 
chimachima , like P. plancus, is starting to colonize deforested highlands. 


Recorded both years, but is only occasional. In recent years, breeding 
Peregrines have been observed near Quito (Jenny et al. 1981) and it would 
be interesting to establish the status of those seen in Cajas. 


In 1987, recorded regularly after 14 Sep, an influx of migrants 
obviously having taken place. These records represent the most southerly 
known from Ecuador, along with one from Cuenca (Ortiz-Crespo 1974), 
and will be dealt with in more detail shortly (King & Holloway, in 


After Metallura tyrianthina and Lafresnaya lafresnayi, C. iris is the 
commonest Mazan hummingbird at lower elevations (3 1 00-3300 m), and 
was seen daily in good numbers. Though probably not endangered, this 
species is restricted to the Andes of southern Ecuador and northern Peru 
(Meyer de Schauensee 1970) and is listed as potentially endangered by 
Collar & Andrew (1988, App. 2). 


Rare in 1986 — only 4 records; in 1987 comparatively common below 
3100 m. Detailed observations of its flower choice indicated H. viola fed 
largely on the introduced Eucalyptus globulus, its distribution in the 
valley (2900-3100 m) being correlated closely with that of this tree 
(2900-3100 m). This unexpected discovery, though a habit not unknown 
in hummingbirds (Carpenter 1974), is particularly significant for a 
potentially endangered species (Collar & Andrew 1988, App. 2). 

J. R. King 145 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


Seen daily in Mazan between 3050 and 3300 m, with an estimated 
10—15 individuals in the valley, and 5—6 seen in Llaviuco in both 1986 
and 1987. Though quite common and widespread throughout much of 
its range (Andes from Caldas, Colombia to Junin, Peru), listed as 
potentially endangered by Collar & Andrew (1988). 


Three singletons, all in Polylepis woodland: above Llaviuco in Sep 
1985 (D. Pitman), above the head of Mazan, 13 Sep 1986 (3400 m), and 
south of Mazan, 24 Oct 1987 (3650 m). The species is completely depend- 
ent on Polylepis, a very disjunct habitat, and one which is seriously 
threatened in Ecuador (N. Krabbe 1988). These are the first records of 
the species from Azuay Province and the first from an apparent gap in the 
species' range between Chimboraza and Tungurahua, Riobamba, c. 
150 km to the north, and San Jose, Loja, c. 100 km to the south. Listed as 
potentially endangered by Collar & Andrew (1988). 


Five records from Mazan in both years, all of 1-2 birds, but 4 on 27 Sep 
1987. As with O. fraseri, these records fill a gap in the species' range, 
between a population c. 260 km to the north, and one c. 120 km to the 
south (Ridgely 1980a). 


Particular thanks are due to ETAPA and M.A.G. for much practical assistance in Ecuador. 
Comments and advice were freely given by Dr F. I. Ortiz-Crespo, Dr R. S. Ridgely, N. H. 
de Benavides, P. Greenfield and P. Hurley. Drs F. Sarmiento (Museo Ecuatoriano de 
Ciencas Naturales), T. de Vries (Universidad Catolica, Quito) and P. Burton (BMNH, 
Tring) kindly gave permission for me to examine specimens. Valuable comments from N. 
Krabbe, M. G. Kelsey, V. Fleming and A. Gosler improved an earlier draft of these notes. 
Financial assistance for 1986 fieldwork was received from ICBP and the British Ornithol- 
ogists' Union. Finally, special thanks to the Mazan fieldworkers, especially A. Gretton and 
S. J. Holloway, and also Miss L. Cannicott, A. Cross, J. Dauris, M. Hancock, the late D. 
Parr, A. Roberts and M. Woodhead. 


Carpenter, F. L. 1974. Torpor in an Andean hummingbird: its ecological significance. 

Science 183: 545-547. 
Collar, N. J. 1985. Candidate list of Red Data Book Bird Species in Ecuador. ICBP, 

Collar, N. J. & Andrew, P. 1988. Birds to Watch. ICBP Tech. Publ. No 8, ICBP, Cambridge. 
Graves, G. R. 1980. A new species of metaltail hummingbird from northern Peru. Wilson 

Bull. 92(1): 1-7. 
Hilty, S. L. & Brown, W. L. 1986. A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princeton University 

Jenny, J. P., Ortiz, F. & Arnold, M. D. 1981. First nesting record of the Peregrine Falcon in 

Ecuador. Condor 83: 387. 
King, J. R. & Holloway, S. J. in prep. Notes on the Giant Hummingbird Patagona gigas in 

southern Ecuador. 
Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia (M.A.G.) 1986. Avifauna del Area de Recreacion 

Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1 970. A Guide to the Birds of South America. Academy of Natural 

Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Ortiz-Crespo, F. I. 1974. The Giant Hummingbird Patagona gigas in Ecuador. Ibis 116: 


J. R. King 


BulLB.O.C. 1989109(3) 

Ortiz-Crespo, F.I.I 984. First twentieth-century specimen of the Violet-throated Metaltail 

Metallura baroni. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 104: 95-97. 
Ridgely, R. S. 1980a. Notes on some rare or previously unrecorded birds in Ecuador. Amer. 

Birds 34: 242-248. 
Ridgely, R. S. 1980b. The current distribution and status of mainland neotropical parrots. 

In R. F. Pasquier (ed.). Conservation of New World Parrots. ICBP Tech. Publ. No 1, 

ICBP, Cambridge. 
Ridgely, R. S. & Gaulin, S. J. C. 1980. The birds of Finca Merenberg, Huila Department, 

Colombia. Condor 82: 379-391. 
Zonfrillo, B. 1977. Rediscovery of the Andean Condor Vultur gryphus in Venezuela. Bull. 

Brit. Orn. CI. 97:17-18. 

Address: J. R. King, Haresgrove Cottage, Hydon Heath, Godalming, Surrey, UK. 
© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 


Birds species recorded in the Rio Mazan Valley, Ecuador, 1986—87. Nomenclature follows 

Hilty& Brown (1986). 

Podiceps occipitalis 
Anas flavirostris 
Mergonetta armata 
Oxyura jamaicensis 
Vultur gryphus 
Cathartes aura 
Accipiter striatus 
Geranoaetus melanoleucus 
Buteo polyosoma 
Phalcoboenus carunculatus 
Milvago chimchima 
Falco sparverius 
Falco columbarius 
Falco peregrinus 
Penelope montagni 
Vanellus resplendens 
Tringa solitaria 
Actitus macularia 
Calidris bairdii 
Chubbia jamesoni 
Larus serranus 
Columba fasciata 
Leptotila verreauxi 
Leptosittaca branickii 
Hapalopsittaca amazonina 
Pionus seniloides 
Bubo virginianus 
Glaucidium jardinii 
Caprimulgus longirostris 
Streptoprocne zonaris 
Campy lopterus falcatus 
Colibri coruscans 
Adelomyia melanogenys 
Patagona gigas 
Aglaeactis cupripennis 
Lqfresnaya lafresnayi 
Pterophanes cyanopterus 
Coeliginia iris 
Ensifera ensifera 

Heliangelus viola 
Eriocnemis vestitus 
Eriocremis luciani 
Lesbia victoriae 
Lesbia nuna 
Metallura baroni 
Metallura williami 
Metallura tyrianthina 
Chalcostigma stanleyi 
Acestrura mulsant 
Trogon personatus 
Andigena hypoglauca 
Piculus rivolii 
Veniliornis nigriceps 
Cinclodes fuscus 
Leptasthenura andicola 
Synallaxis azarae 
Synallaxis gularis 
Asthenes flammulata 
Margerornis squamiger 
Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii 
Thripadectes flammulatus 
Grallaria squamiger a 
Grallaria ruficapilla 
Grallaria rufula 
Grallaria quitensis 
Scytalopus unicolor 
Scytalopus latebricola 
Scytalopus magellanicus 
Ampelion rubrocristatus 
Tyranniscus uropygialis 
Mecocer cuius leucophrys 
Mecocer cuius stictopterus 
Serpophaga cinerea 
Anairestes parulus 
Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea 
Ochthoeca fumicolor 
Ochthoeca rufipectoralis 

Ochthoeca frontalis 
Myiotheretes striaticollis 
Myiotheretes erythropygius 
Myiotheretes fumigatus 
Agriornis montana 
Muscisaxicola alpina 
Notiochelidon murina 
Notiochelidon cyanoleuca 
Cyanolyca turcosa 
Cinclus leucocephalus 
Cistothorus platensis 
Troglodytes solstitialis 
Turdus fuscater 
Turdus serranus 
Anthus bogotensis 
Myioborus melanocephalus 
Basileuterus nigrocristatus 
Basileuterus coronatus 
Conirostrum sitticolor 
Conirostrum cinereum 
Oreomanes fraseri 
Diglossa sittoides 
Diglossa humeralis 
Diglossa cyanea 
Tangara vassorii 
Anisognathus igniventris 
Dubusia taeniata 
Thlypopsis ornata 
Hemispingus super ciliaris 
Hemispingus verticalis 
Catamblyrynchus diadema 
Pheucticus chrysopeplus 
Atlapetes rufinucha 
Atlapetes torquatus 
Catamenia analis 
Catamenia inornata 
Catamenia homochroa 
Phrygilus unicolor 
Zonotrichia capensis 
Spinus magellanicus 

P. G. Ryan 147 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


Bird species recorded only from Llaviuco Valley, Ecuador (for periods of observation see 
text). Nomenclature follows Hilty & Brown (1986). 

Anas discors Urochroa bougueri Anisognathus lacrymosus 

Anas cyanoptera Myioborus miniatus Anisognathus flavinucha 

Buteo poecilochrous Conirostrum albifrons 

Oreotrochilus estella Diglossa lafresnayii 

Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor and new 

records of seabirds from Tristan da Cunha and 

Gough Islands 

by Peter G. Ryan 

Received 2 January 1989 

Records of non-breeding and vagrant birds at the "Tristan da Cunha 
Island group and nearby Gough Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, 
have been reviewed (Richardson 1984, with additional records in 
Griffiths & Sinclair 1982, Williams & Imber 1982, Enticott 1984, Fraser 
1984, Enticott 1986, Fraser et al. 1988). To date, 24 non-breeding seabird 
and 22 landbird species have been recorded from the islands, with uncon- 
firmed records of an additional 3 seabird and 8 landbird species. In this 
note I record 3 new species for the region, one species new for Gough 
Island and one species new to the Tristan group. 

SLENDER-BILLED PRION Pachyptila belcheri 

Three Slender-billed Prions were observed at 40 and 100 km NNE of 
the main island of Tristan da Cunha on 27 September 1987. They were 
identified by their relatively small size, pale head and breast markings, 
lack of a dark terminal bar to the tail, and the characteristic shearwater- 
like flight (cf. Harrison 1983). One was moulting its outer primaries, 
which distinguished it at a distance from the abundant Broad-billed 
Prions P. vittata (vittata) . All 3 birds were observed by 2 observers who 
are familiar with the species from the Subtropical Convergence south of 
Africa, where it is seasonally abundant in mixed flocks with Antarctic 
Prions P. (v.) desolata (Ryan & Rose 1989). Not previously recorded 
from the region; probably overlooked among the large numbers of breed- 
ing Broad-billed Prions. 

LEACH'S STORM-PETREL Oceanodroma leucorrhoa 

Between 2 and 4 Leach's Storm-petrels were observed following in the 
ship's wake c.30km east of Tristan da Cunha on 17 November 1984. 
Unrecorded previously in the central South Atlantic (Griffiths & Sinclair 
1982), although fairly common in oceanic waters off southern Africa 
(Ryan & Rose 1989). 

P. G. Ryan 148 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER C 'alidris fuscicollis 

An adult White-rumped Sandpiper in non-breeding plumage was pho- 
tographed at Gough Island by weather station personnel in mid-October 
1984. The bird fed and roosted on the wooden helicopter landing pad at 
the weather station in Transvaal Bay for several days. Several individuals 
of this species have been recorded on both the main island of Tristan 
(Richardson 1984) and on Inaccessible Island (Fraser 1984), but none 
previously from Gough Island. 

LONGT AILED SKUA Stercorarius longicaudus 

Three Longtailed Skuas, 2 adults and 1 immature, were observed 80— 
130 km NNE of Tristan da Cunha on 27 September 1987. Previously 
recorded off the east coast of Gough Island (Williams & Imber 1982), 
none has been recorded from the Tristan islands sensu stricto, although 
Griffiths & Sinclair (1982) recorded it west to 14°35'W in the South 
Atlantic. Widespread in the southeast Atlantic (Ryan in press), it may 
occur at relatively low densities throughout the South Atlantic, linking 
the 2 apparent wintering centres in the Falkland Current (Veit 1985) and 
off the west coast of Southern Africa (Lambert 1980, Ryan in press). 

COMMON NIGHTHAWK Chordeiles minor 

A juvenile $ Common Nighthawk was found in the settlement of 
Edinburgh, Tristan da Cunha, on 27 November 1988 after a period of 
strong westerly winds. The bird died and was shipped frozen to Cape 
Town for identification. The specimen is lodged in the Durban Natural 
History Museum and has the following (fresh) measurements (mm); wing 
204, tail 115, fork depth 17, culmen length 7.2, tarsus 15.3. After being 
defrosted in Cape Town, its mass was 48 g, which probably is similar to 
the mass at death, because there were no signs of dehydration; the eyes 
were still turgid. The bird had started to moult into adult plumage, 
having c. 40% adult scapular feathers, with active body moult on the 
upper- and underparts. The stomach was empty except for a small beetle 

Common Nighthawks breed throughout much of North and Central 
America, migrating to wintering areas in South America south to central 
Argentina. Birds leave the breeding areas in North America between late 
July and early October, with peak passage in late August and early 
September (Cramp 1985). Vagrants have reached Melville Island, 
Greenland, Iceland, the Faroes, Britain and the Azores (American 
Ornithologists' Union 1983, Cramp 1985), all British records being 
between 12 September and 25 October. Fairly regular occurrence at 
Bermuda (Bent 1940) and in the West Indies suggests a transoceanic 
migration route for populations breeding in eastern North America 
(Cramp 1985), which can account for trans-Atlantic vagrancy in the 
northern hemisphere. However, the late date (more than a month later 
than the latest British record) and the vast distance make it unlikely that 
the bird at Tristan da Cunha could have reached almost 40°S without first 
having reached South America. It was probably blown offshore by strong 
westerly winds while moving along the east coast of South America. The 
bird's mass corresponds with that of juveniles exhausted after crossing 
the Caribbean in October (Cramp 1985). 

Susan E. Davis 149 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


John Cooper, Jim Enticott and Barry Watkins assisted with seabird observations, and Roger 
Pern - collected and forwarded the Common Nighthawk specimen. Captain Peter Warren 
and Tristan Investments (Pty) Ltd are thanked for transporting the Nighthawk to Cape 
Town. Financial and logistical support were received from the South African Department 
of Environment Affairs and the South African Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research. 


American Ornithologists' Union 1983. Checklist of North American Birds, 6th Edn. Allen 

Bent, A. C. 1940. Life histories of North American cuckoos, goatsuckers, hummingbirds 

and their allies, Part I. US Natn. Mus. Bull. 176: 1-244. 
Cramp, S. (ed.) 1985. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol IV. Oxford University Press. 
Enticott, J. W. 1984. New and rarely recorded birds at Gough Island, March 1982- 

December 1983. Cormorant 12: 75-81. 
Enticott, J. W. 1986. The pelagic distribution of the Royal Albatross Diomedea epomophora. 

Cormorant 13: 143-156. 
Fraser, M. W. 1984. New and rarely recorded species from the Tristan da Cunha group. 

Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 104: 154-155. 
Fraser, M. W., Ryan, P. G. & Watkins, B. W. 1988. The seabirds of Inaccessible Island, 

South Atlantic Ocean. Cormorant 16: 7-33. 
Griffiths, A. M. & Sinclair, J. C. 1982. The occurrence of Holarctic seabirds in the African 

sector of the Southern Ocean. Cormorant 10: 35—44. 
Harrison, P. 1983. Seabirds, an identification guide. Croom Helm. 
Lambert, K. 1980. Ein Uberwinterungsgebiet der Falkenraubmowe, Stercorarius longicau- 

dus Vieill. 1819, vor Sudwest- und Sudafrika entdeckt. Beitr. Vogelkd. 26: 199-212. 
Richardson, M. E. 1984. Aspects of the ornithology of the Tristan da Cunha group and 

Gough Island, 1972-1974. Cormorant 12: 123-201. 
Ryan, P. G. in press. The distribution and abundance of Longtailed Skuas off southern 

Africa. Ostrich: 
Ryan, P. G. & Rose, B. 1989. Migrant seabirds: In: A. I. L. Payne & R. J. M. Crawford 

(eds). Oceans of Life off Southern Africa. Vlaeberg, Cape Town, pp. 274-287. 
Veit, R. R. 1985. Long-tailed Jaegers wintering along the Falkland Current. Amer. Birds 39: 

Williams, A. J. & Imber, M. J. 1982. Ornithological observations at Gough Island in 1979, 

1980 and 1981. 5. Afr.J. Antarct. Res. 12: 40-45. 

Address: Peter G. Ryan, Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of 
Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Migration of the Mississippi Kite Ictinia 
mississippiensis in Bolivia, with comments on 
/. plumbea 

by Susan E. Davis 

Received 11 January 1989 

The Mississippi Kite Ictinia mississippiensis breeds in the central and 
southern United States (Palmer 1988) and, from the few data available, 
appears to migrate through Middle America and winter in central South 
America. However, detailed observations of this species during the non- 
breeding season until now have been nonexistent. Specimens of /. 

Susan E. Davis 150 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

mississippiensis have been taken in October in Guatemala (Parker 1977), 
Costa Rica (Slud 1964) and Colombia (Torres in Hilty & Brown); and 
migrants have been observed rarely in Mexico (April, May-Sutton & 
Burleigh 1940, Loetscher 1955), Costa Rica (September-Slud 1964), 
Panama (March, April, October-Ridgely 1976), Colombia (November- 
Hilty & Brown 1986), and Peru (October-Terborgh et al. 1984). On 
11 November 1986, a Mississippi Kite banded in Texas was recovered 
at San Miguel de Velasco, Dpto. Santa Cruz, Bolivia (specimen not 
available) (Shaw & Maxwell 1988). The presence of I. mississippiensis in 
central South America during the boreal winter is documented by only a 
few specimens collected in December and February in Paraguay (Blake 
1949) and in January in northern Argentina (Eisenmann 1963, Olrog 

I made the following observations of /. mississippiensis during 2\ years 
(May 1985-November 1987) of ornithological fieldwork in eastern 
lowland Bolivia (vicinity of Concepcion, Dpto. Santa Cruz, 16°08'S, 
62°02'W), an area that is a mosaic of semi-deciduous forest, wooded 
savanna (cerrado) and savanna wetland on the western edge of the 
Brazilian Shield (altitude 400-600 m). 

/. mississippiensis arrives in Concepcion at about the same time as the 
Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea. Although breeding pairs of/, plumbea 
were observed in the area from September to January, it appears that 
migrating /. plumbea were also present. /. plumbea breeding in Middle 
America (March— May) also migrate south in September/October, and 
presumably winter in South America (Eisenmann 1963, Binford 1989). 
Dates of first arrival of one or the other of these Ictinia spp. were 7 
September 1985 and 25 August 1986; but because of their close resem- 
blance and because both spend most of the day soaring high above land, 
identification was difficult. In the field, adult /. mississippiensis were dis- 
tinguished from /. plumbea by a pale grey patch on the upper surface of the 
wing, the lack of a rufous patch on the primaries, and the lack of banding 
on the underside of the tail (Meyer de Schauensee 1970). Juveniles could 
not be distinguished in the field because either species may lack the rufous 
wing patch. 

/. mississippiensis probably arrived after /. plumbea. The earliest 
positive identification of/, mississippiensis in 1985 was on 18 September 
and in 1 986 on 3 1 September; on these dates flocks of 3-1 5 kites were seen 
circling over savanna. Within 2-4 weeks of the first arrival of Ictinia spp., 
the number of birds per flock increased to 300—500, whereas at what 
appeared to be the peak of Ictinia migration (early October 1985 and 
early November 1986), flock size averaged 1000-1500, and numerous 
kettles containing both species of kites were observed flying south over 
Concepcion. /. mississippiensis was present from 18 September to mid- 
November 1985 and from 31 September to 25 November 1986. 

Data for 1987 are incomplete because I was absent periodically from 
the study area. Arrival of Ictinia spp. in 1987 was later than in the previous 
years; by early October 1987, no Ictinia spp. had been observed. In mid- 
October 1 987, flocks of 10-30 /. plumbea were seen foraging over savanna 
near San Ignacio and San Jose de Chiquitos, 150 km east and 200 km 
southeast respectively of Concepcion. /. mississippiensis was seen in the 

Susan E. Davis 151 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

Concepcion area 25-31 October 1987, at which time kettles of 300-500 
kites of both species were observed migrating south over the town. No 
observations were made after 31 October 1987, when I left the study area. 

Migrating /. mississippiensis roosted in semi-deciduous forest islands 
and gallery forest associated with small rivers running through savanna. 
In the early morning (06.00-08.00 hrs), they foraged from tree tops in 
wooded savanna near their roost sites; they swooped and darted amongst 
the trees to catch insects, then returned to a tree top perch to eat. /. 
mississippiensis emitted a 2-note call while perched or flying; the second 
note was tremulous, and lower and louder than the first. By 08.30 hrs, 
when air temperatures had increased sufficiently to sustain soaring flight, 
all kites had abandoned their perches and usually did not return to the 
trees until late afternoon. Exceptionally, on 2 November 1986, a mixed 
flock of several thousand Ictinia spp. was observed in trees in a savanna at 
13.30 hrs. This flock was extremely restless, and the birds repeatedly took 
flight, only to return to the trees; by 14.00 hrs they had formed a kettle and 
moved south at a high altitude. 

Both Ictinia species frequently foraged in the same flock. Feeding 
activity was observed throughout the day but was most intense in the 
morning. The kites foraged while circling in loose flocks, chasing large 
insects with acrobatic manoeuvres on the wing. From a soaring position 
high up, a kite would suddenly stoop at a flying insect, sometimes with a 
quarter barrel-roll as it plummeted; then the bird would turn its body 
sideways, thrust its legs out to catch the prey with its talons, and swoop 
upwards with flapping wings until it reached a height suitable for soaring. 
The birds fed on the captured insects while soaring by repeatedly bring- 
ing forward the foot holding the catch. I observed both Ictinia species 
catch cicadas; 4 stomach contents of/, mississippiensis consisted mainly of 
parts of leaf-cutter ants (Atta sp.) in the alate reproductive stage. The 
arrival of the kites in Concepcion coincided with the emergences of these 
insects, which are triggered by the onset of the rainy season. 

/. mississippiensis did not appear to stop in the area of Concepcion 
during the return northerly migration. On one occasion (18 March 1986) 
a kettle of c.200 kites was seen moving northward at an extremely high 
altitude, but species identification was not possible. 

In recent years, flocks of Ictinia spp. also have been observed from 
January-March and from July-September over Parque Nacional Amboro 
at the foothills of the Andes, 200 km southwest of Concepcion (R. 
Clarke). These kites were identified as I. plumbea but /. mississippiensis 
also may have been present. 

I collected 4 specimens of /. mississippiensis in Concepcion (the first for 
Bolivia); these are housed at the Field Museum of Natural History, 
Chicago: FMNH 334914, 22 October 1986-?, ovary 12.0 x 60 mm, lar- 
gest ovum 0-5 mm, oviduct 55 mm and convoluted, wt 285 g, skull 40% 
ossified, light fat; FMNH 334915, 25 October 1986- cJ, left testis 
5.0 x2.5 mm, right testis 6.0 x3.0 mm, wt. 295 g, skull 100% ossified, 
moderate fat; FMNH 334916, 25 October 1986- i, testes 5.0 x 2.5 mm, 
wt. 240 g, skull 100% ossified, light fat; skeletal specimen FMNH 
334917, 25 October 1987- £, left testis 7.0x2.0mm, right testis 
7.0 x 3.0 mm, wt. 240 g, skull 90% ossified, light fat. All specimens were 

D. M. Teixeira et al. 152 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

in adult plumage, with moderate body moult and moulting primaries; all 
4 stomachs contained insect parts (see back). 


I thank Lie. Eliana Flores of the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural in La Paz, Bolivia for 
help in obtaining permits and R. Clarke, Scientific Advisor of Parque Nacional Amboro, for 
sharing his observations. J. V. Remsen, Jr, J. W. Fitzpatrick and J. J. Dinsmore kindly 
provided helpful comments on the manuscript. Financial support was provided by a fellow- 
ship from the Organization of American States, Washington DC, and by the Field Museum 
of Natural History, Chicago. 


Binford, L. C. 1989. A distributional survey of the birds of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. 

Ornithol. Monogr. 43. 
Blake, E. R. 1949. Ictinia mississippiensis collected in Paraguay. Auk 66: 82. 
Eisenmann, E. 1963. Mississippi Kite in Argentina; with comments on migration and 

plumages in the Ictinia. Auk 80: 74-76. 
Hilty, S. L. & Brown, W. L. 1986. Birds of Colombia. Princeton Univ. Press. 
Loetscher, F. W., Jr. 1955. North American migrants in the state of Veracruz, Mexico: a 

summary. Auk 72: 14—54. 
Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1970. A Guide to the Birds of South America. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Olrog, C. C. 1979. Nueva lista de la avifauna argentina. Opera Lilloana 27, Univ. Nac. 

Palmer, R. S. (ed.) 1988. Handbook of North American Birds. Vol. 4, Part 1. Diurnal 

Raptors, Yale University Press. 
Parker, J. W. 1977. Second record of the Mississippi Kite in Guatemala. Auk 94: 168-169. 
Ridgely, R. S. 1976. A Guide to the Birds of Panama. Princeton Univ. Press. 
Shaw, D. & Maxwell, T. C. 1988. First record of Mississippi Kite for Bolivia. Raptor 

Research 22: 90. 
Slud, P. 1964. The birds of Costa Rica: distribution and ecology. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

128: 1-430. 
Sutton, G. M. & Burleigh, T. D. 1940. Birds of Tamazunchale, San Luis Potosi. Wilson 

Bull. 52: 221-233. 
Terborgh, J. W., Fitzpatrick, J. W. & Emmons, L. 1984. Annotated checklist of bird and 

mammal species of Cocha Cashu Biological Station, Manu National Park, Peru. 

Fieldiana, Zool. 21 . 

Address : Susan E. Davis, Dept of Animal Ecology, Iowa State University, Ames, I A 5001 1 , 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Notes on some birds of northeastern Brazil (4) 

by Dante Martins Teixeira, Jorge B. Nacinovic & 
Giovannini Luigi 

Received 1 7 January 1989 

This report follows Teixeira et al. 1986—88, and 1988, and records some of 
the results obtained by the Ornithological Section of Museu Nacional 
during the expeditions to northeastern Brazil of the last few years. Speci- 
mens in the Museu Nacional ornithological collection are referred to by 
the initials MN plus the respective catalogue number. English names and 

D. M. Teixeira et al. 153 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

sequence of the species follow Meyer de Schauensee (1 970). For all refer- 
ences on colours we used Villalobos & Villalobos (1947) with citation of 
the respective code. 

YELLOW-NOSED ALBATROSS Diomedea chlororhynchos 

Winter visitor, frequently recorded in the southern Brazilian waters 
(Rio Grande do Sul north to Espirito Santo); vagrants have even been 
observed in the North Atlantic (Blake 1977). Not previously recorded in 
northeastern Brazil, but the MN obtained an adult $ (MN 36008, gonads 
10 mm, 1.25 kg, 750 mm total length) off Pontal do Peba, southern 
Alagoas (c. 10°21'S, 36°17'W) on 21 May 1988. 

LITTLE WOOD-RAIL Ar amides mangle 

Only known from some few localities in Brazil (Pinto 1964, Sick 1985), 
this rail has never been reported in the extreme northeast. However, it 
is a very common species in the mangroves of Alagoas and southern 
Pernambuco. On 7 February 1988, we obtained 2 $$ (MN 35650, gonads 
8 mm, 164 g, 323 mm total length; MN 35651, gonads 12 mm, 202 mm, 
327 mm total length) from Tatuamunha, northern Alagoas (c. 9°14'S, 

GREY-BREASTED CRAKE Later alius exilis 

RUSTY-FLANKED CRAKE Later alius levraudi 

Ripley & Beehler (1985) attributed to L. levraudi, an endemic species of 
Venezuela (Ripley 1977), a young crake collected at Cabedelo, Paraiba 
(c. 6°58'S, 34°50'W) by J. Albuquerque on 18 June 1980. This specimen, 
now in the MN ornithological collection (MN 35236, male, gonads 3 mm, 
26.5 g, 182 mm total length) had a peculiar dark plumage, fuscous brown 
(OOS 3 2°) in the upperparts and medium grey (CCU 12 1 °) in the under- 
pays, with the throat and the centre of the abdomen whitish. A detailed 
examination, however, revealed the presence of chestnut feathers inter- 
spersed in the nape and hindneck and also some undertail coverts barred 
with black and white. Recently, we had the opportunity to visit the Phelps 
and Rancho Grande collections, Venezuela, and to compare this speci- 
men with adults and young of L. levraudi. As a result, we consider that this 
bird is a subadult example of Later alius exilis, a rather common species in 
Amazonian Brazil; the contrasting chestnut hindneck and black and white 
undertail coverts are characters never observed in L. levraudi at any age. 
Additionally, on 17 November 1988, we obtained a second specimen, a 
presumed older subadult of L. exilis (MN 36161, $, gonads 7 mm, 34.5 g, 
171 mm total length) from Lagoa de Itaipu, Rio de Janeiro (c. 22°58'S, 
43"02'W), which showed a plumage intermediate between the bird from 
Paraiba and the typical adult pattern of L. exilis. Even though we consider 
that the subadult plumage of L. exilis seems to be undescribed until now, 
it is difficult to explain a misidentification involving L. levraudi as, so far 
as we know, in several South American species of the genus Laterallus 
(L. viridis, L. melanophaius and L. fasciatus) the subadults are rather 
similar to the adults regarding the major features of the plumage, and 
remarkable age-related differences in this sense are not observed. It is also 
interesting to mention that there are only very few records of L. exilis out 
of Amazonia (Teixeira et al. 1986, Willis & Oniki 1985). 

D. M. Teixeira et al. 154 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

BLACK TERN Chlidonias niger 

Recently recorded in Brazil in Rio de Janeiro (Teixeira et al. 1988). 
Another individual, in transition plumage, was observed off Itamaraca 
Island, coastal Pernambuco (c. 7°45'S, 34°51'W) on 30 November 1988. 

BLUE-CROWNED PARAKEET Aratinga acuticaudata 

Widely distributed in Brazil, but not hitherto recorded from the 
extreme northeast (Forshaw 1978, Pinto 1978). However, it is a common 
species in Alagoas, and we observed many flocks in the pasturelands of 
Quebrangulo (c. 9°15'S, 36°24'W) and also in the corn plantations of 
Tatuamunha in 1987 and 1988. 

LONG-TAILED HERMIT Phaethornis super ciliosus 

As mentioned by Teixeira et al. (1987), this is a common species in the 
forest remnants of northeastern Brazil. On 15 November 1983, we 
obtained an adult $ (MN 33349, gonads 4 mm, 6 g, 175 mm total length) 
from Valenca Bahia (c. 13°22'S, 39°05'W). This record extends consider- 
ably the known distribution of the species south to Sao Francisco river. 

RINGED WOODPECKER Celeus torquatus 

The little known Celeus torquatus tinnunculus of the Atlantic forest was 
previously recorded only from very few localities in southern Bahia (Pinto 
1978, Short 1982). In the last few years, however, it has been possible to 
observe individuals in the forest remnants of Valenca, Bahia, and A. 
Ruschi collected a ? also from Agua Limpa, municipality of Sao Mateus, 
Espirito Santo (c. 18°44'S, 39°51'W) on 23 October 1972 (see also 
Gonzaga et al. 1988). As previously recognized (e.g. Sick & Teixeira 
1979), C. torquatus tinnunculus seems to be uncommon and may be 
considered endangered. 

SNETHLAGE'S WOODCREEPER Xiphocolaptes franciscanus 

Only known from Brejo Januaria, extreme northern Minas Gerais 
(c. 15°29'S, 44°22'W). However, the MN houses an unsexed specimen 
(MN 13822) collected by Pfrimmer (no date) in 'Posse', southern Goias 
(possibly c. 14°S, 46°W). Contrary to some authors (see Mayer de 
Schauensee 1970), it seems appropriate here to stress that, regarding 
plumage, this species is more similar to the Moustached Woodcreeper 
X. falcirostris than to any other representative of the genus. We have 
material of both these Dendrocolaptidae presently under study, and the 
preliminary data suggest that these woodcreepers may be more closely 
related than we have believed in the past. 

GREAT XENOPS Megaxenops parnaguae 

Described at the beginning of this century, M. parnaguae is known 
from very few specimens and localities of northeastern Brazil (southern 
Piaui, northern Bahia and Ceara-a/u/dVaurie 1980). In July 1988, we had 
the opportunity to study the species in the sub-caducifolious highland 
forests of Chapada do Araripe, southern Ceara (c. 7°13'S, 39°24'W). We 
found that the Great Xenops joins mixed flocks of the Black-capped 
Antwren Herpsilochmus pileatus , the Rufous-crowned Greenlet Hylophi- 
lus poicilotis and the Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus. As 
recorded by Kaempfer {in Vaurie 1980), M. parnaguae does not have 

D. M. Teixeira et al. 155 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

scansorial habits, and the motion and foraging attitudes of the birds 
observed remind one of other arboreal Furnariidae like Automolus or 
Philydor. Similarly, we never saw M. parnaguae pecking at wood like a 
Xenops, and so far as we know, the species scans the surface of leaves, 
branches and also under bark, looking for prey. The stomach contents of 
an adult $ collected on 8 July 1988 (MN 36053, gonads 2 mm, 25 g, 
174 mm total length) revealed the presence of some insects (Formicidae, 
Scarabaeidae and an unidentified caterpillar) and many spiders (Ctenus 
sp., Micrathena sp., Phoneutria sp.) but no typical endophytic arthro- 
pods. The known vocalizations of M. parnaguae are inconspicuous, and 
we recorded above all a low and deep sequence, quite different from the 
Xenops pattern. 


In northeastern Brazil this species is represented by Sclerurus scansor 
cearensis, which is only known from northern Ceara (Baturite and 
Ibiapaba ranges), and northern Bahia (Bonfim — apud Pinto 1978). It also 
occurs in the sub-caducifolious highland forest of Chapada do Araripe, 
southern Ceara, whence the MN obtained one <$ (MN 36056, gonads 
3 mm, 34 g, 1 86 mm total length), and two $? (MN 36054, gonads 4 mm, 
36 g, 185 mm total length; MN 36055, gonads 3 mm, 32 g, 193 mm total 
length) in July 1988. According to our observations, in contrast to Vaurie 
(1980), this Furnariidae has a very local distribution in northeastern 

FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD Drymophila ferruginea 

Only known previously from Argentina, Paraguay and southeastern 
Brazil (from Rio Grande do Sul north to Espirito Santo— apud Pinto 
1978), this species in fact also occurs in the northeast. On 1 6 October 1 983 
we obtained an adult <$ (MN 34362, gonads 4mm, 12 g, 147 mm total 
length) from the lowland forests of Valenca, Bahia. According to our 
observations, this species is not rare in this area, occurring side by side 
with the Scaled Antbird Drypmophila squamata. 


Known from eastern to southern Brazil (Espirito Santo and eastern 
Minas Gerais south to Santa Catar'ma-apud Pinto 1978), Paraguay and 
Argentina, it also occurs in Valenca, Bahia, whence we collected an adult 
c? (MN 34376, gonads 2 mm, 6.5 g, 110 mm total length) on 18 October 


Only known from coastal Bahia, around the Todos os Santos Bay (the 
so-called 'reconcavo' region), this species seems to be very local. Now- 
adays, its range seems to be restricted to the forest remnants of extreme 
northern Bahia south to around 13°S. According to our latest obser- 
vations in Bahia, P. atra is replaced by the common White-shouldered 
Fire-eye P. leucoptera, at the environs of Valenca. It was possible to locate 
P. atra only in the northern places of the 'reconcavo', whence the MN 
obtained an adult £ (MN 31879, gonads 10 mm, 32 g, 180 mm total 

D.M.Teixeiraetal. 156 Bull.B.O.C. 1989 .109(3) 

length) from Santo Amaro (c. 12°32'S, 38°43'W) on 14 October 1977. 
Considering the level of deforestation in the region, this bird should 
likely be considered now as very endangered (see also Willis & Oniki 

WHITE-NAPED XENOPSARIS Xenopsaris albinucha 

In Brazil, X. albinucha is known from very few localities of the 
northeast (Piaui, Ceara and western Bahia — apud Pinto 1944, Sick 
1985). It also occurs in the 'caatinga' of Delmiro Gouveia, extreme 
southwestern Alagoas (c. 9°23'S, 37°59'W) whence we obtained an 
adult $ (MN 36064, gonads 4 mm, 9.8 g 135 mm total length) and 2 of 
their young (MN 36065, male, gonads 1mm, 9.3 g, 129 mm total 
length; MN 36066, male, gonads 1mm, 9.6 g, 130 mm total length) 
between 30 and 31 May 1988. According to our observations, both 
parents care for the young, which show a peculiar plumage, similar to 
the adult female but with the crown, back, rump and upper wing 
coverts scalloped with ochraceous (OOY15 6°), and with the inner 
secondaries and outer rectrices strongly margined with whitish on the 
outer web. It is interesting to stress that this plumage, briefly mentioned 
by Berlepsch & Hartert (1902), is quite different from the pattern 
recorded for the young in the genus Pachyramphus , and thus seems 
to reinforce the position of X. albinucha as an 'incertae sedis' (Traylor 

VELVETY BLACK-TYRANT Knipolegus nigerrimus 

Only known from southeastern Brazil, from Parana north to Espirito 
Santo and Minas Gerais (Traylor 1979), this species also occurs in 
the dry 'caatinga' of southwestern Alagoas and northeastern Bahia 
(Cocorobo, c. 9°55'S, 39°07'W), whence we obtained 2 adult <$<$, one 
on 11 January 1979 (MN 32067, gonads 10mm, 21 g, 190mm total 
length), and one on 31 July 1979 (MN 32157, gonads 2 mm, 20 g, 
185 mm total length). 

OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER Todirostrum plumbeiceps 

In Brazil, this species has been recorded from Rio Grande do Sul 
north to Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo (Traylor 1979). However, it 
occurs also in northeastern Brazil, and we obtained 3 adults (MN 
35769, S, gonads 2 mm, 5.5 g, 107 mm total length; MN 35770, 
unsexed, 5.3 g, 102 mm total length; MN 35771, $, gonads 2 mm, 5.3 g, 
105 mm total length) from Quebrangulo, Alagoas, between 27 and 28 
January 1988. Compared with a series housed in the MN, these speci- 
mens were identical with T. p. cinereipectus from Minas Gerais and 
Espirito Santo. 


The occurrence of O. inerme in Bahia was considered doubtful 
(Hellmeyr 1927, Zimmer 1941) until the discovery of a specimen from 
Itajuipe (c. 14°41'S, 39°22'W-apud Novaes 1978). However, it is in 
fact a rather common bird in the lowland forests of Valenca, where it 
was possible to observe several individuals in December 1987. 

D. M. Teixeira et al. 157 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


As mentioned by Pinto (1944), the occurrence of this species in Bahia is 
doubtful. However, the MN obtained an adult $ (MN 33277, 16 g, 
110 mm total length) from Mata de Sao Joao (c. 12°31'S, 38°17'W) on 28 
June 1983. This seems to be the first confirmed locality for the species in 
northeastern Brazil. 


We would like to thank the World Wildlife Fund— US, and the Brazilian Conselho Nacional 
de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), which partially supported our 
studies on the avifauna of northeastern Brazil. 


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Resumos XV Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia, Curitiba: 476. 
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(Zool. Ser.) 13(4): 1-390. 
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Novaes, F. C. 1978. Sobre algumas avespouco conhecidas da amazoniabrasileira(II(. Bol. 

Mus. Paraense Emilio Goeldi (n. ser., zool.) 90: 1-15. 
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Agricultura, Sao Paulo. 
Pinto, O. M. 0. 1964. Ornitologiabrasiliense. Depto. de Zoologia. Secretaria de Agricultura, 

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Ripley, S. D. 1977. Rails of the World. David R. Godine. 
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1975-1983. . . . Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 417: 1-28. 
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extincao. Publ. Avuls. Museu Nacional 62: 1-39. 
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Orn. CI. 106(2): 70-74. (2) Ibid. 107(4): 151-157. (3) Ibid 108(2): 75-79. 
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ithidae). Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 
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Willis, E. & Oniki, Y. 1 982. Behavior of Fringe-backed Fire-eyes (Pyriglena atra) .... Rev. 

Brasil. Biol. 42(1): 213-223. 
Willis, E. & Oniki, Y. 1985. Bird specimens new for the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Rev. 

Brasil. Biol. 45(1/2): 105-108. 
Zimmer, J. T. 1941. Studies of Peruvian birds 38. The genera Oreotriccus, Tyrannulus . . . 

Pyrocephalus . Am. Mus. Novit. 1126: 1-25. 

Addresses: Dante Martins Teixeira et al. Secao de Ornitologia, Museu Nacional, Quinta da 
Boa Vista, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil, CEP 20942. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

R. W. Dickerman 158 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

Notes on the Malachite Kingfisher Corythornis 
(Alcedo) cristata 

by Robert W. Dickerman 

Received 1 7 January 1989 

The taxonomic literature on Corythornis cristata is confusing. Peters 
(1945) recognised only 2 subspecies for continental Africa, one a nomen 
nov. (see below). He apparently followed Chapin (1939) and earlier 
authors in placing C. c. galerita (type locality Senegal) in the synonomy of 
nominate cristata (type locality Cape of Good Hope, South Africa). 
Neither Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1970) nor Colston & Curry-Lindahl 
(1986) recognised galerita. However, Fry et al. (1988) used that name for 
all populations of continental Africa except for those of southern Angola 
and southwestern Zambia south to the Cape of Good Hope. Examination 
of the 130 specimens in the American Museum of Natural History 
(AMNH) revealed 3 identifiable populations in continental Africa as 
defined below. Fry et al. found no sexual dimorphism in size in this 
species, so because of small samples of some populations, measurements 
of the sexes were combined in Table 1 . 

Corythornis cristata cristata (Pallas) 

Alcedo cristata Pallas, 1764. (in Vroeg. Cat. Adumbr., p. 1); Cape of 
Good Hope. 

Alcedo cristata robertsi Peters, 1945. nomen nov. for Corythornis cristata 
longirostris Roberts; Kabulabula, Chobe River, Bechuanaland (not 
Alcedo longirostris Radde 1884). 

Diagnosis. Chin white; moustachial region, underparts and flanks pale 
rufous, belly and undertail coverts pale buff to whitish. Size larger (see 
Table 1). 

Range. Nigeria east to Uganda and Kenya south to the Cape of Good 
Hope. 97 specimens examined. 

Remarks. Chapin (1939), who only had a small portion of the series of 
specimens now available, only commented on size and apparently did not 
make colour comparisons. 

Corythornis cristata galerita (Muller) 
Alcedo galeritaP . L. S. Muller, 1776. Natur. Syst., suppl. p. 94, Senegal. 
Diagnosis. Underparts (adults and juveniles), including belly, 
darker rufous, and dorsally darker blue than cristata; size smaller (see 
Table 1). 

Range. Senegal south and east to Liberia, probably east to Ghana, but 
only specimens (13) from Sierra Leone and Liberia examined. 

R. W. Dickerman 159 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


Measurements of Corythornis cristata (with number, range, mean in mm), and standard 
deviation. Culmens were measured from the anterior edge of the nostril 

Wing chord 





























Kenya & Uganda 










southern Africa 









Remarks. None of 18 juvenile cristata is as deeply coloured ventrally as 
the 3 available young of galerita. 

Corythornis cristata stuartkeithi subsp. nov. 

Type. Adult J. AMNH 636679. Collected at "Arba-Schiko (Anseba R) 
Abyss" [ = Anseba watercourse, Eritrea, northern Ethiopia], on 13 
March 1907, by G. Schrader. Collector's number 115. 

Description. Similar to galerita in having entire venter rufous, including 
the undertail coverts; but in series the rufous somewhat paler. Somewhat 
paler blue dorsally especially on rump than galerita. Size larger (Table 1). 

Range. Sudan (Blue Nile) and Ethiopia (Eritrea and southeast). 21 
specimens examined. 

Remarks. Two juvenile stuartkeithi are paler ventrally and thus are 
more like cristata; however, they appear to have less greyish wash across 
the breast than in young galerita and in most young cristata. 

Note that the range of rufous-bellied stuartkeithi is separated from that 
of the smaller, darker rufous-bellied galerita by the northern portion of 
the range of the pale-bellied cristata. 

This subspecies is named for Stuart Keith in recognition of his efforts 
towards the completion of the monumental contribution "The Birds of 


I wish to thank Alexander L. Peal, Head of Wildlife and National Parks, Republic of 
Liberia, for his cooperation during field work in 1988. Stuart Keith and W. Parker Cane 
kindly and critically reviewed the manuscript. 


Chapin, J. P. 1939. The birds of the Belgian Congo. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 75: 1-632. 

Colston, P. & Curry-Lindahl, K. 1 986. The Birds of Mount Nimba, Liberia. British Museum 

Nat. Hist. 
Fry, C. H., Keith, S. & Urban, E. 1988. The Birds of Africa. Vol. 3. Academic Press. 
Mackworth-Praed, C. W. & Grant, C. H. B. 1970. The Birds of Central and Western Africa 

(2 vols.). Longman. 
Peters, J. L. 1945. Check-list of Birds of the World, Vol. 5. Cambridge Univ. Press. 

Address: Dr Robert W. Dickerman, Department of Ornithology, American Museum of 
Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York 10024. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

R. W. Dickerman 160 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

Notes on Sturnella magna in South America 
with a description of a new subspecies 

by R. W. Dickerman 

Received 17 January 1989 

Sturnella magna — the 'Eastern Meadowlark' — occurs in tropical, sub- 
tropical and temperate grasslands of northern South America: in 
Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam and in northeastern Brazil. 
Chapman (1931) provided the last revision of the South American popu- 
lations. He recognized 4 subspecies: meridialis (Bogota, Colombia), para- 
lios (Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia), practicola (northern Guyana 
lowlands) and monticola (Mt Roraima, Guyana == Venezuela). Phelps & 
Phelps (1963) included Venezuelan populations in paralios, recognized 
by Chapman as practicola. Blake (1968) combined practicola and monti- 
cola, using the latter name, although practicola has page priority. 
Haverschmidt (1955) in a footnote wrote ". . . the meadowlarks from 
Surinam belong to an undescribed race according to Zimmer {in litt.)", 
but he later (1968) used monticola for the Surinam birds without further 
comment. Unfortunately a copy of the letter from Zimmer is not in the 
archives of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). 

Recently while making an inventory of specimens from Venezuela in 
the AMNH, and before I had compiled the above history, I realized: (a) 
that there were 4 identifiable populations in Venezuela, and (b) that the 
series of specimens from northeastern Brazil represented a fifth taxa. 

To resolve these problems, I obtained on loan paratypes and fresh- 
plumaged, near-topotypes of paralios and practicola, and additional 
specimens from Colombia and Venezuela. Only specimens in un-worn 
plumage (except for Surinam and Brazil) examined during this study, and 
those that had not been cited earlier by Chapman (1931), are listed below. 

In brief, when specimens were arranged geographically, meridionalis 
and monticola were immediately recognised as distinct. Within the less- 
black series the Brazilian series was separable from the warmer-brown 
birds of the Rio Orinoco lowlands and in series was distinguishable from 
paralios of northern Venezuela and Colombia. 

S. m. meridionalis and monticola are both dark subspecies with appre- 
ciably larger black areas in the dorsal feathers and in the barring of the 
remiges and rectrices. As noted by Chapman, monticola is considerably 
smaller than meridionalis and in fresh plumage it is much browner dor- 
sally, especially on the crown. The range of meridionalis was accurately 
described by Blake (1968) ". . . Eastern Andes of Colombia from Norte de 
Santander southward (locally) to the head of the Magdelena Valley and 
northwestern Venezuela in the Andes of Tachira and Merida and 
Trujillo." S. m. monticola is restricted to the highlands of southeastern 
Bolivar, and adjacent Guyana. 

The ranges of the 2 blackish subspecies are separated by the ranges of 
2 smaller, paler subspecies. S. m. paralios is the slightly darker of the 2, 
with a greyer brown dorsum and a greyer nape. Specimens from the 

R. W. Dickerman 161 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

Department of Hulia, Colombia, and from Venezuela average darker 
than birds from northern Colombia, but all are greyer-brown. In con- 
trast, practicola has a warmer brown dorsum, and browner nape. Chap- 
man (1931), in default of specimens from the northern lowlands of 
Guyana, used a series from Maripa on the lower Rio Orinoco to represent 
practicola. In fact that series, as well as other specimens from the Orino- 
can lowlands match well a paratype of practicola. The characters used by 
Chubb (1921) in the original description of practicola, namely smaller 
size, brighter coloration of the underparts and more white in the tail, are 
without value. 

5. m. paralios occurs at medium and lower elevations in northern 
Colombia (south to Aguachica in the Magdelena Valley), with an atypi- 
cally darker population in the Department of Hulia, eastward in the north 
to the savannas of northern and central Venezuela. 

Zimmer's recognition of the Surinam population as representing a new 
subspecies must have been based to a large extent on the series from 
northeastern Brazil, as only 2 of 18 adults from Surinam are of any value 
for colour comparisons and even those are moderately worn. Those 
populations may now be known as: 

Sturnella magna quinta subsp. nov. 

Holotype. $, AMNH 237404, Frechal, Rio Surumu, Amapa, Brazil; 
collected 10 September 1927 by T. D. Carter. Collector's number 208. 

Diagnosis. Most similar to paralios in being greyer-brown (less warm) 
dorsally than practicola; the lateral crown and post-ocular stripes of males 
blacker as in paralios; auricular-area greyer than practicola; edges of 
secondaries and coverts greyer-brown than either of those subspecies. 
Much less black than meridionalis and monticola; much smaller than 
meridionalis (Chapman 1931). 

Etymology. This is the fifth form to be named from South America. 

Discussion. Two juveniles from Surinam are somewhat less rich 
dorsally than a comparable juvenile of practicola from Alta Gracia, 
Venezuela. The range of quinta is separated from the most similar sub- 
species paralios by the ranges of the very distinctive subspecies practicola 
and monticola. 

Species examined:— 

S. m. meridionalis. Colombia. Dept . Norte de Santander: Ocana 666*. 2$?; Pamploma 366- 
Dept. Santander: Angostura 16; Pena Blanca 16; Paramo San Pedro 266, 1$; Las Ventanes 
1 5; Hda. Las Vegas 3c? 6*- Venezuela. Dept. Merida: Tabay 466; Azulita 1 6, 1?; La Cuchilla 

S. m. meridionalis intermediate towards S. m. paralios. Colombia. Dept. Dinamarca: La 
Holanda 266; Sopo 16- Venezuela. Dept. Apure: San Carlos del Meta 16- 

S. m. paralios. Colombia. Dept. Magdelena: Aguachica 766, 3$$; Camperucho 16; Hda. 
La Esperanza 16; San Sebastian 1$ (paratype); El Manon 266- Dept. Boyaca: Palmar 16- 
Dept. Hulia: La Candela 366; La Plata 2$$. Venezuela. Dept. Carabobo: El Trompillo 2$?; 
La Cumbre de Valencia lr?. Dept. Lara: Tocuyo 2$ 6; Cubiro 16*, 1?. Dept. Trujillo: Teta de 
Xiquito 16". Dept. Portuguesa: Acarigua 2$$. Dept. Aragua: La Victoria 366; Colonia 
Tovar 26*6*- Dept. Yaracuy: Nirgua 16- 

BenKing 162 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

S. m. practicola. Guyana. Abary 1$ (paratype); no locality 1. Venezuela. Dept. Bolivar: 
Maripa, Rio Caura 3^, 1?; Maipures \<$\ Alta Gracia 2(J<J, 1 juv.; La Mariquita 1?, Dept. 
Anzoategui: Rio Suata 2?$. 

5. m. practicola x 5. m. monticola. Guyana. Upper Takutu Mts. 1??; Annai, Rupununi 
River \<$, 1$; no locality 1. Venezuela. Dept. Bolivar: Cerro Upuima ( = Cerro Upuigma 
Tepui) 1?. 

S. m. monticola. Venezuela. Dept. Bolivar: Cerro Roraima 2<$($, 1$; Cerro Ayuan-tepui 
5c?c?, 1?; Cerro Paurai Tepui 1$; Cerro Ptari-tepui \<S, 2??. 

S. m. quinta. Surinam. Zanderij 8^, 9$$, 2 juv.; "Interior" 1$. Brazil. Estado Amapa. 
Type locality 5&J, 2??; Lima. Rio Cotinga 2$$, 2?9; Porto Platon 2$$, 1$. 


To Graham Cowles and Michael Walters of the British Museum (Natural History); 
Raymond A. Paynter, Jr, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard; Kenneth C. Parkes, 
Carnegie Museum of Natural History; Richard C. Banks, National Museum of Natural 
History; and especially to William H. Phelps, Jr. Coleccion Phelps, Caracas I express my 
thanks for the loan of specimens. MPW kindly compared the paratype of S. m. practicola 
with the type for me. 


Blake, E. R. 1968. Icteridae: in Check-listof Birds of the World(R. A. Paynter Jr, ed.) Vol. 14: 

Chapman, F. M. 1931. The upper zonal birdlife of Mts Roraima and Duida. Bull. Amer. 

Mus. Nat. Hist. 63: 1-135. 
Chubb, C. 1 921 . On new forms of South American birds. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 9(8): 

Haverschmidt, F. 1955. List of the birds of Surinam. Publ. Found. Research in Surinam and 

the Netherlands Antilles, Utrech. 13: 1-153. 
Haverschmidt, F. 1968. Birds of Surinam. Oliver and Boyd. 
Phelps, W. H. & Phelps, W. H., Jr 1963. Lista de las aves de Venezuela con su distribucion, 

Passeriformes. SegundaEdn. Bol. Soc. Venez. Ciencias Nat. 24: 1—479. 

Address: Dr Robert W. Dickerman, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park 
West at 79th Street, New York, N.Y. 10024. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

The avian genera Testa and Urosphena 
by Ben King 

Received 23 January 1989 

Delacour (1942) defined the genus Bradypterus as follows: "Rictal 
bristles very small and inconspicuous; throat, breast, under tail coverts 
and lesser wing coverts sometimes plain, sometimes streaked or spotted; 
tail about equal to wing or longer; bill slight." He defined Cettia (differ- 
entiating it from Bradypterus) as follows: "Rictal bristles well developed 
and visible; no dark markings on the body plumage. Rectrices soft, never 
stiff nor with underlying barring, always 10 in number. Thickness of bill 
variable." He then divided the genus Cettia into 3 subgenera. The 
subgenus Urosphena was distinguished by "Tail shorter than wing by 

Ben King 163 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

10 mm or more; bill long and narrow; pale supercilium long, broad 
and conspicuous", whereas the subgenera Horeites and Cettia had 
"Tail about equal to wing; pale supercilium shorter and less conspi- 
cuous". The subgenus Horeites was recognised by "Bill comparatively 
broad and thick; rectrices of normal width; tail coverts also normal; 
rictal bristles strong". The subgenus Cettia (containing only C. cetti) 
was recognised by "Bill narrow; rectrices broad; tail coverts long and 
broad; rictal bristles weak". 

Delacour (1942) defined the genus Tesia by "very short rectrices [are] 
hidden by the tail coverts and slightly curved downwards. The bill is long, 
broad and flattened at its base, with a strong ridge on the upper mandible. 
The upper parts are dark grey or olive, and the underparts grey, darker or 
lighter." Delacour separated Tesia castaneocoronata off from Tesia and 
placed it in a new genus, Chorotesia, based on its longer rectrices, thin, 
narrow bill, and brighter colour pattern. 

White & Bruce (1986) placed Tesia everetti in the genus Urosphena, 
while Watson (in Peters 1986) considered Tesia everetti a subspecies of 
Urosphena subulata and placed Tesia castaneocoronata in the genus 


I measured a series of Tesia, Urosphena and Cettia to see if the measure- 
ments and ratios might cluster. Also, tape recordings of all species of 
Tesia, Urosphena and Cettia and several species of Bradypterus were 
obtained in the field and compared (the tapes are on deposit at the Library 
of Natural Sounds in the Cornell University Laboratory of Ornithology) 
and field observations of all species of Tesia, Urosphena and Cettia and 
several species of Bradypterus were made. 


(1) The genera Bradypterus and Cettia can further be separated by: (A) 
Bradypterus songs are insect-like and non-musical, while Cettia songs are 
musical, often staccato warbles; and (B) Bradypterus warblers walk, but 
Cettia warblers hop. 

(2) Cettia pallidipes belongs with Horeites and not Urosphena because: 
(A) its tail is too long (note that its wing/tail ratio clusters with Horeites 
and not Urosphena (Table 1); (B) its rectrices are of normal width (not 
narrow as in Urosphena): (C) its pale supercilium is shorter (like Horeites) 
than in Urosphena; and (D) its song is a staccato warble (Fig. 1) in the 
1-4 KHz range (like most other Horeites) rather than the high pitched 
monotones at 8-10 KHz typical of Urosphena. 

The only character pallidipes shares with Urosphena is a long narrow 
bill, which some Horeites also have. A better definition for Horeites would 
thus be "tail less than 20 mm shorter than wing length", while Urosphena 
would be "tail more than 20 mm shorter than wing length". 

(3) The genus Tesia, including everetti, is characterised by (A) loud 
staccato songs in the 1-3 KHz range (Fig. 1); (B) spending most time in 

Ben King 


Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


Measurements (mm) and ratios of the genera Tesia, Urosphena and Cettia. (Number of 

specimens examined in brackets.) 











Tesia castaneocoronata (10) 






Tesia olivea(\0) 






Tesia cyaniventer (10) 






Tesia super ciliaris (8) 






Tesia everetti (8) 






Urosphena squameiceps (10) 






Urosphena whiteheadi (5) 






Urosphena subulata (7) 






Cettia pallidipes (4) 






Cettia major (4) 






Cettia brunnifrons (10) 






Cettia acanthizoides (10) 






Cettia diphone cantons (5) 






Cettia diphone cantans (5) 






CWta'aceHt (10) 






Cettia f or tipes (10) 






Cettia vulcania everetti (10) 






Cettia flavolivacea (6) 






(3) The genus Tesia, including everetti, is characterised by (A) loud 
staccato songs in the 1-3 KHz range (Fig. 1); (B) spending most time in 
dense undergrowth rather than on the ground (although they are often 
seen on the ground); (C) a curious kind of sidewise movement along 
branches in the undergrowth when disturbed; (D) a wing/tarsus ratio of 
1.90-2.17 (Tablet), compared to 2.54-2.91 for Urosphena and 2.40-2.82 
for Cettia; and (E) a wing/tail ratio of 1.89-2.89 (Table 1), compared to 
1 .81-2.23 for Urosphena and 0.98-1 .26 for Cettia. 

I have here included castaneocoronata with Tesia because it conforms in 
all these aspects to Tesia, even though it differs in its longer tail (longer 
than tail coverts), thin bill and bright colours. Perhaps Oligura is best 
regarded as a subgenus of Tesia. 

(4) The genus Urosphena is characterised by: (A) high-pitched mono- 
tone songs in the 8-10 KHz range which are difficult or impossible for 
many people to hear (Fig. 1); (B) spending most of the time on the ground 
(less often in undergrowth than Tesia); (C) lacking the curious sidewise 
movement of Tesia; (D) a wing/tarsus ratio of 2.54— 2.91 (Table 1); and(E) 
awing/tail ratio of 1.81-2.23 (Table 1). 

Since Urosphena is such a distinct cluster, I prefer to treat it as a genus 
separate from Cettia. While the general behaviour of Cettia and Uros- 
phena is similar, the songs of these 2 groups are radically different, as is 
their wing/tail ratio. It should be noted, however, that C. acanthizoides 
and C. brunnifrons have elements in their songs which resemble Uros- 
phena (especially acanthizoides— set Orenstein & Pratt 1983), although at a 
lower pitch. C. pallidipes clearly does not belong to Urosphena and is not 
even particularly close to it. 

Ben King 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 




























■a go 







































S «' 

r! .^ ?* 







« g a 

° ~ *> «■ 

u ° C 5 

'o <u 2 ■* 
5 M H «, 

M 2D: 2 

J3 N * '-' 

« x -5 <*-. 
&■*' c ° 

(ZHX) A0N3n03Hd 

_ ; o 15 °» 

D.N.Carstairs 166 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


The genus Tesia consists of 5 species: castaneocoronata, olivea, cyani- 
venter, superciliaris and everetti, characterised by very short tails, loud 
staccato songs in the 1—3 KHz range, long legs, with which they often 
move through the undergrowth in a curious sidewise motion. The genus 
Urosphena consists of 3 species: squameiceps , whiteheadi and subulata, 
characterised by very short tails, high-pitched, barely audible monotonal 
songs in the 8-10 KHz range, and by spending most of their time on the 
ground. Cettia pallidipes is clearly a member of Cettia rather than of 


The Library of Natural Sounds at the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology supplied tape- 
recording equipment and much assistance. The Ornithology Department of the American 
Museum of Natural History kindly supplied the sonograph, and Bob Solberg assisted by 
making the sonograms. John McKean and Dennis Yong supplied valuable help in the field. 
Mr Tsuruhiko Kabaya graciously allowed me the use of his excellent tape-recording of 
Urosphena squameiceps. 


Delacour, J. 1942. The Bush-warblers of the genera Cettia and Bradypterus, with notes on 

allied genera and species. Ibis XIV Series (6): 509-519, 27^-0. 
Orenstein R. I. & Pratt, H. D. 1983. The relationships and evolution of the Southwest 

Pacific warbler genera Vitia and Psamathia (Sylviinae). Wilson Bull. 95(2): 184—198. 
Peters, J. L. 1986. Check-list of Birds of the World. Vol. XI: 1-8. 
White, C. M. N. & Bruce, M. D. 1986. The Birds of Wallacea (Sulawesi, The Moluccas & 

Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia); an annotated check-list. British Ornithologists' 


Address: Ben King, c/o Bird Department, American Museum of Natural History, Central 
Park West at 74th St., New York, NY 10024, USA. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

The status of the Rufous-chested Dotterel 
Zonibyx modes tus in the Falkland Islands 

by D. N. Car stairs 

Received 6 February 1989 


The Rufous-chested Dotterel (or Winter Plover) Zonibyx modestus is 
found throughout the Falkland Islands during the austral spring and 
summer — from the beginning of August until the end of January. Con- 
spicuous in plumage and behaviour, it occurs across a wide range of 
habitats, from coastal mudflats to hilly plateaux up to c.700 m a.s.l. It 
breeds commonly amongst the dry heaths (locally called 'hard camp') of 
extensive sheep-grazed moorland characterised by an admixture of white 

D. N. Carstairs 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


5tf oo 


SP 30' 



51* so' 

a' qq' 

Figure 1 . Falkland Islands showing principal areas visited O and Rufous-chested Dotterel 
Zonibyx modestus locations • 1972-1974. 

grass (Cortaderia sp.), ferns and the heath-like shrub, Diddle Dee 
Empetrum rubrum. 

On the South American continent, the species breeds in the west along 
the sea-board of Chile, ranging for over 3000 km from 40°S to Cape Horn, 
56°S; and in Argentina in the east, in Tierra del Fuego and the Magellanic 
Islands, moving northwards in winter to Uruguay and, rarely, as far as 
Sao Paulo, Brazil (23°S). In the west, the wintering range extends from 
Valdivia (40°S) to Atacama (24°S) (Meyer de Schauensee 1971). 

In the Falkland Islands, over 500 km east of mainland South America, 
there has always been some conjecture about the status of Z. modestus. 
Abbott (1861) was certain enough to consider it "a migratory bird in East 
Falkland" and further believed that birds "disappeared entirely" by the 
end of April each year. Bennett (1 926) was less certain, and while agreeing 
that it was a "common summer migrant and breeding", he considered 
that "a few remain throughout the winter". This view was shared by 
Cawkell & Hamilton (1961), citing pre-migratory build ups on west 
Falkland and visible migration over Stanley in East Falkland. Pettingill 
(1960) however, thought it unlikely that this species (or any other) regu- 
larly left the Falklands against the strong prevailing westerly winds. 
Woods (1975) believed that more birds were present during the winter 
than had been thought but that their dowdier plumage and inconspicuous 
behaviour at that time made them more difficult to see. 


I was resident in the Falkland Islands from January 1972 to December 
1974, during which time I made 369 field trips throughout the country- 
side (Fig. 1), covering 23 settlements and surrounding areas, 5 outside 

D. N. Carstairs 168 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


Figure 2. Total number of rufous chested dotterel Zonibyx modestus records/month — in 
relation to the mean number of field days/month. Falkland Islands 1972-1974 inc. 

houses (shepherds' accommodation remote from settlements) and unin- 
habited localities noted for their wildlife, including Volunteers, Seal Bay 
(Port Louis settlement), Kidney and Staats Islands, Cape Dolphin and 
Elephant Beach. Hinterland moorland, including plateaux ground of 
Mount Adam, Mount Maria, Mount Kent and the Two Sisters, were 
visited on foot, while many other journeys were made between settle- 
ments on horse-back. 

During the 3-year period, Rufous-chested Dotterels were recorded on 
78 occasions, occurring in every month except July. Observer effort was 
reasonably constant throughout the recording period, though there was a 
natural tendency to spend less time in the field during the more inclement 
winter months (Fig. 2). 

Taking the southern seasons in sequence, dotterels were first recorded 
in significant numbers at the end of August, their first appearance each 
year showing some synchrony: 10 on 25 August 1972, 3 on 26 August 
1973, 30 on 7 September 1974 (Fig. 3). Numbers of records and size of 
flocks increased rapidly, peaking around early September (week 35), with 
flocks of up to 100 birds present. There then followed a rapid decline in 
flock size as birds paired and dispersed widely prior to breeding. By the 
third week in November (week 46) young were present. Towards the end 
of January mixed parties of juveniles and adults began to flock, often in 
association with Two-banded Plovers Charadrius falklandicus and 
White-rumped Sandpipers Calidris fuscicollis. Flocks occurred in both 
East and West Falkland at this time, peaking around the end of March 
(week 12). By late April (week 16) few birds remained, a situation which 
prevailed throughout the Southern winter. During 77 field trips in May, 
June and July of the 3 years, Rufous-chested Dotterels were recorded on 
only 5 occasions: 4 times in May, once in June and not at all in July. Only 2 
winter records involved more than 5 birds: 20 at Volunteers, East 

D. N. Carstairs 






Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


a *L35 5+36363138394D4« 4l 43 4+ 45 46 47 4* 46 56 51 SSL I 2 3 4 

WEEK 5 6 7 8 9 iO U ft 13 14 15 16 II U fl 20 21 21 23 24- 15 26 27 K tt 30 


Figure 3. Mean number of rufous-chested Zonibyx modestus dotterels recorded by weeks 
(consecutive 7 day periods) 1972-1974 in the Falkland Islands. 

Falkland on 20 May 1972 and 9 at West Point Island, West Falkland on 9 
May 1973. 


The appearance of flocks at about the same time each year in Aug/ 
Sep, the rapid build up of flocks in March/April and disappearance by 
May, together with the paucity of records from May to July and in 
early August, suggest that a big majority of Rufous-chested Dotterels 
occurring in the Falkland Islands are migratory. Furthermore, in 
agreement with Woods (1975) and earlier authors, small flocks or in- 
dividuals undoubtedly remain in isolated localities on both East and 
West Falkland. 

My thanks to Peter Ewins for advice on the preparation of this short paper and to David 
Saunders for his critical comments on an early draft. 

P. W. & Susan A. Smith 170 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 


Abbott, A. A. 1861. Notes on the birds of the Falkland Islands. Ibis Ser. 1(3): 149-167. 
Bennett, A. G. 1926. A list of the birds of the Falkland Islands. Ibis Ser. 12(2): 306-333. 
Cawkell, E. M. & Hamilton, J. E. 1961. The birds of the Falkland Islands. Ibis 103a: 1-27. 
Meyer de Schaunsee, R. 1971. A Guide to the Birds of South America. Oliver & Boyd. 
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. 1960. The effects of climate and weather on the birds of the Falkland 

Islands. Proc. XII International Ornith. Congr. Helsinki 1958: 604—614. 
Woods, R. W. 1975. The Birds of the Falkland Islands. Nelson. 

Address: D. N. Carstairs, 6 Melbourne Road, Stamford, Lincolnshire, PE9 1UD, U.K. 
© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

The Bahama Swallow Tachycineta 
cyaneoviridis; a summary 

by P. William Smith and Susan A. Smith 

Received 25 January 1989 

The Bahama Swallow Tachycineta cyaneoviridis is a little-known hirun- 
dinine which, except for a few apparently irregular appearances in Florida 
and Cuba, is endemic to the Bahama Islands. Until recently it was placed 
in the monotypic genus Callichelidon (Bond 1967, AOU 1983). Very little 
about its natural history or biology has been published. Our purpose is to 
bring together the most significant literature of the species and to add our 
own observations made during visits to the islands of Abaco 20—22 Jun 
1986, Grand Bahama 28-30 Nov 1986, New Providence 23 Jun 1986 and 
19 May 1988, Bimini 19 Sep 1987 and Andros 20-23 May 1988 (Fig. 1). 
PWS has also examined most of the known specimens of the Bahama 
Swallow (Table 1), namely those currently deposited in the British 
Museum (Natural History), Tring (BMNH), Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (MCZ), American Museum of 
Natural History (AMNH), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 
(ANSP), U.S. National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Tall 
Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida (TTRS), Louisiana 
State University Museum of Zoology (LSUMZ) and the Field Museum 
of Natural History, Chicago (FMNH); he has not been able to examine 
those deposited at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh 
(CMNH) or elsewhere. 


The specimen record of the Bahama Swallow closely parallels the ornitho- 
logical exploration of the Bahama Islands. The species was described by 
Henry Bryant, the first collecting ornithologist to visit the Bahamas, who 
secured 7 in April 1859 (Table 1). Charles Cory obtained another series in 
June 1879, of which at least 14 specimens, including 4 juveniles, are 
extant (Table 1). One of Cory's juveniles, deposited in the BMNH in 
1885 and from the Salvin-Godman collection, became the basis for the 
only description of the immature of the species ever written (Sharpe 

P.W.& Susan A. Smith 171 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

1885). This description has been widely quoted by others (e.g. Sharpe & 
Wyatt 1894, Ridgway 1904, Bond 1947) although it is based on a single 
(and somewhat unrepresentative) individual. 

In 1884, Charles J. Maynard spent several months in the Bahamas and 
secured 14 specimens (Maynard 1896), mostly in January and March. 
PWS located 12 of these in 4 museums (Table 1), including one taken at 
Grassy Creek, Andros, the first from an island other than New Provi- 
dence. During the next 25 years, various expeditions to the Bahamas, 
almost entirely in late winter and spring, secured about 50 additional 
specimens, including the firsts for Abaco in 1886 and Grand Bahama in 
1891, the sole records for the Berry Islands and the Cay Sal Bank (both in 
1891), and the only specimen for Eleuthera, in 1897 (Table 1). 

In April 1890, W. E. D. Scott collected the first Bahama Swallow taken 
outside the Bahamas, at the Dry Tortugas, Florida (Table 1). A second 
reported specimen from Florida (Brewster 1897), however, is in fact a 
Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor (Smith & Browning 1989). The only 
other specimens secured outside the Bahamas were taken in Cuba: 2 at 
Nipe Bay in March 1914 and 5 near Guantanamo Bay in January 1917 
(Table 1). Charles T. Ramsden, who collected the latter, is said to have 
seen them regularly during the winter months (J. Bond), but apparently 
he never published these observations. There seem to be no other reports 
of Bahama Swallows from Cuba. 

The 36 specimens of the Bahama Swallow taken since 1920 and located 
by the authors are all adults collected on one of the known breeding 
islands — Abaco, Andros, Grand Bahama or New Providence (Table 1), of 
which 31 were taken between January and May. The remaining 5, 
secured 29 Nov 1968, are the only known specimens taken in autumn 
(Table 1); all are in immaculately fresh plumage, showing no traces of 
wear (Sievert Rohwer). Since no other specimens examined in the United 
States showed signs of moult, we assume that moult occurs in late sum- 
mer and early autumn, as with the congeneric Tree Swallow (Dwight 
1 900). Except for a single immature in the BMNH secured on New Provi- 
dence in Aug 1898, which we did not critically examine for moult, no 
Bahama Swallows apparently have ever been collected between 29 June 
and 29 Nov (Table 1). 


The nesting of the Bahama Swallow has been confused by anecdotal and 
second-hand reports of the species possibly breeding on ledges (Northrop 
1891), in a hole on a wharf (Maynard 1896), in unspecified hollow trees 
(Bonhote 1 903), in woodpiles (Brudenell-Bruce 1 975), or under the eaves 
of houses, more especially on the British Colonial Hotel in Nassau (Allen 
1905, Riley 1905, Bond 1936, 1966, Brudenell-Bruce 1975). Todd & 
Worthington (1911) were apparently the first to state from direct obser- 
vation that the species nested in the Bahamian pinelands, in cavities in the 
Caribbean Pine Pinus caribaea. Emlen (1977), and ourselves in 1986 and 
1988, found several nestsites in active use in live and dead pines, all in 
natural cavities or abandoned woodpecker holes c. 8-1 5 m from the 
ground. In the pinelands of Grand Bahama, Bond (1972) observed them 

P. W. & Susan A. Smith 172 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 










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Figure 1 . Known range of the Bahama Swallow Tachycineta cyaneoviridis 

occupying 2 bird boxes intended for Wood Ducks Aix sponsa, but he did 
not know whether they actually laid in the boxes (J. Bond). 

While it possibly nests in other situations, there are no published obser- 
vations whatever of the Bahama Swallow definitely breeding anywhere 
except in pine cavities. We specifically looked for nests at the British 
Colonial Hotel in Nassau, where observers presumed they were breeding 
in 1965 (Bond 1966), and where Brudenell-Bruce (1975) asserted, appar- 
ently inferentially, that they certainly nested. We found no sign of their 
presence there in June 1986, nor in May 1988, despite seeing numerous 
holes under the eaves of the hotel. On Andros in 1988, we observed 
Bahama Swallows apparently prospecting for nest sites; on 20 May and 
successive days, we watched as pairs flew up to tree knots and gaping holes 
in the eaves and cornices of private houses. Such behaviour continued for 
several minutes, before the birds left the area; then the same, or different 
pairs, were seen behaving similarly at the same site later. We believe that 
nesting of the species on Andros, and probably throughout its range, is 
limited by a lack of suitable nesting cavities, and that non-nesting pairs 
search continually during the breeding season for appropriate sites. 

As far as we can determine, the nest and eggs of the Bahama Swallow 
are unknown to science. A search of North American collections in 1985 
failed to locate any eggs of this species (Lloyd Kiff), and there are none in 
the BMNH or listed in Handbiich der Oologie (Michael Walters). Bond's 
(1936) reference to the nest as being partially composed of seaweed may 
have been inferred from Todd & Worthington's (1911) observation of 
the species gathering mouthfuls of seaweed before flying towards the 
pinelands. Bond's (1936) statement that the eggs resemble those of the 

P. W. & Susan A. Smith 176 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

Violet-green Swallow Tachycineta thalassina was based on an oological 
advertisement of unknown validity; he never actually saw a nest or eggs (J . 
Bond). Brudenell-Bruce's (1975) statement that the clutch is said to be 3 
white eggs may have been inferred from Bond's (1 961 ) apparent supposi- 
tion that its nesting was similar to that of the Golden Swallow Tachycineta 
( Kalochelidon ) euchrysea, of Hispaniola and Jamaica. 

Nesting of the Bahama Swallow normally begins in April, when the 
species moves from its winter habitat over marshes and old fields to the 
pinelands (Emlen 1977). A male collected by Northrop (1891) on 15 April 
1890 showed much-enlarged testes. For the congeneric Tree Swallow T. 
bicolor, Bent (1942) describes a nesting cycle of about 7 weeks: 2 weeks for 
nest building, 2 weeks for incubation, and 3 weeks for fledging the young. 
This is consistent with our observations of Bahama Swallows. We dis- 
covered one occupied nest cavity in the trunk of a live Caribbean pine on 
Andros on 21 May 1988. The cavity appeared to be an abandoned wood- 
pecker hole c.5 cm in diameter, c.l2m above the ground. The Hairy 
Woodpecker Picoides villosus is a "fairly common" resident of the Baha- 
mian pinelands (Brudenell-Bruce 1975) and one which we did see in the 
vicinity. Then and on the following day, the female Bahama Swallow 
(presumed so on duller plumage) remained in the cavity for extended 
periods, while the male regularly stood by on a twig near the entrance. On 
23 May, both adults entered the nest hole every few minutes for very brief 
periods, suggesting that hatching had occurred between 22 and 23 May. 
We saw no juveniles on Andros in May 1988. The seasonally earliest 
immature specimen known was secured 17 June 1879 (Table 1), and on 
Abaco we saw several juveniles peering out of nests and perching nearby 
on 22 June 1986. We cannot say whether the species is double-brooded, 
for there are few published observations of Bahama Swallows after June. 
Allen (1905) saw them on New Providence, Abaco, and Grand Bahama in 
July 1904, but did not report nesting activity, nor did Bonhote (1899), 
who observed them sparingly on New Providence between April and 
November 1898. The North American congeners of T. cyaneoviridis, 
however, are normally single-brooded (Bent 1942). 


We concur with Bond (1936) and the AOU (1983) that the nesting range 
of the Bahama Swallow normally is limited to the northern Bahamian 
islands of Grand Bahama, Abaco, New Providence and Andros, i.e. 
where the only definite nest sites have been located. These are the only 
islands in the Bahamas where there are extensive tracts of the Bahamian 
variety of Pinus caribaea (Henry 1974). The Bahama Swallow has never 
been reported from the Caicos Islands in the southern Bahamas (Buden 
1987), where a few cays also have natural tracts of Pinus caribaea (Henry 
1974). Possibly, isolated pairs nest occasionally in southern Florida, 
where there are tracts of the similar Pinus elliottii (W. Robertson); on 
Sugarloaf Key, a few km from one such tract, 2 adults, later with one 
young, were seen by several observers between 3 May and 14 July 1974 
(Edscorn et al. in Kale 1974, Sykes et al. in Ogden 1974). However, 
repeated searches of the area by ourselves 1986-88 and by others in earlier 

P. W. & Susan A. Smith 177 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

years did not suggest that the species regularly nested in the Florida Keys. 
There is no evidence that the Bahama Swallow has ever nested in Cuba; 
its current status there is unknown. 

Logging of the pines in the Northern Bahamas has probably had a 
major impact on the Bahama Swallow's population. Northrop (1891) 
described the species as abundant on Andros in 1890. In 1988 we found it 
decidedly uncommon and very patchily distributed there. Andros' pines 
were selectively logged for timber mainly between 1948 and 1967, and 
thereafter were virtually clearcut for pulpwood until about 1974 (Henry 
1974, Campbell 1978). The other pine-covered islands were logged in a 
similar fashion, although active timbering had virtually ceased by 1 929 on 
New Providence, by 1944 on Abaco and by 1956 on Grand Bahama 
(Henry 1974). Clearcutting for pulpwood peaked on Grand Bahama in 
1959 and on Abaco in 1966 (Henry 1974). Although clearcutting is no 
longer in progress anywhere in the Bahamas, and considerable pine re- 
generation has occurred, nearly all the pinelands, at least on Andros, are 
plantation-like, with similarly aged trees and little or no standing dead 
wood, though we found some small stands of larger trees, where clear- 
cutting may have been uneconomic, which encompassed some standing 
dead trees. In this association we located most of the Bahama Swallows 
that we saw, including the only active nest cavities we found on Andros 
and New Providence. On Abaco, we found Bahama Swallows to be most 
numerous in June 1986 in an area of the southern part of the island, which 
also had escaped recent clearcutting (King et al. 1979). 

While driving 96.4 km at speeds under 30 kph, with frequent stops, 
along main and old logging roads through the Andros pinelands on 20—21 
May 1988, we recorded 11 single (presumed breeding male) and 16 two- 
somes (presumed pairs) of Bahama Swallows. If we had detected all male 
Bahama Swallows breeding within 103 m of the road, the breeding den- 
sity would be about 1.3 prs/km of pineland. Based on Henry's (1974) 
determination that there were at that time about 1 782 km 2 of pinelands on 
the 4 islands where the species is known to breed, the total breeding 
population of the Bahama Swallow would be about 2400 prs. While there 
are many reasons that this crude technique could either exaggerate or 
underestimate the breeding population, we think it yields an estimate of 
the correct order of magnitude. We doubt that there are more than 10,000 
or less than 1000 living Bahama Swallows. Emlen (1977) reported a win- 
tering population density on Grand Bahama of 6.8 birds/km 2 , confined 
mainly to marsh and old field associations. We cannot relate this figure to 
ours because we do not know the amount of such habitat on Grand 
Bahama, nor the extent to which the species winters there. In November 
1986, we were able to locate a total of only about 20 Bahama Swallows on 
Grand Bahama, in only one of several apparently suitable foraging areas. 


The phenology of the Bahama Swallow is poorly known. After nesting, it 
appears to disperse somewhat to the west and south. In the summer of 
1 986, we photographed different juvenile Bahama Swallows in Florida on 
Big Pine Key on 27 Jul and at Flamingo on 23 Aug; several other credible 

P. W. & Susan A. Smith 178 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

reports exist for Florida at this season, mostly of immatures (Smith & 
Smith, in prep.). Vaurie (1953) reported seeing Bahama Swallows daily on 
Bimini 14-24 Aug 1951, but we failed to find any there in Sep 1987. 
During 5 years of field observation on Eleuthera in the 1970s, Connor & 
Loftin (1985) considered Bahama Swallows to be scarce summer visitors 
between 8 Jun and 12 Aug, while J. Greenlaw reported seeing a small 
flock there at Gregory Town on 24 Dec 1979 (Bond 1982). 

Farther south in the Bahamas, there are sight reports of this species on: 
Watling's Island ( = San Salvador) in Feb (Bond 1976); Exuma, month 
unstated (Bond 1968); and on Inagua between late Nov and early Feb 
(Buden 1 987). In Cuba, Ramsden's 5 January specimens and other winter 
observations all were from the southeast portion of the island (Garrido & 
Garcia 1975). The 2 Cuban specimens from Mar were secured at Nipe 
Bay on the northeast coast, possibly suggesting a return movement, as 
might Apr and May specimens from the Dry Tortugas, Cay Sal and 
Eleuthera (Table 1). Several credible sight reports for Florida also exist in 
spring (Smith & Smith in prep.). 

While evidently partially migratory, we doubt that the Bahama Swal- 
low is largely so, as suggested by Bond (1947). We and others, including 
Emlen (1977), have seen Bahama Swallows on Grand Bahama in Nov and 
during the winter. Rodgers secured several specimens from Andros 
during Nov, and the species is regularly reported there in Dec during 
Christmas counts (e.g. Wynn 1987, Perkins 1987). Taken with the many 
old Jan specimens from New Providence and Bonhote's (1899) obser- 
vations from New Providence during summer and autumn, available data 
do not point to an extensive postbreeding dispersal or migration. We 
believe that the bulk of the population, especially of adults, probably 
remains within the primary breeding range in the northern Bahamas 
throughout the year. 


In summary, we believe the Bahama Swallow is now a fairly rare species, 
with a current population of under 10,000 individuals. Most of the pub- 
lished material about its life history is suppositive or represents an elabor- 
ation upon earlier authors' work. Its breeding range is normally limited to 
4 pine-forested islands in the northern Bahamas, nesting mainly occur- 
ring in natural cavities and old woodpecker holes in Pinus caribaea. Its 
breeding biology is essentially unknown. Mid-20th century clearcutting 
of its breeding environment, as well as on-going agricultural and human 
development, has probably caused a significant decline in its numbers 
over the past century. Cessation of logging suggests that its declining 
population may have levelled off, at least temporarily. Although little is 
definitely known about its movements, a portion of the population, per- 
haps consisting mainly of juveniles, disperses southward and westward to 
Florida, the southern Bahamas and Cuba after breeding. Nevertheless, 
most individuals probably remain within the breeding range throughout 
the year. More data, particularly in autumn and winter, and more field- 
work in eastern Cuba, would be useful to gain a better understanding of 
its range. 

P. W. & Susan A. Smith 179 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

Since the species' population seems to be constrained by the avail- 
ability of nest cavities, and because other members of its genus have 
readily adapted to nest boxes (Bent 1942), the success and long-term 
survival of the Bahama Swallow might easily be enhanced. To our knowl- 
edge, however, no systematic attempt has been made to undertake a nest 
box programme for the species. We believe that this would be an ideal 
project for the school children of the Bahamas and hope that suitable 
funding and leadership in that direction will be forthcoming. 


We thank Allison Andors (AMNH), Philip Angle (USNM), Ralph Browning (USNM), 
Steven Cardiff (LSUMZ), Peter Colston (BMNH), Graham Cowles (BMNH), Kenn 
Kaufman (ANSP), Mary LeCroy (AMNH), Diane Maurer (FMNH), Raymond Paynter 
(MCZ), Van Remsen (LSUMZ), Henry Stevenson (TTRS), David Willard (FMNH) and 
Richard Zusi (USNM) for access to and assistance with the specimens under their care. 
James Laughlin provided helpful detailed information on the specimens at CMNH. Sievert 
Rohwer assisted in examining the specimens at LSUMZ for evidence of feather wear and 
moult. Lloyd Kiff and Michael Walters provided information about oological collections in 
North America and Europe as well as other helpful data. Richard Banks, James Bond and 
Paul Sykes provided details of their own or others' observations. William Robertson 
reviewed an earlier draft of this paper and offered many helpful suggestions. 


Allen, G. M. 1905. Summer birds in the Bahamas. Auk 22: 113-133. 

AOU 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th Ed. American Ornithologists' Union. 

Bangs, O. 1900. Notes on a collection of Bahama birds. Auk 17: 283-293. 

Bangs, O. 1914. The Bahama Swallow in Cuba. Auk 31: 401. 

Bent, A. C. 1942. Life histories of North American flycatchers, larks, swallows, and their 

allies. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. No. 179. 
Bond, J. 1936. Birds of the West Indies. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 
Bond, J. 1947. Field Guide to Birds of the West Indies. Macmillan. 
Bond, J. 1961. Birds of the West Indies. 1st Amer. Edn. Houghton Mifflin. 
Bond, J. 1966. Eleventh supplement to the check-list of birds of the West Indies (1956); 

1967-Twelfth supplement; 1968-Thirteenth supplement; 1972— Seventeenth sup- 
plement; 1976-Twentieth supplement; 1982-Twenty-fourth supplement. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Philadelphia. 
Bonhote, J. L. 1899. A list of birds collected on the island of New Providence. Ibis Ser. 7(5): 

Bonhote, J. L. 1903. On a collection of birds from the northern islands of the Bahamas 

group. Ibis Ser. 8(3): 273-315. 
Brewster, W. 1897. The Bahaman Swallow in Florida. Auk 14: 221-222. 
Brudenell-Bruce, P. G. C. 1975. The Birds of New Providence and the Bahama Islands. 

Bryant, H. 1 859. A list of birds seen at the Bahamas, from Jan. 20th to May 14th, 1859, with 

descriptions of new or little known species. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 7: 102-134. 
Buden, D. W. 1987. The Birds of the Southern Bahamas. British Ornithologists' Union 

Check-list No. 8. 
Campbell, D. G. 1978. The Ephemeral Islands-a Natural History of the Bahamas. 

Connor, H. A. & Loftin, R. W. 1985. The birds of Eleuthera Island, Bahamas. Florida Field 

Nat. 13:77-93. 
Cory, C.B.I 880. The Birds of the Bahama Islands. The author, Boston. 
Cory, C. B. 1891a. A list of birds taken and observed in Cuba and the Bahama Islands during 

March and April 1891 . Auk 8: 292-298. 
Cory, C. B. 1891b. List of the birds obtained by Mr C. S. Winch on the islands of Great 

Bahama and Abaco, Bahama Islands, during June, and on Eleuthera in July, 1891. Auk 

Cory, C. B. 1891c. On a collection of birds made on the islands of Anguilla and Cay Sal or 

Salt Cay, Bahama Islands, by Mr Cyrus S. Winch, during May, 1891. Auk 8: 352. 

R. J. Dowsett 180 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

Dwight, J. Jr 1900. The sequence of plumages and moults of the passerine birds of New 

York. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 8(2): 73-360. 
Emlen, J. T. 1977. Land Bird Communities of Grand Bahama Island: the structure and 

dyanmics of an avifauna. Orn. Monog. No. 24. 
Garrido, O. H. & Garcia Montana, F. 1975. Catdlogo de las Aves de Cuba. Academia de 

Ciencias de Cuba, La Habana. 
Henry, P. W. T. 1974. The pine forests of the Bahamas. Brit. Foreign and Commonwealth 

Office Land Resource Study No. 16. 
Kale H. W. 1974. Florida region [spring field notes]. Amer. Birds 28: 790-794. 
King, W. B., Snyder, N. F. R., Segnestam, M. & Grantham, J. 1979. Noteworthy ornitho- 
logical records from Abaco, Bahamas. Amer. Birds 33: 746-748. 
Maynard, C.J. 1896? The Birds of Eastern North America. Rev. Edn. The Author, Newton- 

ville. [The frontis says 1889, but the text suggests that it was published later and the 

date usually cited is either 1895 or 1896.] 
Northrop, J. I. 1891. The birds of Andros Island, Bahamas, Auk 8: 64-80. 
Ogden, J. 1974. Florida region [summer field notes]. Amer. Birds 28: 892-896. 
Perkins, R., compiler. 1987. Staniard Creek, Andros Island, Bahamas [Christmas 1986 bird 

count]. Amer. Birds 41: 1319. 
Ridgway, R. 1891. List of birds collected on the Bahama Islands by the naturalists of the 

Fish Commission Steamer Albatross. Auk 8: 333-339. 
Ridgway, R. 1904. The birds of North and Middle America, Part III. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 

No. 50. 
Riley, J. H. 1905. List of birds collected or observed during the Bahama expedition of the 

Geographic Society of Baltimore. Auk 22: 349—360. 
Scott, W. E. D. 1890. Two species of swallow new to North America. Auk 7: 264-265. 
Sharpe, R. B. 1885. Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, Vol. X. Brit. Mus. 
Sharpe, R. B. & Wyatt, C. W. 1894. A Monograph of the Hirundinidae , or Family of 

Swallows. Vol. 1. Henry Sotheran & Co. 
Smith, P. W. & Browning, M. R. 1989. An erroneous specimen record of the Bahama 

Swallow from Florida. Fla. Field Nat. 17: 40-^11. 
Smith, P. W. & Smith, S. A. In prep. The status and identification of the Bahama Swallow in 

Todd, W. E. & Worthington, W. W. 1911. A contribution to the ornithology of the Bahama 

Islands. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 7: 388^4-64. 
Vaurie, C. 1953. Observations and new records of birds from the Biminis, northwestern 

Bahamas. Auk 70: 38-48. 
Wynn, D., compiler. 1987. San Andros, Andros Island, Bahamas. [Christmas 1986 bird 

count]. Amer. Birds 41: 1319. 

Address: P. William Smith & Susan A. Smith, South Florida Research Center, Everglades 
National Park, P.O. Box 279, Homestead, Florida 33030, USA. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

The nomenclature of some African barbets of 
the genus Tricholaema 

by R.J. Dowsett 

Received 9 December 1 988 

Short & Home (1987) have pointed out that the genus of African barbets 
(Capitonidae) Tricholaema]. & E. Verreaux 1855 (jf. Orn. 1855: 102) was 
treated as feminine by the describers. The type species was designated by 
the Verreaux brothers as T. flavipunctata (sic) , now considered a race of 
T. hirsuta. (Through a lapsus calami Short & Home (1987) refer to this 

C.jf. Hazevoet 181 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

form as T. h. punctata). Tricholaema orginates from the Greek words thrix 
(thrichos) and laimos, respectively of feminine and masculine gender; it 
would seem to fall under Article 30 (a) (iii) of the International Code of 
Zoological Nomenclature (1985 edition), the ending being latinized and 
the gender intended by the describers to be feminine. White (1965: 258), 
under Lybius hirsutus flavipunctatus , misquotes the original name as T. 
flavipunctatum , attributes the description to but one Verreaux and gives 
the page number in J. Orn. as 102, page 103 being correct (only the genus 
was described on the preceeding page). Unfortunately Short & Home 
(1987) went on to introduce some new errors of nomenclature in this 
genus, and these were adopted by Fry et al. (1988). 

Bucco leucomelas Boddaert 1783 is transferred by Short & Home to 
Tricholaema and is called T. leucomelaina , since the change is from a 
masculine to a feminine genus. However, the I. C.Z.N. (1985) made it 
clear that species-group names ending in -melas are not latinized and must 
be considered indeclinable, remaining unchanged whatever the gender of 
the genus (Art. 31 (b)). 

T. lacrymosa Cabanis 1878 (J. Orn. 1878: 205, 240) is wrongly spelt 
lachrymosahy Short & Home (1987) and also by Fry et al. (1988), who err 
in giving its original citation by Cabanis as lachrymosum. Like the 
Verreaux brothers, Cabanis treated Tricholaema as a feminine genus. It 
seems to have been from about 1893, when Reichenow named T.flavibuc- 
cale, that most authors began to treat Tricholaema as neuter. 


I thank Dr L. L. Short for reading a draft of this note. 


Fry, C. H., Keith, S. & Urban, E. K. (Eds). 1988. The Birds of Africa. Vol. 3 Academic 

Short, L. L. & Home, J. F. M. 1987. The gender of the barbet genus Tricholaema Verreaux 

& Verreaux. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 107: 69. 
White, C. M. N. 1965. A Revised Check List of African Non-Passerine Birds. Lusaka, 

Government Printer. 

Address: R. J. Dowsett, 194 rue de Bois de Breux, B-4500 Jupille, Liege, Belgium. 
© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Wing-clapping display of Dupont's Lark 
Chersophilus duponti 

by C. J. Hazevoet 

Received 16 February 1989 

On 11 and 12 May 1988, I visited the Nature Reserve 'La Lomaza' near 
Belchite, Zaragoza, Spain. The area consists of undisturbed steppe 
habitat amidst agricultural fields. (For a description of this habitat, see 

C. J. Hazevoet 



Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 



n 2i~s 

Figure 1 . Wing-clapping display of Dupont's Lark Chersophilus duponti. Spain, May 1988 
(C. J. Hazevoet). 

Guiral Pelegrin & Hernandez Fernandez 1988.) In the reserve, quite high 
numbers of Dupont's Lark Chersophilus duponti were present. Dupont's 
Lark is well known for its distinctive, fluting song, which is delivered 
either while perched or during a song-flight. The latter can be long, high 
and circling, or short, low and straight. It was during the short type of 
song-flight that I repeatedly noticed distinctive bursts of wing-clapping 
which I eventually managed to record on tape (Fig. 1). During this song- 
flight, the bird would silently rise from the ground at an angle of 45° to 
about 10 m, then — while still rising — perform c.10 wing-claps followed 
by a few more which were interpersed with a short version of the song, 
after which a silent descent followed. The wing-claps were clearly audible 
at distances up to 50 m. The sound was first noticed at 5.00 a.m. when it 
was still completely dark. At that hour, I was unable to trace the source. 
As the sun rose, the frequency of the wing-clapping increased, being at its 
peak at about 11.00 a.m., after which the birds gradually became more 
and more silent. Song was resumed at sunset but no wing-clapping was 
noticed. It appears that this display has not been described before (cf. 
Cramp 1988). 

Wing-clapping displays in the Alaudidae are only known in some mem- 
bers of the genus Mirafra. In these, they vary from a short wing noise 
given during jumps from a perch in M. africana, to long and nearly 
exclusively non-vocal display flights in M . rufocinnamomea. Other species 
giving wing-clapping displays are M . apiata and M. collaris (Mackworth- 
Praed & Grant 1960, Maclean 1985). 

Meinertzhagen (1951) merged Chersophilus in Certhilauda, remarking 
that no member of Certhilauda has a clapping-flight "which is character- 
istic of Mirafra". However, as White (1952) pointed out, clapping flight is 
confined to only a few species in Mirafra and is in no way typical of the 
genus as a whole. Meinertzhagen 's Certhilauda appears to be an artificial 
assemblage, including several species often placed in small or monotypic 

Books Received 183 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

genera: besides Chersophilus, these are Alaemon, Pseudalaemon and 
Chersomanes. The remaining 'real' Certhilauda are now regarded as 
congeneric with Mirafa (cf. White 1957, 1959, Maclean 1969, 1970). 

White (1957) remarked that Chersophilus in its general appearance 
suggested "possible origin from Mirafra, such as M. africana" , but 
preferred to keep it as a monotypic genus pending further information. 
Later, White (1959) stated that Chersophilus is close to Alauda and 
Galerida. Harrison (1966), being in agreement with this view, found that 
its specialized features justify its retention as a monotypic genus. Without 
a phylogenetic analysis of the intrafamilial relationships in the Alaudidae, 
it is not possible to decide whether C. duponti is more closely related to 
Alauda j Galerida or to Mirafra. The above described display at least 
shows that wing-clapping in the Alaudidae is not limited to some of the 
Mirafra species. 


I want to thank Lydia Haafkens for her collaboration in the field and for commenting on the 
manuscript. I am grateful to T. G. Brom, Dr G. F. Mees, Mrs V. Mees-Balchin and Dr J. 
Wattel for reading a draft of this note and making helpful suggestions. Dr F. Dowsett- 
Lemaire supplied information on the display of Mirafra africana. Dr C. Chappuis most 
kindly prepared the sonogram. 


Cramp, S. (ed.). 1988. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. 

Guiral Pelegrin, J. & Hernandez Fernandez, F. 1988. Las Estepas de la Depresion del Ebro. 

Gar cilia 71/72: 23-25. 
Harrison, C. J. 0. 1966. The validity of some genera of larks (Alaudidae). Ibis 108: 573-583. 
Mackworth-Praed, C. W. & Grant, C. H. B. 1960. African Handbook of Birds: Eastern and 

North Eastern Africa. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. Longman. 
Maclean, G. L. 1969. South African lark genera. Cimbebasia Ser. A, 1: 79-94. 
. 1970. Breeding behaviour of larks in the Kalahari Sandveld. Ann. Natal Mus. 20: 

. 1 985 . Roberts' Birds of Southern Africa. 5th ed. Cape Town: John Voelcker Bird Book 

Meinertzhagen, R. 1951. Review of the Alaudidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 121: 81-132. 
White, C. M. N. 1952. On the genus Mirafra. Ibis 94: 687-689. 

. 1957. Notes on African larks, part IV. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 77: 103-104. 

. 1959. The limits of the genus Mirafra. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 79: 163-166. 

Address: C. J. Hazevoet, Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoologie (Zoologisch Museum), 
Postbus 4766, 1009 AT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 


Iapichino, C. & Massa, B. 1989. The Birds of Sicily . Pp. 170. Photographs and maps. British 
Ornithologists' Union Check-list No. 11. £16 (£18 overseas). Hard covers. 25 x 16 cm. 
A comprehensive systematic list of all species recorded in Sicily, with a complete bibli- 
ography and introductory sections which cover the history of Sicilian ornithology, geogra- 
phy, climate, vegetation, migration, breeding, conservation and other aspects of the 
avifauna. There is also a gazetteer and a long list of ringing recoveries. Emphasis is given to 
continuing illegal shooting of birds, particularly the huge slaughter of raptors as a traditional 
'sport'. Drainage of wetlands, deforestation and the ever expanding urban sprawl also are 
incriminated in the near or actual extinction of several species of breeding and wintering 

Books Received 184 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(3) 

The authors are highly qualified for the task of assessing Sicily's avifauna, having in 
particular done extensive work organising and researching Atlas Faunae Siciliae — Aves (see 
Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 107: 192) and they have produced most successfully an important and 
reliable basis on which the future of Sicily's birds and the success of conservation there can 
be judged. 

Ewans, M. 1989. Bharatpur, Bird Paradise. Pp. 144. Profusely illustrated in colour photo- 
graphs by Thakir Dalip Singh, Rajpal Singh, James Hancock and others. H. F. & G. 
Witherby. £14.95. Hard covers. 19.5 x 25 cm. 

An introduction to the famous Keoladeo Ghana National Park in Bharatpur by Sir Martin 
Ewans, whose extensive knowledge and appreciation of this immensely valuable wetland 
were acquired while he was Deputy High Commissioner in New Delhi 1978-1982. 

The 29 km 2 of this National Park was originally an artificial creation of the Maharajah of 
the 1 890s, primarily for shooting waterfowl, reliant on the monsoons and even more so today 
on huge and expensive irrigation works, without which the area would die. During the 2 
decades up to 1982, visitors, traffic, swarms of cattle, as well as droughts — especially 
1979—80 — destroyed much of the grass, and one quarter of all trees disappeared. However, 
in 1982 control was re-established, the area having been declared a National Park in 1981. 
The socio-economic problems are immense and the worst danger is human poverty and the 
essential need for the grazing of cattle and the requirement of wood fuel for the local 
population — in contrast to Europe and the States where the threat is affluence and the 
ensuing increase in leisure time and pursuits. Bharatpur is a "beseiged enclave". Today it is 
Still suffering from the disastrous drought of 1983, the effects of which have not yet abated 
nor been overcome. Management is complicated and on a huge and expensive scale. 

The author presents an excellent overall picture of this prime wilderness and is well 
served by some high quality photographs, mainly of the selected species with which he deals, 
very much with a mind to the European visitor it would seem. The result is an interesting, 
decorative and informative short volume, with an unemotional but warm presentation in the 
final pages of the difficulties ahead for Bharatpur, as there are for all animal paradises, not 
only those away from the western world. 

Hill, D. 1989. TheAvocet. 

Simmons, K. E. L. 1989. The Great Crested Grebe 

Both Pp. 24 with many coloured and black-and-white photographs. Shire Publications. 

£1.95. Soft covers. 15 x 21 cm. 

The latest 2 accounts in this excellent series by well-chosen experts. David Hill has been 
senior ecologist for the RSPB, while Ken Simmons has been studying grebes world wide 
for 40 years. Beautifully illustrated and lucidly written for the intelligent and interested 
budding ornithologist, these booklets and the others in the series are to be strongly 

Packham, C. 1989. Deciduous Woodlands. Pp. 128 

Grasslands. Pp. 128 

Shorelands. Pp. 128 

Heathlands. Pp. 112 
Fulsomely illustrated with the author's colour photographs and by colour plates by 
C. Shields. Collins Wild Habitats. £4.95 each. Soft covers. 13 x 19 cm. 

These 4 small volumes result from the author's success in BBC's 'Really Wild Show' and 
the photographs reflect the appropriateness of his Wildlife Photographer of the Year award 
4 years running. The text is racey and informative on selected species of birds, mammals, 
flowers etc — chapters have such headings as 'Sleeping with Alice' , which in fact is concerned 
with the dormouse and rather inexplicably the Hornet. Unusual, the photographs in 


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dr werner suter. Feeding ecology of Cormorants wintering in 

Switzerland 125 

p. c. gonzales & R. s. Kennedy. Notes on Philippine Birds, 14. 

Additional records for the island of Palawan 126 

p. A. clancey. Subspeciation in the Larklike Bunting of the south- 
western Afrotropics 130 

. The southern isolate of Parus rufiventris pallidiventris 

Reichenow, 1885 134 

c. b. frith & c. j. o. Harrison. An undescribed plumage of the 

Crested Bird of Paradise Cnemophilus macgregorii 137 

j. r. king. Notes on the birds of the Rio Mazan Valley, Azuay 
Province, Ecuador, with special reference to Leptosittaca 
branickii, Hapalopsittaca amazonina pyrrhops and Metallura 

baroni 140 

p. g. ryan. Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor and new 

records of seabirds from Tristan da Cunha and Gough Islands 1 47 
s. E. davis. Migration of the Mississippi Kite Ictinia mississippiensis 

in Bolivia, with comments on /. plumbea 149 

d. m. teixeira, j. b. nacinovic & g. luigi. Notes on some birds of 

northeastern Brazil (4) 152 

r. w. dickerman. Notes on Sturnella magna in South America 

with a description of a new subspecies 158 

. Notes on the Malachite Kingfisher Corythornis ( Alcedo) 

cristata 158 

ben king. The avian genera Testa and Urosphena 162 

d. n. carstairs. The status of the Rufous-chested Dotterel Zonibyx 

modestus in the Falkland Islands 166 

p. w. & s. A. smith. The Bahama Swallow Tachycineta cyaneoviridis; 

a summary 1 70 

R. j. dowsett. The nomenclature of some African barbets of the 

genus Tricholaema 180 

c. j. hazevoet. Wing-clapping display of Dupont's Lark Cherso- 

philus duponti 181 

books received 184 

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R. E. F. Peal (Chairman) (1989) J. H. Elgood (Vice-Chairman) (1989) 

Dr J. F. Monk (Editor) (1975) Mrs D. M. Bradley (Hon. Treasurer) 

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Published by the BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB and printed by 
Henry Ling Ltd., at the Dorset Press, Dorchester, Dorset 


ISSN 0007-1 595 

Bulletin of the 

British Ornithologists' Club 

Edited by 

Volume 109 No. 4 

December 1 989 


Tuesday, 16 January 1990. Jeffery Boswall will show the film 
"Moving Images in the Cause of Bird Protection". 

Those wishing to attend should notify the Hon. Secretary at 1 
Uppingham Road, Oakham, Rutland, LEI 5 6JB by Tuesday, 2 January 

Jeffery Boswall is the Head of the Film and Video Unit of the 

Tuesday, 20 February 1990. Yeugeniy Potapov will speak on 
"Some Birds of Lowland Tundra in N.E. Siberia". 

Those wishing to attend should notify the Hon. Secretary by Tuesday, 
6 February 1990*. 

Yeugeniy Potapov is based in the USSR at Magadan, on the Sea 
of Okhotsk, where he has been doing field-work. He is at present a 
post-graduate student at the Edward Gray Institute and has 
brought with him some excellent slides from Russia. 

Tuesday, 13 March 1990. Mr T. J. Roberts will speak on "Birds of 

Those wishing to attend should notify the Hon. Secretary, as above, by 
Tuesday, 27 February 1990.* 

Mr Roberts lived and worked in Pakistan from 1952 to 1984 and 
has a 2-volume work on "The Birds of Pakistan" currently in 

Tuesday, 8 May 1990. Dr R.J. Cowie will speak on "The Ecology of 
Tits in Suburban Habitats". 

Tuesday, 29 May 1990. Mr J. E. Cooper, FRCVS will speak on 
"Birds and Diseases". 

Tuesday, 19 June 1990. Dr Margaret Carswell will speak on "The 
Uganda Atlas of Birds". 

Meetings are held in the Senior Common Room, Sherfield 
Building, Imperial College, London SW7 at 6.15 pm for 7 pm. 

*It is usually possible to take acceptances up to the weekend before a 
meeting, but Members are asked to accept by 14 days before a meeting as 
the numbers attending must be notified. A plan showing Imperial College 
will be sent to members on request. 

If you accept and subsequently find you cannot attend please notify the Hon 
Secretary (tel. 0572 722788) as soon as possible . 

185 flu//. fl.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Bulletin of the 


Vol. 1 09 No. 4 Published: 1 3 December 1 989 

The seven hundred and ninetieth Meeting of the Club was held in collaboration with 
the West African Ornithological Society in the Ante Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial 
College, London SW7 on Tuesday, 26 September 1989 at 7 pm., 35 members and 21 guests 

1 1 Members of both the Club and WAOS (marked * below) were present. 

J. H. Elgood*, Vice-Chairman of the Club and Vice-President of WAOS was in the Chair. 

Members of the Club present were: Dr G. Morel*, (President, WAOS), M. A. Adcock, 
Dr J. S. Ash, B. H. Beck, R. Beecroft*, Mrs D. M. Bradley, Dr J. Bynon, D. R. Calder, I. 
D. Collins*, Dr H. Crick*, S. J. Farnsworth*, B. Gray, D. Griffin, C. A. R. Helm, P. 
Hogg, T. J. James, M. C. Jennings, R. Kettle, Dr P. Lack, I. T. Lewis, Revd. G. K. 
McCulloch, Dr J. F. Monk*, Mrs A. M. Moore*, R. G. Morgan, Mrs M. Muller, P. A. 
Prince, V. J. Sawle, Dr R. C. Self, R. E. Sharland*, N. J. Skinner*, N. H. F. Stone, 
Lt-Col. T. C. White, Dr R. Wilkinson*, A. P. Ziegler. 

Other Members of WAOS present were: C. S. Balchin, R. Degauquier, HE. M. E. J. 
Gore, Dr M-Y. Morel, B. Pearson. 

Guests present were: Mrs B. H. Adcock, C. Bell, Mrs Bruce-Lockhart, Professor T. 
Bynon, Mrs J. B. Calder, L. Clarke, Miss J. Edrich, Mrs F. Farnsworth, Mrs Griffin, 
Miss C. Hoff, Mrs I. McCulloch, P. J. Moore, C. A. Muller, Mrs A. Nason, R. Ranft, 
Miss D. Ridgley. 

After supper Roger Beecroft gave an address on "Birds of the Sahara", an interesting 
account of a journey made from October to December in 1 988 across the Sahara Desert from 
Algeria to the northern border of Nigeria and back again. He illustrated his description 
with slides showing the varied terrain of the journey and presented data of migrating and 
wintering birds which had been collected en route. 

The relationships and taxonomy of the Fijian 
parrot genus Prosopeia* 

by Dieter Rinke 

Received 28 January 1989 

Based on the specimens collected by the Whitney South Seas expedition, 
Amadon (1 942) revised the taxonomy of the Fijian parrot genus Prosopeia. 
Two species were recognized: The Masked Shining Parrot, P. personata, 
which is monotypic (the 'green Prosopeia'), and the Red Shining Parrot P. 
tabuensis, which he split into 5 subspecies: splendens, tabuensis, koroensis, 
atrogularis and taviunensis (the 'red Prosopeia). While splendens is charac- 
terized by its crimson colour, the maroon populations of P. tabuensis 
were distinguished by combinations of the following characters: size, 
occurrence and extension of a blue nuchal collar, and the amount of red 
feather tips on the rump. Amadon's taxonomy was accepted in subsequent 
treatments of either parrots (Forshaw 1973) or Fijian birds (Mayr 1945, 

*This is publication No. 1 from the Brehm Fund South Seas Expedition. 

D. Rinke 186 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

duPont 1976, Watling 1982, Clunie 1984). Wolters (1975-82) resurrected 
Mathews' genus Layardiella for tabuensis, but this was not accepted by 
most authors. 

The arrangement of the taxa within the order Psittaciformes is as yet 
controversial; apparently, no satisfactory classification exists. Smith 
(1975) and, to a lesser extent, Homberger (1 980) provide an assessment of 
those characters which were thought to be of significance for a phylo- 
genetic arrangement of the parrots, but most of them do not seem to 
reveal relationships. 

The genus Prosopeia exemplifies these taxonomic difficulties. Brereton 
(1963) presented a somewhat curious taxonomy for the family Psittacidae 
to encompass the genera Poicephalus , Psittacus (both from Africa),- 
Coracopsis (from Madagascar), Psittichras (from New Guinea) and 
Prosopeia. Most authors suggest there is a close relationship between 
Prosopeia and the king-parrot group (especially to Alisterus), both being 
included either in the platycercine or psittaculine assemblages (review in 
Homberger 1980). Amadon (1942) considered merging Prosopeia with 
Alisterus, but refrained until the taxonomic significance of the carotid 
formula was proved. Homberger (1980) differs from all other authors 
in clearly separating Prosopeia (as platycercine) from Alisterus (as 
psittaculine). Mayr (1939: 203), interestingly, supposed a Papuan origin 
of the genus Prosopeia, while later, in his treatment of eastern Polynesian 
birds, he stated: "The case of Cyanoramphus is puzzling; the genus may 
have had a much wider distribution in Polynesia, and Prosopeia may be a 
specialized remnant of this stock" (1939: 209). 

The first part of this paper deals with the relationships of Prosopeia in 
the light of primitive and derived plumage characters, and of biogeo- 
graphical data. In the second part, the genus Prosopeia is revised on the 
basis of traditionally used morphological characters within the genus, 
taking into consideration past and present distributional patterns. 


I studied a total of 217 Prosopeia specimens in the American Museum 
of Natural History (AMNH) in New York, the British Museum (Natural 
History) (BMNH) in Tring, the Senckenberg-Museum (SM) in 
Frankfurt and the Zoologisches Forschungs-Museum Alexander K6nig 
(ZFMK) in Bonn. Data on some atrogularis specimens have been pro- 
vided by W. Boles from the Australian Museum (AM) in Sydney. In 
addition, plumage characters and measurements from a few live birds 
from 'Eua, Tonga, were recorded during my field studies. 

Plumage characters were noted for every specimen, and the following 
measurements taken: length of the folded right wing, width of the upper 
mandible at the base of the bill, and exposed culmen. The exposed culmen 
data were not, in fact, evaluated because of high variability within 
populations, probably due to abrasion independent of age; 'exposed 
culmen' is not a useful character in parrot systematics. Tail length was 
equally ignored, due to high variability resulting from seasonal wear. 
Forshaw (1973) showed that tarsus length in Prosopeia does not reveal 
interpopulation differences, so this too was ignored. 

D.Rinke 187 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Morphometric data of Prosopeia populations (WL = wing-length; WM = width of upper 
mandible; n = number of specimens; s.l. = significance level for female— male differences) 


means + s.d. range n means + s.d. range n s.l. 

WL (tabuensis) 23.25 + 0.46 22.0-24.1 24 24.42 + 0.70 23.5-25.6 30 P<0.001 
WM (tabuensis) 16.17 + 0.61 15.1-17.3 24 18.53 + 0.39 17.7-19.2 32 P<0.001 

WL (koroensis) 22.35 + 0.72 21.6-23.6 6 22.91+0.51 22.4-23.9 12 n.s. 
\VM (koroensis) 16.03 + 0.47 15.3-16.5 6 18.73 + 0.48 18.0-19.4 12 P<0.001 

WL (atrogularis) 21.96+1.22 20.7-24.2 8 24.02+1.14 22.6-25.7 13 P<0.001 
WM (atrogularis) 16.01+0.33 15.7-16.5 8 18.12 + 0.47 17.0-18.8 15 P<0.001 

WL {'tabuensis') 22.84 + 0.89 20.7-24.1 38 23.99 + 0.98 22.4-25.7 55 P<0.001 
WM(' tabuensis') 16.12 + 0.53 15.1-17.3 38 18.48 + 0.47 17.0-19.4 57 P<0.001 

WL (taviunensis) 20.06 + 0.50 19.1-20.8 16 21.50 + 0.62 20.4-22.9 12 P< 0.001 
WM (taviunensis) 14.45 + 0.44 13.4-15.2 16 17.76 + 0.69 16.8-18.7 12 P<0.001 

WL (splendens) 21.51+0.62 20.2-23.0 24 22.94 + 0.71 21.5-24.2 29 P<0.001 
WM (splendens) 15.46 + 0.63 14.4-16.7 25 17.94 + 0.69 16.6-19.4 29 P<0.001 

WL (personata) 22.80 + 0.45 22.2-23.6 20 23.97 + 0.69 22.5-24.9 21 P<0.001 
WM (personata) 16.07 + 0.43 15.2-17.0 20 18.40 + 0.69 17.2-19.2 22 P<0.001 

'tabuensis' = tabuensis, atrogularis and koroensis evaluated jointly. 

Small series of specimens of species supposedly close relatives of 
Prosopeia (i.e. Eunymphicus , Cyanoramphus, Platycercus, Alisterus, 
Aprosmictus and Eclectus) were similarly studied. 

Relationships of the genus Prosopeia 

External morphology 

In parrots, a predominantly red plumage is a derived character which 
appeared independently: in Ara, Eclectus, Alisterus and Platycercus in 
the Psittacidae; in Lorius, Eos, Chalcopsitta, Charmosyna, Vini and 
Trichoglossus in the Loriidae. Green plumage is a primitive character, and 
hence, when assessing relationships on plumage characters, the more 
primitive green forms need to be compared. 

P. personata, the most primitive member of the genus, closely resembles 
Eunymphicus (blackish face, blue primaries, yellowish-green colouration), 
but has no blue rump patch (a characteristic of all Alisterus and Aprosmictus 
specimens), nor a red upper mandible (present in Aprosmictus and 
Alisterus except in $ A. scapularis), and lacks the more emerald green 
overall colouration of Aprosmictus , ? Alisterus and <$ Eclectus. In 'jizz' and 
colouration, P. personata resembles a larger version (island gigantism?) 
of Eunymphicus cornutus uveaensis. There is no evidence for a close 
relationship with Alisterus. 

Sexual dimorphism in bill size is strongly marked in all populations of 
Prosopeia (Table 1) and significantly so in Eunymphicus , in Platycercus 
elegans and in most populations of Cyanoramphus (P<0.01); but in 
Alisterus, in Aprosmictus and in Eclectus sexual dimorphism in bill size is 
not significant, if present at all. 

D. Rinke 188 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


King-parrots and related genera (e.g. Alisterus, Aprosmictus and Poly- 
telis) show a strongly continental distribution pattern in those Australian 
and Papuan regions which have been repeatedly connected during the 
Pleistocene. Oceanic barriers between Australia and Timor (where 
Aprosmictus jonquillaceus occurs) and between New Guinea and the 
Maluku Islands (part of the range of Alisterus amboinensis) were either 
very narrow or not present during the periods of maximum glaciation. 
(The Alisterus amboinensis populations on the Peling Islands may have 
resulted from early human introductions.) King-parrots, however, have 
colonized neither the large islands to the north and east of New Guinea 
(i.e. New Britain, New Ireland, the Solomons) nor New Caledonia, 
despite the availability of the once large glacial land mass of the Bellona 
plateau. On the other hand, Cyanoramphus parakeets are known from 
widely scattered islands in the southwestern Pacific: from Lord Howe 
Island east to Tahiti, from Macquarie I. north to New Caledonia, though 
many populations are now extinct. 

Of the Fijian avifauna, most species have their origin in the Papuan 
region (Mayr 1939, Watling 1982), having colonized Fiji eastward and 
southward via the Solomons, the Santa Cruz Islands and Vanuatu, and 
possibly the islands of the Pandora Bank (lying between the Santa Cruz 
Islands and Rotuma) during the ice ages. The Fijian derivatives of a 
Papuan stock are represented on these island groups by closely related 
forms, including even Fiji's distinctive endemics such as Lamprolia 
victoriae, Trichocichla rufa and the species of the 'Chrysoenas group' of 
Ptilinopus fruit-doves. There is, however, no long-tailed parrot species on 
any island between New Guinea and Fiji. 

This biogeographical evidence supports the conclusions just cited of 
the studies of external morphology that Prosopeia is more closely related 
to Eunymphicus than to Alisterus. It is the only New Zealand element in 
the resident Fijian avifauna. 

The genus Prosopeia in Fiji and Tonga 

Variation in the maroon populations 

Within the genus Prosopeia, 3 distinct colour types exist: green in 
personata, crimson in splendens, and maroon in the remaining 4 forms (cf . 
Amadon 1 942) . Variation in plumage characters is only slight in personata 
and splendens. 

In the maroon forms, which are at present distributed over one Tongan 
('Eua) and 6 Fijian islands (Vanualevu, Kioa, Taveuni, Qamea, Koro and 
Gau), there is variation in size and in colouration of certain parts of the 
plumage, especially of the neck and rump. In size, the form from Taveuni 
and Qamea (taviunensis) is separable from the others, both sexes having 
significantly smaller wing-lengths (Table 1: P<0.01). In width of the 
upper mandible, there are significant differences in females between 
taviunensis and each of Amadon 's (1 942) other 3 named forms oitabuensis, 
namely koroensis, atrogularis and tabuensis; in males differences are sig- 
nificant between taviunensis and both tabuensis and koroensis (P<0.01; 
Table 1), but not atrogularis. 

D.Rinke 189 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

The subspecies koroensis (from Koro), atrogularis (from Vanualevu and 
Kioa) and tabuensis (from Gau and 'Eua) were originally distinguished 
principally on the amount of maroon tips to the rump feathers and on the 
occurrence and extent of a blue nuchal collar (Layard 1876a, Amadon 
1 942). All specimens examined from Koro have the rump feathers tipped 
with red, from a few feathers to about 50% , but not so extensively as noted 
by Amadon (1942). 10 of 24 specimens from Gau and 6 of 21 specimens 
from 'Eau have red — mostly very few — tips to the rump feathers. In 9 
birds from Vanualevu and 7 from Kioa, the rump was without any red 
markings, but the samples are only small. 

The blue nuchal collar is well developed in the birds from Vanualevu, 
but in the Kioa specimens it is narrow. Specimens from the other islands 
show much variation: birds from 'Eau and Gau may show no blue feathers 
or a fully developed blue collar, most specimens being between these 
extremes. Of the 18 Koro birds, 4 have some blue feathers in the hind- 
neck, one showing a narrow blue collar. 

Excepting taviunensis , variation in width of the upper mandible and in 
wing-length within and between the maroon populations is slight; there 
are no significant differences between these 2 parameters. In Table 2, 
significant differences between different pairings of populations are 
marked. It is noteworthy that females from Koro 4 have significantly 
longer wings than those from Vanualevu 4 , while in males , this relation is 

Mean wing-length in males from Kioa 7 (22.78 mm) (which have been 
included in atrogularis by Amadon 1942), cluster with those from Koro 
(22.91 mm, to give a mean of 22.88 mm, with no increase in standard 
deviation when both populations are combined), rather than with those 
from Vanualevu 7 (mean 24. 1 7 mm and an increase in standard deviation — 
Table 2). Females are excluded due to too few single island data. If the data 
of all maroon forms except taviunensis (here indicated as 'tabuensis') are 
evaluated jointly, the variation of bill-size is similar to that in the 2 other 
Prosopeia populations (e.g. splendens and per sonata), in both females and 
males. In wing-length, variation is about 1.5 times higher in 'tabuensis' 
than in the other species (Table 1). 

Assessment of variable characters 

The red feather tips on the rump are probably of little taxonomic sig- 
nificance. Juveniles of some species of parrots (for example Agapornis 
roseicollis; pers. obs.) occasionally show red markings on some feathers, 
and these are replaced by green feathers during the first moult. A juvenile 
female Red Shining Parrot, which I kept in an aviary on 'Eua, was marked 
with red also on the lesser and median wing-coverts. The red feathers 
disappeared after the first moult. 

Out of 9 specimens collected on 'Eua in August (which is during the 
breeding season, cf. Rinke in press), there was "... only a single specimen 
which has the uropygium uniform green; the others all show more or less 
red tips to the feathers, which in some are broad and very conspicuous; in 
two, also, the lesser and largest scapula-coverts have purplish-red tips" 
(Finsch 1877: 771). Finsch must previously have seen other specimens 
from 'Eua which probably had no red feather tips on the rump, as he 

D. Rinke 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Comparison of morphometric data (mm) of tabuensis specimens from single islands and 
from variously combined islands (number of specimens not given in Table 1 in brackets). 
Significance level (P<0.01) between populations marked by identical superscript numbers. 



Wing length 

width of upper 


'Eua & Gau (tabuensis) 

'Eua, Gau & Koro 

Koro (koroensis) 

Koro & Kioa 


Kioa & Vanualevu (atrogularis) 

Koro, Kioa & Vanualevu 


all islands ('tabuensis') 

23.17 + 0.29(13) 
23.32 + 0.35 1 - 3 

23.12 + 0.59(30) 

22. 35 + 0. 72 14 
22.14 + 0.65(8) 
21.73 + 0.06(2) 
21.96+ 1.22 3 

22.13 + 1.02(14) 
20. 97 + 0. 25 4 (6) 

22.88 + 0.88 

16.30 + 0.62(13) 
15.99 + 0.57(11) 
16.17 + 0.61 

16.14 + 0.58(30) 

16.03 + 0.47 
15.97 + 0.40(8) 
15.83 + 0.16(2) 
16.02 + 0.38(14) 
15.93 + 0.32(6) 

16.12 + 0.53 



Wing length 

width of upper 

'Eua & Gau (tabuensis) 

'Eua, Gau & Koro 

Koro (koroensis) 

Koro & Kioa 


Kioa & Vanualevu (atrogularis) 

Koro, Kioa & Vanualevu 


all islands ('tabuensis') 

24.33 + 0.56(17) 
24.78 + 0.69(13) 
24.54 + 0.65 2 


5 22.91+0.51 26 
22.88 + 0.45(17) 

7 22.78 + 0.13(5) 
24.02 + 1.14 6 
23.48 + 1.04(25) 
'• 7 24.17±0.74(8) 

24.09 + 0.98 

18.63 + 0.42(19) 
18.53 + 0.39 

18.59 + 0.42(44) 

18.73 + 0.48 

18.64 + 0.50(17) 
18.35 + 0.48(5) 
18.12 + 0.47 
18.10 + 0.20(8) 

18.48 + 0.47 

concluded: "The absence of red tips to the feathers of the lower rump or 
upper row of upper tail-coverts, . . ., is not a character of specific value in 
these birds" (Finsch 1877: 771). 

Besides variation within some of the maroon populations, Amadon's 
(1942) distinguishing characters show some clinal variation. With regard 
to size, the birds from Vanualevu, Gau and 'Eua are the largest; those 
from Kioa and Koro show slight tendencies towards the smallest form, 
taviunensis . Regarding the blue nuchal collar, the birds from Koro are 
closest to the Taveuni parrots, which have no nuchal collar; those from 
'Eua and Gau are highly variable and may be classified as being inter- 
mediate between specimens from Taveuni and Vanualevu, the latter dis- 
tinguished by well developed nuchal collars. Amadon (1942) attributed 
the variation in plumage characters in the specimens from 'Eua to human 

D. Rinke 191 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

introductions of parrots from different Fijian islands; but this assumption 
had been made as early as 1793 by Labillardiere (Layard 1876b: footnote 
p. 390). Layard argued that "its powers [of flight] are too limited; and not 
one representative of the genus is found anywhere among the islands" 
(1876c: 501), and that "it has been their [the Tongans'] custom to take 
tamed examples of Platycercus [Prosopeia tabuensis] ... to Tonga for the 
purpose of periodically plucking their crimson feathers for ornamenting 
fans &c." (1876b: 390). 

Specimens from Gau are indistinguishable from 'Eua Red Shining 
Parrots; Amadon (1942) considered that Gau's population had either 
developed its intermediate characters during a long period of isolation, or 
had resulted from introduction by man. 

Trading with parrots, especially those having red feathers, was very 
common among island people. Bones of a parrot clearly referred to Proso- 
peia have been found at archaeological sites on Lakeba, Lau archipelago, 
Fiji (Best 1984), and as mentioned above, the populations on Koro and 
Kioa were possibly also effected by human interference. The Taveuni 
form is relatively distinct, though Taveuni and Vanualevu were never 
separated by more than 18 km; whereas the Koro, Gau and 'Eua birds, 
closely resembling those from Vanualevu, were separated from Vanualevu 
by at least 40 km of open sea during the Pleistocene and Holocene (Fig. 1 ). 
Character divergence from the source population is more likely to occur 
in a comparatively small population on a small island (e.g. Gau and Koro) 
rather than in a much larger population which, in addition, is much closer 
to the source island (Taveuni). 

As a result, Red Shining Parrots from Taveuni and Qamea are suf- 
ficiently distinct to be given subspecific status within tabuensis (Prosopeia 
tabuensis taviunensis) . The remaining tabuensis populations, however, 
should all be included under the nominate P. tabuensis tabuensis, because 
there are no unequivocally defining characters to separate koroensis, 
atrogularis and taviunensis. The specific name tabuensis which is used 
hereafter refers to these 3 subspecies. 

Species limits in Prosopeia 

On Vitilevu, per sonata and splendens have existed sympatrically since at 
least 1840 (the description of splendens was based on specimens from 
Vitilevu — Peale 1948). The latter has always been regarded as having 
been introduced into Vitilevu (Amadon 1942, Watling 1978, 1982), but 
this assumption has no traceable origin and is unproven. If splendens was 
indeed introduced into Vitilevu by Fijians, it must have occurred prior to 
the first visits of Europeans, because splendens was frequently seen by 
early authors (Layard 1875, Graffe 1968), becoming rare after the turn of 
the century (Bahr 1912), and, although considered extinct by Clunie 
(1984), still occurs in low numbers on Vitilevu (Watling, pers. comm.). 

Because there are neither intermediate specimens in museum collec- 
tions nor reports about hybrids from the wild sympatric populations of 
personata and splendens, these 2 can be regarded as distinct biological 
species. Although Amadon (1942) regarded splendens as a subspecies of 
tabuensis, considering that the distinction between the maroon of the 
tabuensis populations and the crimson of splendens was merely a matter of 

D. Rinke 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 



\ o 







f present 
/ glacial 


100 km 

Figure 1. Pleistocene distributions of islands in the Fiji archipelago (after Watling 1982); 
Ovalau, Kioa and Qamea are the closest islands east of Vitilevu, Vanualevu and Taveuni 

hue, he seemed not entirely satisfied with this opinion when he wrote: "It 
is possible that splendens would not interbreed with the maroon forms, 
just as it does not with personata. Unless this is not demonstrated in 
nature, splendens may continue to be considered a race of tabuensis" 

Potential reproductive isolation is the weak point in the biological 
species concept in its classical sense (but what else than a 'biological' 
species concept is the phylogenetic species concept?). Biogeographical 
evidence, as discussed below, strongly supports the opinion that 
personata and tabuensis are closely related phylogenetically, and that 
splendens was isolated from the personata] tabuensis stock at an earlier date. 
Corroboration is found in some characters of the external morphology, 
which are considered first. 

D.Rinke 193 Butt. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

A captive-bred hybrid 2 per sonata j o tabuensis resembled tabuensis in 
almost all plumage characters, only lacking the blue nuchal collar, allow- 
ing the green colour of the back to extend onto the hindneck. Red appears 
to be a dominant colour. The phenotype of the hybrid strongly suggests 
that the colour of the head and breast plumage is controlled by a few gene 

Other characteristics support the opinion that splendens deserves 
specific status: 

splendens lacks a dark facial mask. In tabuensis, the lores and the facial 
mask are blackish much like the dark face of personata; 

tabuensis has green feather edges on the cheeks and the belly, whereas in 
splendens these feather areas are completely crimson; 

all populations of tabuensis are maroon, whereas splendens is distinctively 
brighter coloured; 

no intermediates have occurred on islands where individuals of both 
splendens and tabuensis have been introduced. 

Strong evidence that splendens is specifically distinct also comes from the 
distributional pattern of birds within the Fijian archipelago, exampled by 
the relatively isolated island of Kadavu. When compared with the other 
large islands of central Fiji, Kadavu's endemic and subspecific forms are 

Kadavu has endemic species of a honey-eater, Foulehaio provocator , 
a fantail, Rhipidura personata and a fruit-dove, Ptilinopus layardi, 
which are represented by only slightly different populations, Foulehaio 
carunculata and Rhipidura spilodera, on the other large islands of Fiji, and 
by P. luteovirens on Vitilevu, Ovalau, Koro, Gau and some smaller 

Some widespread species have well-marked subspecies on Kadavu 
(e.g. Halcyon chloris, Myiagra vanicorensis and Petroica multicolor), 
while populations of these species on the other large islands have not 
differentiated to a subspecies level. 

Three forest-dwelling species (Charmosyna amabilis, Gymnomyza 
viridis and Myiagra azureocapilla) inhabit the 3 largest Fiji islands but do 
not occur on Kadavu, the fourth largest island in Fiji. There are no Fijian 
taxa which have representatives on most large islands, where those from 
Kadavu are closer to conspecifics or congeners from Vanualevu, Taveuni, 
Koro or Gau than to related forms from Vitilevu. Geneflow between 
populations on those islands, on which P. tabuensis occurs, and popu- 
lations on Kadavu seems to be almost non-existant. Kadavu's isolation 
appears even more pronounced when considering glacial distributions of 
land in the Fiji archipelago. While Vitilevu and Vanualevu, as well as 
Vanualevu and Taveuni, were separated by channels of only a few 
kilometers during periods of glacial maxima, there were at least 40 km 
of open sea between Kadavu and Vitilevu during any period of the 
Pleistocene (Fig. 1). 

If the geographical position of Kadavu within Fiji has resulted in dis- 
tinctive forms thereon, even in those taxa which may be called 'super- 
tramps' (sensu Diamond 1974), e.g. Halcyon chloris and Foulehaio, or in 
species with good dispersal abilities such as Myiagra vanikorensis, how 
much more pronounced should be distinctiveness in weakly dispersing 

D. Rinke 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 



■ tabuensis 

■ taviunensis 

■ personata 



Figure 2. Phylogenetic relationships of south Pacific islands platycercine parrots. 

taxa such as Prosopeia, resulting in almost complete isolation and the 
possible subsequent acquisition of specifically distinguishing characters. 
On the other hand, there may have been geneflow between Prosopeia 
populations on Vitilevu and those on Vanualevu until the end of the latest 
glaciation, when a large lagoon between these 2 islands was connected 
with the open sea merely by 3 narrow channels (Fig. 1). Such sea barriers 
were possibly even shorter than indicated by iso-barythmetic lines as a 
result of extensive stands of mangroves growing up, and these do form 
suitable habitats for non-breeding Prosopeia parrots (Bahr 1912, Clunie 

Taxonomic conclusions 

1 . Reproductive isolation has developed in personata and splendens, 
which are therefore good biological species. 

2. Similarities between splendens and tabuensis are superficial. Red 
colour in parrots is a factor which may spread easily in a parrot population 
once acquired, assuming it incurs no disadvantages related to predators. 

3 . Based on distributional analysis and some morphological characters, 
tabuensis (including taviunensis) is considered to be closer phylogenetically 
to personata than to splendens. The distinctive plumage characters may 
have been acquired after the last glaciation. 

4. There will probably be no proof of reproductive isolation between 
personata and tabuensis in the wild. The importance of facial colouration 
and colour pattern in mate recognition in parrots, however, makes repro- 
ductive isolation (through ethological barriers) between these 2 forms 
highly probable. 

Hence, the following taxonomic arrangement of the genus is proposed 
(see Fig. 2), with the distribution of the forms: 

Prosopeia splendens, monotypic; Kadavu and Vitilevu 
Prosopeia personata, monotypic; Vitilevu and, formerly, Ovalau 
Prosopeia tabuensis with 2 subspecies: 

Prosopeia tabuensis tabuensis; Vanualevu, Kioa, Koro, Gau and 


Prosopeia tabuensis taviunensis; Taveuni and Qamea. 

D.Rinke 195 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


My visits to the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in New York and to 
the British Museum (Natural History) in Tring have been supported by a grant of the 
Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes, Bonn, F.R. Germany. 

I am very much indebted to Dr P. J. K. Burton (Tring), Dr D. S. Peters (Frankfurt) and 
Dr K.-L. Schuchmann (Bonn) for the use of bird specimens under their care, to Walter E. 
Boles (Sydney), who provided measurements of Prosopeia specimens from Vanualevu, and 
to Mary LeCroy (AMNH) for her assistance and hospitality during my stay in New York. 

Dr Roland Sossinka, Wolfgang Dressen (both from Bielefeld), Dr Dick Watling (Suva, 
Fiji) and Mary LeCroy kindly commented on earlier drafts of this paper. 


Amadon, D. 1942. Birds collected during the Whitney South Seas expedition, 50. Notes on 

some non-passerine genera, 2. Am. Mus. Novit. 1 176. 
Bahr, P. H. 1912. On a journey to the Fiji islands, with notes on the present status of their 

avifauna, made during a year's stay in the group, 1910-191 1. Ibis 1912, 282-314. 
Best, S. B. 1984. Lakeba: the prehistory of a Fijian island. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Auckland, 

Brereton, J. L. 1963. Evolution within the Psittaciformnes. Proc. XHlth Int. Ornithol. 

Congr.: 499-517. 
Clunie, F. 1984. Birds of the Fiji Bush. Fiji Museum, Suva, Fiji. 
Diamond, J. M. 1974. Colonization of exploded volcanic islands by birds: the supertramp 

strategy. Science 189: 803-806. 
duPont, J. E. 1976. South Pacific Birds. Delaware Mus. Nat. Hist. Monogr. No. 3. 
Finsch, O. 1877. On a collection of birds from 'Eua, Friendly Islands. Proc. Zool. Soc. 

London 1877:770-777. 
Forshaw, J. M. 1973. Parrots of the World. Lansdowne Press, Melbourne. 
Graffe, E. 1968. Reisen im Inneren der Insel Viti-Levu. Neujahrsbl. Naturf. Ges. Zurich 70: 

Giintert, M. 1981. Morphologische Untersuchungen zur adaptiven Radiation des Ver- 

dauungstraktes bei Papageien (Psittaci). Zool.Jb. Anat. 106: 471-526. 
Homberger, D. G. 1980. Funktionell-morphologische Untersuchungen zur Radiation der 

Ernahrungs- und Trinkmethoden der Papageien (Psittaci). Bonner Zool. Monogr. 13. 
Lavard, E. L. 1875. Ornithological notes from Fiji, with descriptions of supposed new 

species of birds. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1875: 27, 30, 149-151, 423^142. 
Layard, E. L. 1876a. Notes on some little-known birds of the new colony of the Fiji Islands. 

7&wl876: 137-157. 
Layard, E. L. 1876b. Description of a new species of flycatcher (Myiagra) from the Fiji's, 

and some remarks on the distribution of the birds found in those islands. Ibis 1876: 

Layard, E. L. 1876c. Notes on the birds of the Navigators' and Friendly Islands, with some 

additions to the ornithology of Fiji. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1876: 490-506. 
Mavr, E. 1939. The origin and history of the bird fauna of Polynesia. Pac. Sci. Congr. Proc. 

6: 197-216. 
Mayr, E. 1945. Birds of the Southwest Pacific. Macmillan. 
Peale, T. R. 1848. United States exploring expedition during the years 1838-1842, under the 

command of Charles Wilkes USN. Vol. 8A, Mammalogy and Ornithology. C. Sherman, 

Rinke, D. 1989. The reproductive biology of the Red Shining Parrot Prosopeia tabuensis on 

the island of 'Eua, Kingdom of Tonga. Ibis 131: 238-249. 
Smith, G. A. 1976. Systematics of parrots. Ibis 117: 18-68. 
Watling, D. 1978. The Cambridge collection of Fijian and Tongan landbirds. Bull. Brit. 

Orn. CI. 98: 95-98. 
Watling, E. 1982. Birds of Fiji, Tonga and Samoa. Millwood Press, Wellington, N.Z. 
Wolters, H. E. 1975-1982. Die Vogelarten der Erde. Hamburg, Berlin. 

Address : Dr Dieter Rinke, Brehm Fund South Seas Expedition, P.O. Box 1 524, Nuku'alofa, 
Kingdom of Tonga. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

B.Massa 196 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Comments on Passer italiae (Vieillot 1817) 
by Bruno Massa 

Received 16 February 1989 

Mayr (1963) and Johnston (1969) considered Passer italiae a stabilised 
hybrid between P. domesticus and P. hispaniolensis . Apart from Italy, 
forms phenotypically belonging to P. italiae live in Corsica, some oases of 
Algeria, Tunisia and Lybia, and in the isle of Crete. A clinal variation has 
been observed in the Italian peninsula, where first Bertani (1944) and 
subsequently Johnston (1969) and Lo Valvo & Lo Verde (1987) have 
observed a southward decrease in the wing length. Furthermore the same 
3 authors pointed out that hispaniolensis characters increase southward 
along the Italian peninsula, Sicily and Maltese Islands. 

While Johnston (1969), nevertheless, proposes that P. italiae be recog- 
nised as a full species, Summers- Smith (1978) considers P. italiae is a 
subspecies of P. hispaniolensis on the basis of phenotypical and behav- 
ioural characters. Baumgart (1984), agreeing that P. italiae and hispanio- 
lensis are conspecific, points out that hispaniolensis (Temminck 1820) is a 
junior synonym of italiae (Vieillot 1817), and proposes the new arrange- 
ment P. italiae italiae and P. italiae hispaniolensis, a proposition which has 
been overlooked in the recent book by Summers-Smith (1988), who there 
still considers italiae to be a subspecies of hispaniolensis. 

Lo Valvo & Lo Verde (1987) agree with Johnston (1969) that P. italiae 
is a full species, but they prefer to regard the Sicilian and Maltese popu- 
lations as P. hispaniolensis. Electrophoretic analysis by Brown et al. 
(1970), indeed, confirmed that Sicilian and Maltese populations are taxo- 
nomically very close to each other. 

Some authors (e.g. Baumgart 1984, Summers-Smith 1988), who re- 
gard P. italiae as a subspecies, also regard it as closer to hispaniolensis than 
to domesticus; they advance the hypothesis that hybridization between P. 
domesticus and (migrant) P. hispaniolensis accounts for the italiae-\ike 
sparrows in Crete, Yugoslavia and in the oases of North Africa, where a 
complete range of intermediates between domesticus and hispaniolensis has 
been noticed (Summers-Smith & Vernon 1972, Metzmacher 1986a, b); 
but, as Metzmacher (1986a) observes, it is unlikely that the same 
phenomenon can be explained in 2 different ways: an italiae-Uke sparrow 
cannot be a subspecies in the Italian peninsula and a hybrid in other areas. 

Summers-Smith (1988) points out that the kind of intergradation 
southward in the Italian peninsula is typical of a subspecies, whereas he 
cites a sharp transition at the northern boundary to demonstrate that 
italiae and domesticus are different species. The existence of this intergra- 
dation was noted earlier by Bocchi et al. (1 960); they concluded from their 
blood groups that Sicilian sparrows are hybrids between hispaniolensis 
and italiae, some Sicilian individuals sharing the same antigen pool with 
north Italian sparrows. Moreover it seems that in the northern part of 
italiae' s breeding area a true isolation between italiae and domesticus in 
fact does not exist. Schifferli & Schifferli (1980) indeed report a hybrid 
area, 30—35 km wide, of freely interbreeding domesticus and italiae; a 

B. Massa 197 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

possibly even wider hybrid zone is given for italiae's western boundary in 
France (Lo Valvo & Lo Verde 1987, Summers-Smith 1988) and also for 
its eastern boundary in Austria and Yugoslavia (Summers-Smith 1988). 
In addition, occasional italiae-\ike hybrids are reported from zones where 
domesticus and hispaniolensis overlap (Summers- Smith 1988), while 
Alonso (1984), hybridizing domesticus x hispaniolensis, obtained a 
fluckigeri-like sparrow, one of the italiae-Yike intermediates. 

Lastly, Thibault (1983) reports hybrid populations of hispaniolensis x 
italiae in the south of Corsica, certainly resulting from the immigration of 
hispaniolensis from Sardinia. 

Some authors (Stephan 1984, Metzmacher 1986b) have pointed out 
that there is individual variation of several plumage traits and Lo Valvo & 
Lo Verde (1987) that the plumage varies between different seasons. 
Phenotypical analysis should-therefore be carried out following identical 
criteria for each individual for all the ttaliae-\ike populations, for those 
living in Italy as well as in Corsica, Crete or N Africa. Such a study in the 
past in many cases may have been not entirely objective and the conclu- 
sions dependent on the methodological approach. The conclusion of 
Summers-Smith (1978, 1988), for example, that Maltese Sparrows show 
both hispaniolensis and domesticus characters could depend on the fact that 
he visited Malta only in October, at a time when hispaniolensis plumage 
has the widest variation, especially as regards the black streaks on the 
flanks and the head colour. It is possible, as well, that the 4 samples 
examined by Metzmacher (1986a) from some oases of Algeria could have 
given more precise results on the degree of hybridization if the analysis 
period had been restricted to specimens obtained in the spring-summer 
months only. 

Finally, even if it is true that hybridization between domesticus and 
hispaniolensis could have originated from immigrations of hispaniolensis 
(and hispaniolensis is certainly more of a wanderer than domesticus, having 
been recorded as far away as Great Britain — Charlwood & Britton 1981, 
Waller 1981), the suggestion that, on the other hand, domesticus may have 
invaded zones where italiae breeds, and vice versa, cannot be dismissed. 
Thibault (1983), for example, reports for Corsica some records of typical 
domesticus and also of hybrid domesticus x italiae, while Le Grand (1977) 
records the colonisation of Sao Miguel (Azores) by domesticus, certainly 
originating from the isle of Terceira, c. 130 km away. Evidently domesti- 
cus may at times disperse as distinctly as hispaniolensis. 

Summers-Smith (1988: table 50) also suggests that italiae could be 
regarded as a semispecies; but this term was, in fact, used by Mayr (1963) 
to define the allopatric species of which a superspecies is composed. So, 
even if we could consider domesticus and hispaniolensis as semispecies of 
the Linnean superspecies domesticus, this term does not fit specimens 
from the hybrid strip or intergradation zone (italiae). More coherently 
Lo Valvo & Lo Verde (1987) propose regarding italiae as an ''emergent 
interspecies" (sensu Vuilleumier 1976), i.e. a species very close to others 
whose breeding areas it overlaps and where hybridization may be shown. 

Therefore, as previously pointed out, the taxonomic problem of italiae- 
like sparrows, described as "somewhat of a taxonomist's nightmare" 
(Waller 1981), cannot be solved merely by phenotypical analysis, and no 

B.Massa 198 Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

proposal resulting from traditional taxonomic approach can now be 
genuinely accepted. 

In conclusion, while waiting for genetic studies in depth on hybrid 
italiae-like populations in comparison with 'accepted' sparrow species, 
researchers must avoid causing new complications in sparrow nomencla- 
ture. I propose that the italiae-like Sparrows be recognised as stabilized 
hybrids between domesticus and hispaniolensis , and that the useful specific 
rank, P. italiae, as proposed by Johnston (1969) be maintained. 


I thank very much Dr J. F. Monk and Dr C. Violani for their useful comments on the first 


Alonso, J. C. 1984. Kreuzung Spanischer Haus- (Passer domesticus) und Weiden-Sperling 

(Passer hispaniolensis) in Gefangenschaft. J. Orn. 125: 339-340. 
Baumgart, W. 1984. Zur Characterisierung von Haus- und Weiden-Sperling, Passer domes- 
ticus und Passer hispaniolensis, als "zeitdifferente Arten". Beitr. Vogelkd. 30: 217-242. 
Bertani, G. 1944. Eterogeneita fenotipica in Passer italiae (VieiM.). Riv. Ital. Orn. 14: 43^4-9. 
Bocchi, G. D., Mainardi, D. & Orlando, C. 1960. Gruppi sanguigni e ibridazione inter- 

specifica in pesci e uccelli. Rendiconti, 1st. Lombardo 94: 63-74. 
Brown, I. R. F., Bannister, W. H. & De Lucca, C. 1970. A comparison of Maltese and 

Sicilian Sparrow haemoglobins. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 34: 557-562. 
Charlwood, R. H. & Britton, D. 1981. Spanish Sparrows in the Isles of Scilly. British Birds 

Johnston, R. F. 1969. Taxonomy of House Sparrows in the Mediterranean basin. Condor 

Le Grand, G. 1977. Apparition du Moineau domestique Passer domesticus sur I'ile de Sao 

Miguel (Acores). Alauda 45: 339-340. 
Lo Valvo, F. & Lo Verde, G. 1987. Studio della variability fenotipica delle popolazioni 

italiane di Passere e loro posizione tassonomica. Riv. Ital. Orn. 57: 97-1 10. 
Mayr, E. 1963. Animal Species and Evolution. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge (Mass.). 
Metzmacher, M. 1986a. La distribution des Moineaux, Passer, en Algerie: observations 

complementaires. Gerfaut 76: 131-138. 
Metzmacher, M. 1986b. Le Moineau domestique (Passer domesticus) et le Moineau espag- 

nol (Passer hispaniolensis) dans l'Ouest de l'Algerie: examen de la variation regionale. 

Gerfaut 76: 335-342. 
Schifferli, L. & Schifferli, A. 1980. Die Verbreitung des Haus-sperlings Passer domesticus 

domesticus und des Italiensperlings Passer domesticus italiae im Tessim und im Misox. 

Orn. Beobachter 77: 21-26. 
Stephan, B. 1984. Zur individuellen Variabilitat einiger Passer-Arten. Mitt. Zool. Mus. 

Berl. 60: 89-96. 
Summers-Smith, D. 1978. The Spanish Sparrow on Malta. II Merill 19: 9-10. 
Summers-Smith, D. 1988. The Sparrows. T. & A. D. Poyser. 
Summers-Smith, D. & Vernon, J. D. R. 1972. The distribution of Passer in North-West 

Africa. Ibis 114: 259-262. 
Thibault, J-C. 1983. Les Oiseaux de la Corse. Pare Naturel Regional de la Corse, Ajaccio. 
Vuilleumier, F. 1976. La notion d'espece en ornithologie. Mem. Soc. Zool. France 38: 29-65. 
Waller, C. S. 1981 . Spanish Sparrow: new to Britain and Ireland. British Birds 74: 109-1 10. 

Address: Dr Bruno Massa, Istituto di Zoologia dell'Universita, Via Archirafi 18, 90123 
Palermo, Italy. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

C.J. Feare & Y. Mungroo 199 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Notes on the House Crow Corvus splendens in 


by C. J. Feare <Sf Y. Mungroo 

Received 4 March 1989 

House Crows Corvus splendens have become naturalised in many 
countries bordering the Indian Ocean, following both deliberate intro- 
ductions and ship-assisted passage from ports in the native range, es- 
pecially India and Sri Lanka (Long 1981, Lever 1987). In some parts of 
their new range, House Crows cause a variety of problems, including 
nuisance and possible health hazards for man and his domestic stock, as 
well as having led to declines in populations of native birds (Ash 1984, 
Dolbeer 1987, Ryall & Reid 1987). While some aspects of the birds' 
biology are known in India (Ali & Ripley 1972), very little is known about 
introduced populations. 

The Mauritius population has increased from c. 100 birds in 1976 
(Staub 1976) to 600-1000 birds in 1988 (Feare & Mungroo in press), 
mainly concentrated in the capital, Port Louis, but with an outlying 
colony in Pamplemousses Botanic Garden and isolated nests elsewhere. 
Sightings of flocks as far inland as Curepipe (25 km from Port Louis) 
suggest a continuing expansion of range. 

The present observations were made during a visit 2—16 October 1988. 


Courtship feeding and mutual allopreening were seen during this study 
(early October) and birds were building nests. The testes of males 
collected in experiments on control (Feare & Mungroo in press) were 
enlarged and although the ovaries of females were still small, oogenesis 
was proceeding, suggesting that egg-laying would occur within a few 
weeks. Only 2 nests found were isolated, the remainder were in colonies; 
at the quarantine Station, Roches Bois, 24 were found in one large Banyan 
tree. Lamba (1963) recorded finding up to 9 nests in one tree, but 
Goodwin (1976) claimed that they usually nested singly and Ali & Ripley 
(1972) did not mention social breeding. In Mauritius, House Crows are 
predominantly colonial. Nests in almost all colonies were built mainly of 
twigs, but nests in the Roche Bois area were constructed almost entirely of 
wire. Nests were generally at least 10 m above the ground in tall trees, 
mainly in Banyan Ficus benghalensis or in another (unidentified) Ficus. 
A few nests were found in other trees: Terminalia mantali, Tebebuia 
pentaphylla, Callistemum sp. and Mangifera indica. 

No adults were seen feeding young and no juveniles were seen. The 
samples that were collected contained some first year birds, identified by 
their browner, less glossy remiges and rectrices, together with very worn 
primaries, several with the tips broken off, a feature of ageing first year 
birds (Ali & Ripley 1972). Their behaviour and gonad condition suggest 
that House Crows in Mauritius have a discrete breeding season in 
October-November, but further study is needed to confirm breeding 
season limits and factors which affect breeding success. 

C.J. Feare & Y. Mungroo 200 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


The weight (g) and wing (flattened chord) and culmen measurements (mm) of House Crows 

Corvus splendens captured in October 1988 in Mauritius, and of a series of birds (number and 

location unknown) from India given by Ali & Ripley (1972). 




Mean + s.e. 316,6±5.3 268.2±1.9 50.9 + 0.7 269.7 + 4.4 246.6 + 2.7 45.8 + 0.6 

n 16 18 18 10 10 9 

Range 270-371 255-286 45-56 245-295 237-267 42-49 


Range 310-362 266-284 51-56 252-304 252-282 45-50 


House Crows from all the major colonies around Port Louis fed at the 
Roche Bois rubbish dump, indicating the importance of garbage as a food 
source. Away from Roche Bois, garbage in flood drainage channels also 
was eaten. In town parks and gardens, crows readily took bread, rice and 
noodles that had been dropped or which had been deliberately thrown 
down as food for smaller birds. In Port Louis, roadside stalls at which 
bread and cakes were made, usually had crows in attendance on nearby 
branches or walls. Evidently, Mauritius House Crows feed mainly on by- 
products of human activity, since few other food items were seen to be 
taken. Ripe Banyan figs were being eaten where these trees occurred in or 
near colonies. Crows also spent considerable effort in removing small 
fragments of the oily fruit coat of the palms Livingstonia chinensis and 
Veitchia merrilli, taken from fruits on the trees or from the ground 
beneath. In Pamplemousses Botanic Garden, a small dead chick of a Red- 
whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus was found with the clear mark of the 
hooked beak of a House Crow in its soft skull. 


Specimens collected were weighed on a Pesola balance, the wing 
(flattened chord) and culmen measured, and sexed by dissection. The 
Mauritius data (Table 1) agree well with those from India (Ali & Ripley 
1972), except that in Mauritius there is a clearer separation of the sexes 
by wing length; males were considerably larger than females, a size 
difference that was readily apparent in flocks. 


Ali & Ripley (1972) reported a wide variety of food items that were 
taken by House Crows; the limited range of foods recorded in Mauritius 
is clearly far from complete. Mauritius crows are heavily dependent on 
garbage but a study of their food throughout the year would be valuable. 
Feare & Mungroo (in press) recommend that crow numbers should be 
controlled and for effective control, suitable baits, more attractive than 
food already available, are needed. Tinned tuna fish was found to be a 
highly attractive bait, but alternatives would be required if bait aversion 
began to reduce the effectiveness of control. 

We would appeal for maximum use to be made of dead House Crows. 
Much can be inferred about breeding status and population structure 

5. L. Olson 201 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

from large samples of birds, and their pathological examination at the 
Mauritius Animal Health Laboratory could help to identify possible 
public and animal health risks, helping to refine and improve control 
tactics in the future in Mauritius and elsewhere. 


C. J. F.'s visit was made possible by funding from the Mauritius Government and from 
the Overseas Development Administration. Local travel was provided by the Ministry of 
Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources and office facilities were made available in the 
Department of Forestry. We are grateful for all of this assistance. 


Ali, S. & Ripley, S. D. 1972. Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan, Vol. 5. Oxford 

University Press. 
Ash, J. S. 1 984. Report of the UNEP ornithologist/ecologist on the advice to the Government 

of the Peoples' Republic of Yemen on 'Combating the crow menace'. United Nations 

Environment Programme (UNEP/84/0189). Cyclostyled, 31pp. 
Dolbeer, R. A. 1987. Final report by consultant on rodent, fruit bat, house crow and water 

hen control. Vertebrate Pest Management TCP/MDV/4506 (T). Food and Agriculture 

Organization, Rome. 
Feare, C.J. &Mungroo, Y. In press. The status and management of the House Crow Corvus 

splendens in Mauritius. Biol. Conservation. 
Goodwin, D. 1976. Crozes of the World. British Museum (Natural History). 
Lamba, B. S. 1963. The nidification of some common Indian birds. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 

Soc. 60:121-133. 
Lever, C. 1987. Naturalized Birds of the World. Longman. 
Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World. David & Charles. 
Ryall, C. & Reid, C. 1987. The Indian House Crow in Mombasa. Swara 10: 9-12. 
Staub, F. 1976. Birds of the Mascarenes and St. Brandon. Port Louis: Organization Normale 

des Enterprises Ltee. 

Addresses: Dr C. J. Feare, ADAS, Worplesdon Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, 
Fisheries and Food, Worplesdon, Surrey GU3 3LQ, England. Y. Mungroo, Ministry 
of Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources, New Government House, 4th Floor, 
Port Louis, Mauritius. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Notes on some Hawaiian birds from Cook's 
third voyage 

by Storrs L. Olson 

Received 25 March 1989 

Scientific knowledge of the birds of the Hawaiian Islands began with the 
discovery of the archipelago in 1778 on the third and last voyage of 
Captain James Cook. Contemporary accounts of the Hawaiian avifauna 
and the history of the specimens brought back from the islands on that 
voyage have been compiled in an exhaustive monograph by Medway 
(1981). These accounts and the specimens are of interest not only histori- 
cally but also from the standpoint of systematics and nomenclature, 
because most of them are the basis for the descriptions of new species. 
Further research into the history of Hawaiian ornithology has enabled me 
to amplify or modify a few points discussed by Medway. 

5. L. Olson 202 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

The probable identity of Latham's "Sandwich Thrush", Turdus 
sandwichensis Gmelin, 1789 

Most of the Hawaiian birds from Cook's third voyage were first 
described by Latham (1781-1785), who did not at that time, however, use 
Latin names for them, these being supplied subsequently by Gmelin 
(1788-1793). Among these was one species whose identity has remained 
uncertain to this day, the specimen upon which it was based having 
apparently been lost at an early date (Medway 1981: 167). This- was 
Latham's "Sandwich Thrush", later Latinized as Turdus sandwichensis by 
Gmelin (1789:813). Latham's (1783:39) description is the sole remaining 
evidence of the identity of this species: 

"Length five inches and a half. Bill dusky: the upper parts of the 
plumage pale brown: forehead and under parts cinereous white: belly 
and lower part of the thighs pale brown: tail even at the end: legs 

Inhabits Sandwich Islands. In the collection of Sir Joseph Banks." 
Medway (1981:167) has reviewed the opinions of various authors who 
speculated inconclusively on the identity of this bird. The small size and 
white forehead were cited as precluding the Hawaiian thrushes of the 
genus Phaeornis ( = Myadestes). The only other suggestion to be advanced 
was the Kauai creeper, Oreomystis bairdi (Stejneger). This species would 
be improbable considering the limited opportunities Cook's expedition 
had for obtaining birds from Kauai, except from native traders, who would 
not likely have dealt in such a drab commodity. There is no evidence that 
any specimens of birds other than Vestiaria coccinea were ever obtained 
from Kauai by Cook's voyage. 

Instead, it seems to me that Latham's description very likely applies to 
the immature plumage of the Elepaio Chasiempis sandwichensis (Gmelin, 
1789), from the island of Hawaii. The length, "five inches and a half", is 
exactly the same as that which Latham (1783:344) gave for his "Sandwich 
Flycatcher", the description of which formed the basis for Gmelin's 
(1789:945) Muscicapa sandwichensis. In the plumage usually regarded as 
juvenile in Chasiempis s. sandwichensis (plumages of Pacific flycatchers are 
complex and their proper terminology requires further study), the upper- 
parts are indeed light brown, and the underparts and usually the forehead 
are dingy whitish. Although the belly proper is the same colour as the 
rest of the underparts, the flanks are brown. Thus, there is nothing in 
Latham's description that really conflicts with the juvenile plumage of 
Chasiempis s. sandwichensis. The Elepaio was doubtless an abundant bird 
on the Kona coast during Cook's visit and it is not at all unlikely that 
specimens in various plumages would have been obtained. Such variation 
was responsible for Latham's (1783:345) description of the "Spotted- 
winged Flycatcher", the Muscicapa maculata of Gmelin (1789:945), 
which has long been regarded as a synonym of Chasiempis sandwichensis. 
The correspondence between the description of Latham's "Sandwich 
Thrush" and the immature plumage of the Elepaio is so close that I think 
it is safe to assume they are the same. Therefore, because the names 
involved were proposed simultaneously, as first reviser I consider Turdus 
sandwichensis Gmelin (1 789:81 3) to be a subjective synonym of Muscicapa 

5. L. Olson 203 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

sandzcichensis Gmelin (1789:945). This maintains the existing type and 
citation for the species, which in this case is preferable to page precedence 
{International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 1985: Article 24b, 
Recommendation 24A), even though the nomenclature would not change, 
because the 2 epithets are homonyms. 

The type-locality of the Iiwi Vestiaria coccinea (Forster, 1781) 

The Iiwi, a species known historically from all the larger Hawaiian 
Islands, was the first bird to be formally described from the archipelago, 
being called Certhia coccinea by Forster (1781). It was also almost 
certainly the first species of Hawaiian bird to come into the hands of 
Cook's naturalists, as specimens clearly of this species were bought from 
natives when the voyage made its first stop in the islands at Waimea, 
Kauai, in January 1778 (Medway 1981:106). Otherwise, virtually all 
natural history collecting by Cook's expedition in the Hawaiian Islands 
took place on the Kona coast of the island of Hawaii. 

After reviewing the evidence, Medway (1981:112) concluded that: 
"with the exception of Vestiaria coccinea, first obtained from the Waimea 
district of Kauai, the Kona district of Hawaii can be accepted as the type 
locality for those Hawaiian bird species which were first validly described 
from specimens collected on the third Cook voyage." Stresemann (1950: 
790), too, suggested that the specimens of V. coccinea examined by 
Forster may have been purchased on Kauai. Greenway (1968:95) cited 
Stresemann in listing the type-locality as "probably Kauai". Previously, 
Bangs (1911:30), on the other hand, had suggested that: "The island 
whence the type of V. coccinea, brought back by Captain Cook, really 
came can probably never be known; it seems safe, however, to assume that 
it was Hawaii, as Captain Cook stopped longer there than at any of the 
other islands." These authors all overlooked an important point, how- 
ever, namely that Forster (1781), in the original description, specifically 
and repeatedly stated that the species came from the island of "O-Waihi" 
( = Hawaii). This is evident even in the title of his paper: "Beschreibung 
des Rothen Baumlaufers von der Insel O-Waihi," and is reiterated in the 
first sentence: "In my hands at this very moment I have a sample of a red 
treecreeper (Certhia coccinea), which is said to be rather numerous on the 
newly discovered island of O-Waihi". This is followed in due course by 
the statement that: "The habitat of this little creature is the island of 
Waihi. . ." (translations from Medway 1981:135, 136). 

It is immaterial where the first specimens were obtained insofar as the 
designation of a type-locality is concerned. The only possible justification 
for altering Forster's clear designation of Hawaii would be if it could 
be conclusively proved that all 4 of the specimens available to Forster 
certainly came from Kauai, or that the expedition obtained no specimens 
of Vestiaria coccinea on Hawaii. The former can hardly be demonstrated 
because apparently none of Forster's specimens still exist (Medway 1981), 
and none were ever likely to have had specific locality data associated with 
them. That no specimens of Vestiaria coccinea were obtained on Hawaii is 
extremely unlikely considering that much more collecting was conducted 
on that island than on Kauai and that "more specimens of Vestiaria 

5. L. Olson 204 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

coccinea were taken back to England than of any other third-voyage 
Hawaiian bird species" (Medway 1981:137). 

Forster obtained the 4 specimens he used in his original description 
from a German, Barthold Lohmann, who had been on the voyage, and 
all of his information concerning Cook's third voyage came from inter- 
views with Lohmann and another German sailor, Heinrich Zimmerman 
(Medway 1981:134). In a letter to Joseph Banks dated 10 January 1781, 
Forster again clearly states that he was given "some skins of a red 
Creeper from O-why-hee" (Scheibe 1978:318). At the time, the Hawaiian 
archipelago was referred to as the Sandwich Islands, and Kauai usually 
went by the name Atooi, so there would have been no reason for Forster to 
give the provenance of his specimens as O-Waihi or O-why-hee had he 
not intended to refer to the island of Hawaii. 

For the above reasons, the type-locality of Certhia coccinea should 
be considered to be the Kona district of Hawaii, the same as all other 
species described from the Hawaiian Islands on the basis of third-voyage 

The 'lost' co-type of Drepanis pacifica 

Medway (1981:142) reviewed the evidence showing that the 2 specimens 
of Mamo Drepanis pacifica, formerly in the Naturhistorisches Museum in 
Vienna, were co-types of Certhia pacifica Gmelin, 1 788, and originated in 
Cook's voyage. Sassi (1940:408) reported that only one of these remained 
in Vienna at the time of his writing, the other, an imperfect specimen 
lacking the upper bill, having been sold to the American Museum of 
Natural History (AMNH). I examined the catalogue at Vienna and found 
that this specimen was sold in 1923 for $103. Medway (1981:142) stated 
that "a recent (1977) enquiry of that museum [AMNH] does not disclose 
that it ever possessed this specimen. I do not know what became of it." 

This specimen has, in fact, long been in the collections of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (MCZ 236875). Bangs 
(1930:363) wrote of it as follows: "Our specimen is one of the two cotypes 
that were for years in the Vienna Museum. It was secured from that 
institution by Doctor Leonard C. Sanford, and came to us in exchange 
from him for one of our pair of Ciridops — the unique female." I examined 
the specimen at Harvard in 1985. It still bears the characteristic oval 
parchment label of the early Vienna collections and on the reverse has 
AMNH catalogue number 23044. 


I am most grateful to David G. Medway for comments and information, and to Herbert 
Schifter, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, and Raymond A. Paynter, Jr., Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, for access to specimens and documents in their care. 


Bangs, O. 1911. Two new birds from the island of Molokai. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 24: 

Bangs, O. 1930. Types of birds now in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool. 70: 149-426. 
Forster, J. G. A. 1781. Beschreibung des rothen Baumlaufer von der Insel O-Waihi. 

Gottingisches Mag. der Wiss. undLitt. 1(6): 346-351. 

D. T. Holyoak & M. B. Seddon 205 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Gmelin, J. F. 1788-1793. Systema Naturae. 13th ed. 3 Vols. Georg. Emannual. Beer, 

Greenway, J. 1968. Family Drepanididae. Pp. 93-103 in R. A. Paynter, Jr., ed. Check-list of 

Birds of the World. Vol. 14. Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass. 
ICZN. 1985. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 3rd ed. Univ. California Press, 

Latham, J. 1781-1785. A General Synopsis of Birds. 3 vols. (6 parts). Benjamin White: 

Medway, D. G. 1981. The contribution of Cook's third voyage to the ornithology of the 

Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Sci. 35: 105—175. 
Sassi.M. 1 940. Die wertvollstenStiickeder Wiener Vogelsammlung. ^4«w. ./Vaf urhistorischen 

Mus. Wien 50 [for 1939]: 395-409. 
Scheibe, S. 1978. GeorgForsters Werke. Sdmtliche Schriften, Tagebiicher, Brief e. Dreisehnter 

Band. Briefe bis 1783. Akademie Verlag, Berlin. 
Stresemann, E. 1950. Birds collected during Capt. James Cook's last expedition (1776— 

1 780). Auk 67: 66-88. 

Address: Storrs L. Olson, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural 
History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 USA. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Distributional notes on the birds of 
Burkina Faso 

by D. T. Holyoak & M. B. Seddon 

Received 4 April 1989 

The birds of Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) have remained poorly 
known in comparison with those of most other countries of west Africa. 
This paucity of records is immediately apparent from the atlases of 
speciation in African birds (Hall & Moreau 1970, Snow 1978). A few 
recent papers have included further records from the country (e.g. Green 
& Saver 1979, Payne 1982, Thonnerieux 1984, 1985, 1988, Thonnerieux 
in press); but there has been no comprehensive survey, so that it is diffi- 
cult to obtain even an up to date species list from the literature. 

The country is mainly in the savanna woodland zone, the far north 
having rather dry scrub dominated by Acacia, whereas moister woodland 
prevails in the south, especially the far southwest. There are no striking 
topographical features in Burkina Faso and the vegetation zones that are 
represented all extend far beyond the country; it is thus not surprising 
that the avifauna completely lacks endemics and indeed has few localised 
rarities. There is, however, quite a large avifauna in total, including many 
Palaearctic migrants. 

We visited Burkina Faso both during the rainy season (September 
1988) and during the dry season (November 1988). Our observations are 
reported in detail here because of the scarcity of distributional data from 
the country. A considerable number of the species we recorded do not 
appear to have been reported previously. We hope that presentation of 
our notes will encourage others to record observations there so that a more 
comprehensive understanding of the avifauna can be achieved. 

D. T. Holvoak & M. B. Seddon 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

- s~\ / 

( ^ 











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fV w 



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D. T. Hohoak & M. B. Seddon 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

List of co-ordinates of numbered observation localities in Burkina Faso, September and 

November 1988 




12°37'N,1 26'E 




12°37'N,1 21'E 


12°36'N,1 16'E 






12 33'N,1°12'E 






















12 3 ll'X,0°36'E 






12 J 11'N,0°05'E 


12 o ll'N,0 o 01'W 










12 C 19'X.039'YY 






12 = 20'X,0°48'W 












12°02'X,2 ; 16\V 




12 o 00'N,2 o 19'W 


11°48'X,2 C 42'W 


11°45'N,2 51"W 


ll o 43'N,3°00'W 






ll o 39'X,3°06'W 


11°38X\3 3 09'W 


11°34'N,3 22"W 


11°35'N ( 3°29'W 


11°35'X,3 C 30'W 


11°29'N > 3°34'W 


ll 17'N,3 39'W 


ll 3 13'X,3 c 42'W 






10 : 48X,4 ; 37'W 






10~17X,4 C 48'W 






10 : 15'X,4°51'W 


10 o 17'N,4°47'W 




10 C 49'X,4 = 32'W 






ir06'X,4 c 19'W 






11 : 10'X,4 C 03'W 






11°11'X,3 59YV 


11°11'X,3 58'W 










ir34'X,3' ; 30'W 






1L39'X,3 C: 06'W 


11 C 42'N,3°03'W 




11°48'X,2 = 42'W 


ll o 50'N,2°38'W 


12 o 00'N,2°19'W 


12°08'X,2 S 04'W 






12°25'X,1 : 03'\V 


12 o 22'X,0°52'W 




12 o 21'X,0 c 48'\V 


12 o 06'N,0 o 20'W 




ll°43'X,0 o 16'W 




ll o 39'N,0°15'W 








ll°16'N,0 o 13"vV 


ll o 16'N > 0°09'W 



Ornithological observations were recorded from 105 localities as listed 
and numbered by coordinates (Table 1). See also Fig. 1. 

We entered Burkina Faso from Niger on 3 Sep and stopped at numerous 
localities from near the frontier NNE of Kantchari (locality 1 ) westwards 
along the main road. The capital, Ouagadougou was passed on 6 Sep 
(locality 35 wasc. 39 km E of the city), from where we continued generally 
westwards along the main Nl road and passed Bobo-Dioulasso on 9 Sep. 
From Bobo we travelled SW along the N7 road (locality 53 was 1 7 km SW 
of the town) to the frontier with the Ivory Coast which was entered on 10 
Sep (locality 60 was c. 4 km N of the frontier). 

On 18 Nov we re-entered Burkina Faso from the Ivory Coast, return- 
ing along our previous route along the N7 towards Bobo (locality 61 was 
4 km NE of Niangoloko). Ouagadougou was passed on 21 Nov (locality 89 
was c. 8 km W of the city centre), from where we continued eastwards 
along the main road to Koupela before turning southwards on the N14 

D. T. Holyoak & M. B. Seddon 208 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

(locality 95 was 18 km S of that town). We left Burkina Faso across the 
frontier into Togo on 22 Nov (locality 105 was 23 km SE of Bitou). 


In the following systematic list the sequence and nomenclature are based 
on The Birds of Africa (vols. 1-3) for the non-passerines and Hall & 
Moreau (1970) for the passerines. With most species only the locality 
numbers are listed. For a few species the numbers of individual birds 
recorded are added in square brackets; H denotes records based only on 
calls heard; + denotes records based only on a corpse found on the road; 
* denotes confirmed breeding records. 

Notes are given for species that may not have previously been recorded 
in Burkina Faso, although in the absence of any comprehensive list of the 
birds of the country it is often difficult to trace previous records. Reliance 
has therefore often been mainly on the speciation atlases by Hall & 
Moreau (1970) (H & M) and Snow (all references 1978) in addition to 
the references we list in our bibliography. Green & Sayer (1979) (G & S) 
give an important list of birds from Pendjari and Arli National Parks 
(in N. Benin and SE Burkina Faso respectively), but without attributing 
individual records to either of these countries. A paper by Thonnerieux et 
al. (in press) will report observations from in and around Ouagadougou. 
Other information has been kindly provided by Dr J. Frank Walsh 

Species localities 

Phalacrocorax africanus Long-tailed Cormorant 5[2], 57[1] 

Anhinga melanogaster Darter 63[1] 

Ixobrychus minutus Little Bittern 39[4] 

Listed by G & S (p. 22); its occurrence in Burkina Faso is 

shown on the generalised map in Brown et al. (1982: 135), 

but not in Snow. 

Ardeola ralloides Squacco Heron 89[1],95[2] 

Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret 66,73,76,79,83,85,87,92,95, 


Butorides striatus Green Heron 15,39,40,51,57 

Egretta garzetta Little Egret 87,89,95,96 

Ardea purpurea Purple Heron 50[1] 

Ardea cinerea Grey Heron 57,69,85,87,96 

Ardea melanocephala Black-headed Heron 4,11,12,96 

Scopus umbretta Hamerkop 15,27,30,39,42,47,48,50,51, 


Bostrychia hagedash Hadada L2[2] 
Listed by G & S (p. 23) and shown as occurring in Burkina 
Faso on the generalised map in Brown etal. (1982: 195), but 
not in Snow. 

Dendrocygna viduata White-faced Whistling-Duck 6[2],13[3],15[3],57[2],95[5] 

Sarkidiornis melanotos Knob-billed Duck 6[4],7[1],11[5],15[2] 

Nettapus auritus African Pygmy Goose 76[1] 

Pernis apivorus Honey Buzzard 45[1],46[1] 

Elanus caeruleus Black-shouldered Kite 45 


D. T. Holxoak & M. B. Seddon 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Milvus migrans Black Kite 

Xecrosyrtes monachus Hooded Vulture 

Circaetus gallicus European Snake Eagle 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring in Burkina Faso on 

the generalised map in Brown et al. (1982), but not in Snow. 

Terathopius ecaudatus Bateleur 

Polyboroides typus African Harrier Hawk 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring in extreme SW 

Burkina Faso on the generalised map in Brown et al. (1982: 

352), but not in Snow. 

Circus aeruginosas Marsh Harrier 

Micronisus gabar Gabar Goshawk 

^Ielierax metabates Dark Chanting Goshawk 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring in Burkina Faso on 

the generalised map in Brown et al. (1982: 368), but not in 


Accipiter badius Shikra 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring in Burkina Faso on 

the generalised map in Brow-n et al. (1982: 377), but not in 

Snow. J.F.W. found it quite common in the Ouagadougou 


Butastur rufipennis Grasshopper Buzzard 

Buteo auguralis Red-necked Buzzard 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring in SW Burkina 

Faso on the generalised map in Brown et al. (1982: 400), but 

not in Snow. 

Falco tinnunculus Kestrel 

Falco alopex Fox Kestrel 

Falco biarmicus Lanner Falcon 

Ptilopachus petrosus Stone Partridge 

Francolinus albogularis White-throated Francolin 

Francolinus bicalcaratus Double-spurred Francolin 

Porphyrio alleni Allen's Gallinule 
Gallinula angulata Lesser Moorhen 
Xeotis denhami Denham's Bustard 
Eupodotis ruficrista Crested Bustard 

This species is recorded at scattered localities across the 
savanna woodland belt of W Africa from Senegal to N 
Nigeria (Snow, Urban et al. 1 986: 1 66), but there are appar- 
ently no previous records from Burkina Faso. Chappuis et 
al. (1979) describe and discuss the vocalisations of the W 
African E. r. savilei, which may well be a distinct species 
from E. r. ruficrista. 
Actophilornis africana African Jacana 

Himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stilt 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring in Burkina Faso on 

the generalised map in Urban et al. (1986: 194), but not in 





























79*, 87, 95, 96 


D. T. Holvoak & M. B. Seddon 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Recurvirostra avosetta Avocet 

Occurrence of this species in N and E Burkina Faso is shown 

on the generalised map in Urban et al. ( 1 986: 1 96), but not in 

Snow nor in G & S. 

Burhinus senegalensis Senegal Thick-knee 

Burhinus capensis Spotted Thick-knee 

Cursorius temminckii Temminck's Courser 

Cursorius chalcopterus Bronze-winged Courser 

Vanellus senegallus African Wattled Lapwing 

Vanellus tectus Black-headed Lapwing 

Philomachus pugnax Ruff 

Tringa nebularia Greenshank 

Tringa ochropus Green Sandpiper 

Actitis hypoleucos Common Sandpiper 

Pterocles quadricinctus Four-banded Sandgrouse 

Treron calva African Green Pigeon 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring in S Burkina Faso 

on the generalised map in Urban et al. (1 986: 443), but not in 


Treron waalia Bruce's Green Pigeon 

Turtur abyssinicus Black-billed Wood Dove 

Oena capensis Namaqua Dove 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring widely in Burkina 

Faso on the generalised map in Urban et al. ( 1 986: 456), but 

not in Snow. 

Columba guinea Speckled Pigeon 

Columba livia Feral or Domestic Pigeon 

Streptopelia semitorquata Red-eyed Dove 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring widely in Burkina 

Faso on the generalised map in Urban et al. (1986: 480), but 

not in Snow. 

Streptopelia vinacea Vinaceous Dove 

Streptopelia senegalensis Laughing Dove 

Poicephalus senegalus Senegal Parrot 

Psittacula krameri Rose- ringed Parakeet 

Musophaga violacea Violet Turaco 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring in S Burkina Faso 

on the generalised map in Fry et al. (1988: 46), but not in 


Crinifer piscator Western Grey Plantain-eater 

Oxylophus jacobinus Jacobin Cuckoo 















31 ?,36,38,44?H,45 ,47,50?, 
51,53, 60?H,69,73?H, 75?, 




















D. T. Holvoak & M. B. Seddon 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Oxylophus levaillantii African Striped Cuckoo 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring in S Burkina Faso 

on the generalised map in Fry et al. (1988: 62), but not in 


Cuculus gidaris African Cuckoo 

Widespread occurrence in Burkina Faso is shown on the 

generalised map in Fry et al. (1988: 76), but not at all in 

Snow. G & S apparently record it as part of C. canorus. 

Centropus grillii Black Coucal 

Centropus senegalensis Senegal Coucal 

Tyto alba Barn Owl 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring throughout 

Burkina Faso on the generalised map in Fry et al. (1988: 

108), but not in Snow. 

Otus leucotis White-faced Scops Owl 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring throughout 

Burkina Faso on the generalised map in Fry et al. (1988: 

1 1 9), but not in Snow. 

Glaucidium perlatum Pearl-spotted Owlet 

Listed by G & S, but not shown by Snow or Fry et al. ( 1 988: 

1 39). J.F.W. recorded it at Ouagadougou. There are records 

from Mali, Ghana, Togo and Benin. 

Caprimulgus climacurus Long-tailed Nightjar 

Macrodipteryx longipennis Standard-winged Nightjar 

Telacanthura ussheri Mottled Spinetail 

Apparently not previously recorded in Burkina Faso (cf. 

Snow, G & S), despite its occurrence in the southwest of the 

country being shown on the generalised map in Fry et al. 


Cypsiurus parvus African Palm Swift 

Apus caffer White-rumped Swift 

Listed by G & S but otherwise apparently unrecorded in 

Burkina Faso (cf. Snow, Fry et al. 1988: 227), although 

known from Ivory Coast to Nigeria. 

Apus affinis Little Swift 

Halcyon leucocephala Grey-headed Kingfisher 

Halcyon senegalensis Woodland Kingfisher 

Halcyon chelicuti Striped Kingfisher 

Corythornis cristata Malachite Kingfisher 

Ceryle rudis Pied Kingfisher 

Merops orientalis Little Green Bee-eater 

Merops apiaster European Bee-eater 

Apparently not previously recorded in Burkina Faso, 

although known from Ivorv Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin 

(Fry et al. 1988:332). 

Merops nubicus Carmine Bee-eater 

Coracias naevia Rufous-crowned Roller 

Coracias abyssinica Abyssinian Roller 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring throughout 

Burkina Faso on the generalised map in Fry et al. (1988: 

343), but not in Snow. 




24 + ,88H 




86 + , 102 + 
11 [2] 





29,31, 36H,44H,45,53H, 







9,11,25, 26,31,45,47, 53,* 



D. T. Holxoak & M. B. Seddon 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Eurystomus glaucurus Broad-billed Roller 
Phoenicians purpureas Green Wood-Hoopoe 
Phoeniculus aterrimus Black Wood-Hoopoe 
Upupa epops Hoopoe 
Tockus erythrorhynchus Red-billed Hornbill 

Tockus nasutus African Grey Hornbill 

Listed by G & S, but, although common and widespread, 

apparently not otherwise reported before from Burkina 

Faso. It is recorded from Mali and from the Ivory Coast to 

Nigeria (Snow, Fry et al. 1988: 398). 

Pogoniulus chrysoconus Yellow-fronted Tinkerbird 

Lybius vieilloti Vieillot's Barbet 

Lybius dubius Bearded Barbet 

Indicator indicator Greater Honeyguide 

Listed by G & S and shown as occurring throughout 

Burkina Faso on the generalised map in Fry et al. (1988: 

501), but not in Snow. 

Campethera punctuligera Fine-spotted Woodpecker 

Dendropicos goertae Grey Woodpecker 

Eremopterix leucotis Chestnut-backed Finch-Lark 

Galerida modesta Sun Lark 

Mirafra rufocinnamomea Flappet Lark 

Delichon urbica House Martin 

Apparently not previously reported from Burkina Faso, 

except perhaps for a few January records listed by G & S. It 

is described as "not uncommon" in Ghana (Grimes 1987) 

and "uncommon" in Nigeria (Elgood 1981). 

Hirundo abyssinica Lesser Striped Swallow 

Hirundo lucida Red-chested Swallow 

Hirundo rustica European Swallow 

Hirundo semirufa Rufous-chested Swallow 

Hirundo senegalensis Mosque Swallow 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M but it is 

listed by G & S. 

Riparia riparia European Sand Martin 

Widely recorded as a passage migrant and winter visitor in 

W Africa, but apparently not previously noted in Burkina 

Faso except perhaps for a few April records listed by G & S. 

Motacilla flava Yellow Wagtail 

Pycnonotus barbatus Common Bulbul 

Prionops plumata White Helmet-Shrike 

Corvinella corvina Yellow-billed Shrike 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in Hall & Moreau 

(1970), but it is listed by G & S and recorded at 

Ouagadougou by J.F.W. 

Dryoscopus gambensis Puff-back 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S and recorded at Ouagadougou by J.F.W. 

Lanius senator Woodchat Shrike 

Laniarius barbarus Gonolek 



































D. T. Holxoak & M. B. Seddon 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S and recorded at Ouagadougou by J.F.W. 

Malaconotus blanchoti Grey-headed Bush-Shrike 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but 

G & S report a few occurrences and J.F.W. recorded it at 


Xilaus afer Brubru 

Tchagra senegala Black-headed Bush-Shrike 

Cercotrichas galactotes Rufous Bush-Chat 

Cossypha niveicapilla Snowy-headed Robin-Chat 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S and J.F.W. recorded ft at Ouagadougou. 

Oenanthe bottae Red-breasted Wheatear 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S. J.F.W. mentions unpublished records from 

Zorgo and Hounde 

Oenanthe oenanthe Northern Wheatear 

Phoenicurus phoenicurus Redstart 

Saxicola rubetra Whinchat 

Turdus pelios African Thrush 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S and Walsh & Walsh (1988) state that it is 

common in the Ouagadougou area. 

Turdoides plebejus Brown Babbler 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S. 

Camaroptera brezicaudata Grey-backed Camaroptera 

Cisticola cantans Singing Cisticola 

Cisticola galactotes Winding Cisticola 

Apparently not recorded previously from Burkina Faso (cf. 

H & M, G & S). 

Cisticola juncidis Zitting Cisticola 

No records from Burkina Faso are shown in H & M, but 

Serle et al. (1977: 211) list its occurrence in 'Volta' and it is 

listed by G & S. 

Cisticola natalensis Croaking Cisticola 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S. 

Cisticola rufa Rufous Cisticola 

Eremomela pusilla Smaller Green-backed Eremomela 

Hippolais pallida Olivaceous Warbler 

Hippolais polyglotta Melodious Warbler 

Phylloscopus sibilatrix Wood Warbler 

Phylloscopus trochilus Willow Warbler 

Prinia subflaza Tawny-flanked Prinia 

Sylzietta brachyura Crombec 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 
listed by G & S and J.F.W. recorded it at Ouagadougou. 
Bradornis pallidus Pale Flycatcher 




























D. T. Holvoak & M. B. Seddon 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Melaenornis edolioides West African Black Flycatcher 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S and J.F.W. recorded it in the Ouagadougou 


Muscicapa gambagae Gambaga Dusky Flycatcher 

Apparently not previously recorded in Burkina Faso (cf. H 

& M, G & S), although the type locality is nearby in N 

Ghana (Grimes 1987). This species is easily confused in the 

field with M. striata and perhaps with B. pallidus. (Other 

Muscicapa which might be confused, such as M. adusta and 

M. aquatica, do not occur in this habitat in W Africa and 

both of these also differ in lacking such definite breast 

streaking). We observed a single bird closely in dry savanna 

woodland and noted field characters that have subsequently 

been checked by study of museum specimens; both of the 

species with which confusion is most likely were seen 

repeatedly within a few weeks of this sighting. 

Batis senegalensis Senegal Puffback Flycatcher 

Erannornis longicauda Blue Flycatcher 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S and J.F.W. recorded it close to our locality. 

Terpsiphone viridis Paradise Flycatcher 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S and J.F.W. found it to be common in the 

Ouagadougou area. 

Anthreptes platurus Pygmy Sunbird 

Nectarinia pulchella Beautiful Sunbird 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S; very common in the Ouagadougou area 


Nectarinia senegalensis Scarlet-chested Sunbird 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S; very common in the Ouagadougou area 


Zosterops senegalensis Yellow White-eye 

Emberiza flaviventris Golden-breasted Bunting 

Emberiza forbesi Brown-rumped Bunting 

Emberiza tahapisi Cinnamon-breasted Rock Bunting 

Serinus leucopygius White-rumped Seedeater 

Serinus mozambicus Yellow-fronted Canary 

Ploceus cucullatus Village Weaver 

Ploceus luteolus Little Weaver 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S; a few are resident near Ouagadougou 


Ploceus velatus Southern Masked Weaver 

Euplectes afer Yellow-crowned Bishop 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 
listed by G & S; reasonably common in the Ouagadougou 
area (J.F.W.). 








47*, 73 







6*,13,39*,40*, 50,51 


30*, 31*, 36*, 38,43,45,69, 




D. T. Holvoak & M. B. Seddon 


Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Euplectes franciscanus West African Red Bishop 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S; reasonably common in the Ouagadougou 

area (J.F.W.). 

Euplectes hordeaceus Black-winged Red Bishop 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S; reasonably common in the Ouagadougou 

area (J.F.W.). 

Quelea erythrops Red-headed Quelea 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S (1979) and Thonnerieux (1988) includes 

evidence of breeding. 

Vidua chalybeata Green Indigo Bird 

Listed by G & S and 2 records from Burkina Faso were 

given by Payne (1982: 13, 76). J.F.W. obtained many 

records at Ouagadougou. 

Vidua macroura Pin-tailed Whydah 

Vidua par adisea [Broad-tailed] Paradise Whydah 

Bubalornis albirostris Buffalo Weaver 

Sporopipes frontalis Speckled-fronted Weaver 

Apparently not previously reported from Burkina Faso 
(cf. H & M, G & S); J.F.W. recorded it at Koubri near 
Ouagadougou and at Oursi (14°40'N.). 

Plocepasser superciliosus Chestnut-crowned Sparrow- 
Passer griseus Grey-headed Sparrow 

Petronia dentata Bush Petronia 

Estrilda caerulescens Red-tailed Lavender Waxbill 

Estrilda troglodytes Black-rumped Waxbill 

Lagonosticta vinacea Vinaceous Firefinch 

Lagonosticta senegala Red-billed Firefinch 

Several records from Burkina Faso were reported by Payne 

(1982: 13, 81). J.F.W. trapped large numbers for ringing at 


Lonchura cucullata Bronze Mannikin 

Pytilia melba Green-winged Pytilia 

Uraeginthus bengalus Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu 

There are no records from Burkina Faso of this common 

bird in H & M, but it is listed by G & S and J.F.W. found it 

was fairly common in the Ouagadougou area. 

Buphagus africanus Yellow-billed Oxpecker 

There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 

listed by G & S. 

Cinnyricinclus leucogaster Violet-backed Starling 

Lamprotornis caudatus Long-tailed Glossy Starling 































D. T. Holyoak & M. B. Seddon 216 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Species localities 

Lamprotornis chalcurus Bronze-tailed Glossy Starling 47?, 55, 58 

Lamprotornis chalybeus Blue-eared Glossy Starling 4,8?, 38,45?, 50?, 88? 

Apparently not previously recorded from Burkina Faso (cf. 

H & M, G & S). 

Lamprotornis purpureus Purple Glossy Starling 1 1,1 2, 20?, 45, 48, 50, 5 5, 69 

Spreo pulcher Chestnut-bellied Starling 4,36,45,88,98 

Dicrurus adsimilis Fork-tailed Drongo 4,10,1 1,13,20,25,45,46,47, 


Oriolus auratus African Golden Oriole 4,1 1 ,38,39,45,53,73 
There are no records from Burkina Faso in H & M, but it is 
listed by G & S; J.F.W. recorded it at Ouagadougou during 
the rains (June— Nov). 

Ptilostomus afer Black Magpie 3,24,97 

Corvus albus Pied Crow 21,30,31,53,69,78,83,84,87, 



Our visits to Burkina Faso were made while D.T.H. was on study leave from The College of 
St Paul and St Mary, Cheltenham, U.K. Our funding, for research on land snails, was from 
the National Museum of Wales and the College of St Paul and St Mary. Thanks are due to 
the staff of the British Museum (Natural History), Tring^ for helpful access to specimens in 
their care. Dr. J. Frank Walsh gave helpful comments and data from a paper that is in press. 


Brown, L. H., Urban, E. K. & Newman, K. 1982. The Birds of Africa. Vol. 1. Academic 

Chappuis, C, Erard, C. & Morel, G. J. 1979. Donnees comparatives sur la morphologie et 

les vocalisations des diverses formes d' Eupodotis ruficrista (Smith). Malimbus 1 : 74—89. 
Elgood, J. H. 1981 . The Birds of Nigeria. British Ornithologists' Union Check-list No. 4. 
Fry, C. H., Keith, S. & Urban, E. K. 1988. The Birds of Africa. Vol. 3. Academic Press. 
Green, A. A. & Sayer, J. A. 1979. The birds of Pendjari and Arli National Parks (Benin and 

Upper Volta). Malimbus 1: 14-28. 
Grimes, L. G. 1987. The Birds of Ghana. British Ornithologists' Union Check-List No. 9. 
Hall, B. P. & Moreau, R. E. 1970. An Atlas of Speciation in African Passerine Birds. Brit. 

Mus. (Nat. Hist.). 
Payne, R. B. 1982. Species limits in the Indigobirds (Ploceidae, Vidua) of West Africa: 

mouth mimicry, song mimicry and description of new species. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. 

Univ. Michigan, 162: i-iv, 1-96. 
Serle, W., Morel, G. J. & Hartwig, W. 1977. A Field Guide to the Birds of West Africa. 

Snow, D. W. (ed.) 1978. An Atlas of Speciation in African Non-passerine Birds. Brit. Mus. 

(Nat. Hist.). 
Thonnerieux, Y. 1984. Premiers donnees sur la reproduction des oiseaux de Haute Volta. 

Notes Doc. Volta, 15: 44—63 (original not seen). 
Thonnerieux, Y. 1985. Notes complementaires sur l'avifaune des pares nationaux de 1'Arli 

(Burkina) et de la Pendjari (Benin). Malimbus 7: 137-139. 
Thonnerieux, Y. 1988. Etat des connaissances sur la reproduction de l'avifaune du Burkina 

Faso (ex Haute Volta). L'Oiseau et R.F.O., 58: 120-146. 
Thonnerieux, Y., Walsh, J. F. & Bortoli, L. in press. L'avifaune de la ville de Ouagadougou 

et ses environs (Burkina Faso). Malimbus. 
Urban, E. K., Fry, C. H. & Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa. Vol. 2. Academic Press. 
Walsh, J. F. & Walsh, B. 1983. Possible thrush 'anvils' in Upper Volta. Malimbus 5: 54-55. 

Address: Dr D. T. Holyoak and Dr M. B. Seddon, School of Geography and Geology, 
College of St Paul and St Mary, The Park, Cheltenham, Glos. GL50 2RH, U.K. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

.1/. Louette 217 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Additions and corrections to the avifauna of 

Zaire (4) 

by M. Louette 

Received 6 April 1989 

These comments are a follow up of 3 earlier parts (Louette 1987, 1988) 
and are based on study of specimens in Koninklijk Museum voor 
Midden-Afrika (KMMA) and on field observations by R. F. V. Maes, 
between 1956 and 1978, near Bwamanda (03°10'N, 19°15'E), which only 
recently became available. 

Milvus migrans 

It is noteworthy that Maes found this species to be a common breeding 
bird in the general area of Bwamanda: nestbuilding begins November- 
December, young are in the nest in March (one left the nest 1 5 May). The 
species is absent there from (19) June till (3) September. 

Micronisus gabar 

Breeding was recorded by Maes at Bwamanda on an isolated Fagara 
macrophylla tree, from 1 May to 9 June 1961 , when 2 young left the nest. 
Breeding was attempted again the following year during the same period, 
but was foiled by destruction of the tree. This record was incorrectly 
given under Aviceda cuculoides by Schouteden (1 962). It is the first record 
of this species in northern Zaire, but there are a few other records close to 
the forest region. 

Falco ardosiaceus and F. dickinsoni 

The distribution map in Snow (1978) shows their parapatry in Shaba 
(see Map in Louette 1986: 130), both species occurring together at Kasaji 
(10 C 23'S, 23°28'E): 2 ardosiaceus specimens (dated 7 March 1949 and 
19 February 1951) and one dickinsoni (dated 12 May 1950) from that 
locality are in KMMA. The southeasternmost record in Snow (1978) of 
ardosiaceus, if based on a KMMA-specimen from Katofio (11°03'S, 
28°02'E), is in error for the other species. 

The KMMA has 3 specimens from Tembwe (06°31'S, 29°26'E): No. 
12476 is a normal ardosiaceus, taken in 1923, but the other 2, taken 
by Schouteden in February 1926, are aberrant. No. 14963 is close to 
ardosiaceus, but much paler ventrally than any of the other 50 specimens 
in the KMMA collection and its lower abdomen is tinged rufous. It is an 
adult, completing moult of primaries and rectrices. No. 14965 is definitely 
intermediate between both species in plumage characteristics. Dorsally, 
it looks somewhat like dickinsoni, but its mantle is paler, resulting in less 
contrast with the pale head; its rump is too dark for that species and the 
tail is grey as in ardosiaceus, with only some indication of barring. 
Ventrally, it is distinctly barred whitish, from the breast downwards, thus 
even more extensively than is usual in dickinsoni, and its undertail is 
intermediate in pattern between the 2 species. In measurements (Table 1 ), 
No. 12476 agrees completely with ardosiaceus and No. 14963 likewise 

M. Louette 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Measurements (mm) of Falco ardosiaceus and F. dickinsoni from Zaire 








10(^9 233.9 224.0-248.0 152.0 141.5-160.5 40.3 38.5-42.0 


10^9 224.1 215.0-232.0 137.2 131.0-141.0 36.3 34.0-39.0 

Tembvve specimens: 

12476 243.0 156.0 40.0 

14963 237.0 151.5 37.5 

14965 222.0 135.0 37.0 

(except for the shorter tarsus); but No. 14965 agrees with dickinsoni. I 
consider at least this last one to be a hybrid. 

Falco tinnunculus 

While it is true that the nominate race, a migrant from the Palaearctic, 
occurs widely, some comments are needed as to the status of the resident 
birds. Lippens & Wille (1976) mention "niche assez communement au 
Zaire, en dehors de la grande foret. . ." but show a picture of a nest with 
parent and young of the nominate race. No doubt exists that the race 
rufescens breeds in northeastern Zaire, but their mentioning of rupicolus 
doing so was most likely based on Verheyen (1953), who took 3 nestlings in 
the Upemba Park (Shaba) and attributed them to "rhodesi" ( = rupicolus). 
Verheyen did not take the adult, so the determination is doubtful, 
especially since rupicolus is a southern race and not known to breed in the 
neighbouring areas of Zambia (Benson et al. 1 971 ) or Angola (Pinto 1983). 
From southern Zaire, there are only 2 old specimens in KMM A: "region of 
Boma, Lower Zaire", acquired in 1939 and "Kabeca, S.Moero, Katanga", 
taken in 1 899, and both these are rufescens; but the specimen mentioned by 
Schouteden (1 97 1 ) from Kasapa is in fact F. naumanni. The real identity of 
the kestrels in southern Zaire remains to be studied and proof is also 
awaited before rupicolus is accepted on the Zaire list. 

From notes by Maes, it appears that the rufescens specimen he took on 
18 December 1959 at Bwamanda, was with another, which was appar- 
ently feeding young in a nest situated in a tree, a position unusual for the 
African forms of this species. 

Pachycoccyx audeberti 

According to Irwin (1988), this cuckoo ignores Prionops plumatus as a 
possible host. However, the KMM A has a nestling of the cuckoo, taken at 
Gangala-na-Bodio (03°41'N, 29°08'E) on 12 January 1955, in the nest of 
that helmet shrike, which resembles its foster parents so closely in plumage 
colour and pattern, that it was in fact mistakenly identified as such, both 
by the collector Ch. Cornet d'Elzius and by H. Schouteden. At the same 
locality, a fledgling of P. audeberti was taken by the same collector on 6 
March 1956. Prionops plumatus is the only helmet shrike occurring in the 
general area of Gangala-na-Bodio ( = the Garamba Park) (Chapin 1954), 

31. Louette 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

where from the KM MA has a series of specimens, including fledglings. In 
the absence of P. retzii here, it would surprise me if P. plumatus were not 
the usual host. 

Caprimulgns batesi 

The voice of this species is not yet recorded (Chappuis 1981), but 
Chappuis supposed that the bird belongs vocally in the group emitting 
short notes or series of short notes. Indeed, Maes, who heard C. batesi 
often near Bwamanda, describes it as a rapid "hohohohohoho" , repeated 
several times, which is exactly the sound that Chapin (1939) supposed to 
belong with this nightjar. 

Nilaus afer 

Hall & Moreau (1970) consider the whole of southern Zaire to be 
occupied by the race nigrotemporalis (type locality: Ngome, Tanzania), 
characterized by a short eye-stripe and by chestnut markings on the 
underparts. This is not so: a pair from Mount Kabobo (05°06'S, 29°0TE) 
has no chestnut markings at all and it does not differ from the race affinis, 
described from Caconda, Angola. In fact, Hall & Moreau mapped 3 inter- 
mediates between these 2 races: one from Mwinilunga, northwestern 
Zambia (White 1 949) and 2 others in central Angola, suspecting even then 
that more would appear from the intervening area. Careful examination 
of Shaba adults in KMMA (excluding those from Mount Kabobo) shows 
that while 8 birds do not have traces of chestnut markings, 8 others show 
them clearly and 1 5 specimens are intermediate in this respect. 

One further specimen, from Kisenda (c.ll°S, 26°E), even has a long 
eye-stripe, a characteristic of other, far-away races. It is clear that this is 
an intergradation area (Fig. 1). It is surprising therefore that all 14 adults 


Figure 1. Phenotypes of Nilaus afer in southern Zaire, ©j_ affinis; ®: nigrotemporalis; 
•k: intermediates; ir: intermediates, including one with a long superciliary stripe; © : 
immatures, race unkown. 

M. Louette 220 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Measurements (mm) of Apalisjacksoni from Zaire 




x range 





49.0 47.5-50.5 









53.9 51.5-56.5 




51.5 50.0-53.5 



Mount Kabobo 




Kenya (incl. 


Elgon) 6c? 

54.9 52.0-58.0 






collected by Verheyen (1953) in the Upemba Park, which I re-examined, 
do possess the chestnut markings and must indeed be considered as nigro- 
temporalis. In southwestern Zaire, the race is affinis: of 3 specimens from 
Tshibungu and 3 from Merode, 3 do not show chestnut marking, the others 
faint traces only. The specimens mentioned by Schouteden (1956) from 
Kabambaie and Kwamouth are in fact immatures (marked ? on Fig. 1). 

Apalis jacksoni 

Ogilvie-Grant (1917) introduced minor for the population from low- 
land Cameroon. Chapin (1953) accepted this name as well (but only 
reluctantly), for the bird collected in northern Zaire on the Uele river at 
Angu, because its measurements were smaller than the nominate race 
(type from Mount Elgon, on the Kenya-Uganda border), whereas the 
other populations in Zaire (from easternmost Ituri south to the area 
northwest of Lake Tanganyika) were included by him in the nominate 
race. In KMMA, there is an apparent female, labelled "Kabalo", but said 
by Schouteden (note in catalogue) to come possibly also from Uele, and it 
is, indeed, small in measurements (Table 2). In fact, the specimens from 
Ituri are also smaller than those from Kivu and they are obviously in a 
geographical size cline (measurements for topotypical material of minor 
are given by Ogilvie-Grant). This conclusion had already been reached 
by Sclater (1930) for the Angu specimen. 

I have compared our long series from Kivu with topotypical specimens 
from Mount Elgon (7), central Kenya (2), Rwanda (1) and Uganda (1) and 
can find none of the constant differences mentioned by Parkes (1987) 
between these populations, though colour intensity and extent of facial 
mask vary somewhat. In measurements, the East African ones are in the 
range of the Kivu birds, except for a tendency towards a longer tail; this is 
also observed, however, in the male from Mount Kabobo, the southern- 
most locality for this warbler in Zaire. I consider all the montane popu- 
lations to belong to the nominate race, but the northern birds, from Uele 
and Ituri, may be called minor. 

Sylvietta leucophrys 

Parkes (1987) described recently a new subspecies, arileuca, from 
Mpanga Forest near Mount Ruwenzori, on the Zaire-Uganda border. 
Until then, the birds from Ruwenzori were considered to belong to the 

M. Louette 221 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

nominate race (type locality: Mount Elgon), the only population of this 
race in Zaire. The race chloronota was described from near Baraka, 
southern Kivu. In Zaire, the Lendu Plateau, Mount Ruwenzori and the 
Kivu Highlands are separate entities if one uses the 1500 m altitude as 
the lower level of montane forest. The KMMA has 9 specimens from 
Ruwenzori, the only 3 specimens known of the race (or "species") chapini 
from the Lendu Plateau, 4 specimens of the nominate race from Kenya 
and 79 specimens from Kivu. 

As Chapin (1953) has stated, chapini differs only in its lacking the white 
band above the lores and eyes, and I accept his suggestion that this is 
merely a race of the species leucophrys. Immatures of chloronota lack the 
white superciliary stripe of the adult or only show a faint indication of 
it, their mantle is heavily washed rusty and they are much darker under- 
neath than adults; but without doubt the chapini specimens are adults, 
their crowns being decidedly chestnut and they have a rather pale ventral 
side, with the bill colour given on the labels as "brownish", "greyish 
pink" and "flesh, darker above". This bird may well be extirpated now, 
as the forest on the Lendu Plateau is gone, although Vrijdagh (1949) 
collected one of them in a Eucalyptus tree near a hotel. Adults of 
chloronota differ from the nominate race in lacking the brownish wash 
dorsally. As Chapin noticed, this difference is slight and Parkes himself 
considers some birds from northern Kivu as intergrades. 

I checked the characteristics mentioned by Parkes that allegedly separ- 
ate arileuca firmly from either nominate leucophrys or chloronota, arileuca 

—a broader superciliary line, purer white and extending farther 
posteriorly. Present in the Ruwenzori specimens, but a few from Kivu 
match them. This is only apparent in well-prepared specimens — see also 
illustration of the living bird in Lippens & Wille (1976). 

-paler and purer grey underparts, mid-abdominal area pure white. 
My material would, if anything, indicate the opposite. 

—a narrow post-ocular line. No difference from chloronota was 

-a paler bill. The labels on the Ruwenzori birds bear the following 
descriptions: "very light brown", "flesh colour", "light brown" (2), 
"horn brown?". The dried bills may indeed be paler in general than in 
choloronota, but some are alike. I cannot comment on the bill of the 
nominate race, for which I found the following label note: "brown horn, 
lower paler". 

It appears that arileuca is hardly separable and is best considered an 
intermediate between nominate leucophrys and chloronota. It is remark- 
able that this bird appears to have the most white on the head of all races, 
whereas "nearby" chapini has none. 

Nectarinia amethystina and N.fuliginosa 

These 2 species belong in a superspecies, of which N. rubescens is not a 
member (Louette 1982). 

The male in breeding plumage of N. amethystina is blackish-brown 
rather than bitter-chocolate in general colour and the metallic forehead 
reflects greenish, not purple as in N.fuliginosa; also amethystina lacks the 

M. Louette 


Bull.R.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Ls\ - ZAIRE 

— _ Kinshasa 


Figure 2. Occurrence of Nectarinia amethystina and N.fuliginosa in the western part of Zaire 
and selected records in neighbouring countries. Vertical traits: amethystina; horizontal 
traits: fuliginosa; stars: hybrids. 

yellow pectoral tufts. It must be stressed, however, that the 2 species are 
quite alike, especially in their females; in series amethystina displays a 
more olivaceous hue over the mantle. 

N. amethystina occurs outside the forest belt, in southern Zaire, the 
westernmost collecting-locality there being Gungu (05°44'S, 19°19'E — 
in Kwilu); there is only one record of the species more to the northwest, 
namely the male from Djambala in Congo, mentioned by Rand et al. 
(1959) (Fig. 2). Hall & Moreau (1970) have shown its range adequately, 
but they overlooked the occurrence of N . fuliginosa both in western Zaire 
and Angola, although it was described from Malimba in the Cabinda 
enclave. This was corrected later by Hall (unpublished additions to the 
Atlas). In Congo, at N'gabe (03°08'S, 16°10'E), Malbrant & Maclatchy 
(1949) collected a hybrid, also examined by Chapin (1954). On the 
opposite side of the river Zaire from N'gabe, a female (supposedly) of 
N.fuliginosa was collected years ago for the KMMA (Schouteden 1956), 
and we have recently obtained a male, moulting towards breeding 
plumage, from "Kuango", which I presume to be situated at 04°45'S, 
16°36'E. There is also an immature from Kuilu-Ngongo at 04°24'S, 
17°42'E in our collection, which could belong to either species. 

Much earlier, Oustalet (1893) had described the race fuliginosa 
nigrescens, from Brazzaville, on account of the male's dark mantle, of the 
same colour as the rest of the plumage, whereas in nominate birds, from 
farther north and west, the upper mantle is distinctly paler and contrasts 
with the general plumage. Malbrant & Maclatchy (1949) and especially 

M. Louette 223 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Measurements (mm) of Nectarinia amethystina and N.fuliginosa from Zaire 

































Bouet (1944) accepted nigrescens, but Chapin (1954) did not, because he 
found a specimen from Boma (close to Cabinda) did not differ from birds 
from Leopoldville ( = Kinshasa), which is opposite Brazzaville on the 
Zaire river. (The race fuliginosa aurea, with a decidedly pale upper mantle 
represents the species further west.) 

N.fuliginosa, which is a coastal species elsewhere in its range, must be a 
common bird along the lower Zaire river, judging from the number of 
museum specimens. In the following discussion only males in breeding 
plumage will be considered. From the general area of Boma (coast) the 
KM MA has 23 specimens with a rather pale mantle and 3 with a dark one, 
whereas from around Kinshasa, there are 11 'pale' birds and 17 'dark' 
ones; but it must be admitted that many of them are difficult to place, as 
this characteristic is rather poor, with intermediates present. In measure- 
ments (Table 3), the coastal birds appear to have a shorter culmen than 
those farther east, who seemingly approach a sample of westernmost 
amethystina, taken at Gungu, in Kasai and Kamina in westernmost Shaba 
(Fig. 2). It seems that in colour as well as in bill-length there is a trend 
from west to east, suggesting introgression of amethystina in fuliginosa: 
topotypical nominate fuliginosa and especially nigrescens seem affected. 

From Nkiene (04°10'S, 15°55'E), just east of Kinshasa, there is a 
specimen in KMMA, which is almost certainly a (second) hybrid: it has 
pectoral tufts, but its plumage is rather blackish and its frontal metallic 
patch is greenish-blue, intermediate between the 2 species. These charac- 
teristics are also mentioned by Chapin (1954) for the other supposed 
hybrid from N'gabe (see above), which I have not been able to examine. 
As mentioned above, amethystina is known only from Gungu, 400 km 
away eastwards, except for the single Congo record to the northwest, 
which may be a vagrant or, more likely, in view of the existence of hybrids 
in the general area, a member of a relict population. 

From the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, I have received 
on loan 9 males of amethystina, all from above the escarpment in Angola, 
the closest locality to Kinshasa being "NE of Duque de Braganca ( = c. 
08°40'S, 16°15'E), 450 km distant. None of those examined is showing 
traces of hybridization, nor are the 2 males of fuliginosa from below the 
escarpment, near Muxima (09°30'S, 13°55'E) and near Gabela (c. 11°S, 
14°20'E); both possess a dark chocolate mantle and the one with an intact 
bill (26.0 mm long) is in the range of the measurements from near 

M. Louette 224 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Kinshasa. Traylor (1963) mentions fuliginosa also from Canzele, more to 
the northeast in Angola, but I have not seen this specimen. 

Because there is no indication of a hybridization zone in Angola and 
since hybrids are only occasional near Kinshasa, in the range of fuliginosa, 
both taxa must provisionally still be considered as distinct species, 
notwithstanding an apparent introgression in the local population of 
fuliginosa. This species may be in a process of expanding its range inland. 

It is preferable to use the subspecific name nigrescens for the population 
of fuliginosa from Angola and Zaire, keeping in mind that the nominate 
race is geographically close. 


I am grateful to V. Maes for the communication of his field observations and to D. Willard, 
A. Prigogine and J. Fairon for permission to examine specimens in their care. 


Benson, C. W., Brooke, R. K., Dowsett, R. J. & Irwin, M. P. S. 1971. The Birds of Zambia. 

Bouet, G. 1944. Revision des collections d'oiseaux recueillis au Congo et dans l'Oubangui 

par la mission J. Dybowski. Oiseau et R. F.O. 14 (nouv. ser.): 44-88. 
Chapin, J. P. 1939, 1953, 1954. The Birds of the Belgian Congo. Parts II, III & IV. Bull. 

Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 75, 75A, 75B. 
Chappuis, C. 1 981 . Illustration sonore de problemes bioacoustiques poses par les oiseaux de 

la zone Ethiopienne (Suite). Alauda 49: 35—58. 
Hall, B. P. & Moreau, R. E. 1 970. An Atlas of Speciation in African Passerine Birds. Trustees 

of the British Museum (Natural History). 
Irwin, M. P. S. 1988. Cuculiformes . In: C. H. Fry, S. Keith & E. K. Urban (Eds). The Birds 

of Africa. Vol. 3. Academic Press. 
Lippens, L. & Wille, H. 1976. Les Oiseaux du Zaire. Lannoo, Tielt. 
Louette, M. 1982. Allopatric species of birds approaching in western Cameroon: the 

Nectarinia adelberti, N. rubescens example. Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 33: 303-312. 
Louette, M. 1986. Geographical contacts between the taxa of Centropus in Zaire, with the 

description of anew race. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 106(3): 126-133. 
Louette, M. 1987, 1988. Additions and corrections to the avifauna of Zaire (1) Bull. Brit. 

Orn. CI. 107: 137-143. (2). 108: 43-50. (3). 108: 112-120. 
Malbrant, R. & Maclatchy, A. 1949. Faune de I'Equateur Africain Francais. Tome 1. 

Oiseaux. Lechevalier, Paris. 
Ogilvie-Grant, W. R. 1917. Remarks on some recent collections of birds made by Mr G. L. 

Bates in Cameroon. Ibis Ser 10(5): 2—90. 
Oustalet, E. 1 893 . Notice preliminaire sur les collections zoologiques recueillies par M. Jean 

Dybowski dans son expedition a travers le Congo et la region de l'Oubangui. Naturaliste 

(ser. 2) 7:125-129. 
Parkes, K. C. 1987. Taxonomic notes on some African warblers (Aves: Sylviinae). Ann. 

Cam. Mus. 56:231-243. 
Pinto, A. A. da Rosa 1983. Ornitologia de Angola. Vol. 1. (non-Passeres). Instituto de 

Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, Lisboa. 
Rand, A. L., Friedmann, H. & Traylor, M. A. 1959. Birds from Gabon and Moyen Congo. 

Fieldiana : Zool. 41: 221-411. 
Schouteden, H. 1956. De Vogels van Belgisch Congo en van Ruanda-Urundi. Vol. IV (3). 

Ann. Mus. R. Congo Beige C. Zool. Ser. IV. Vol. V (1): 1-236. 
Schouteden, H. 1962. La faune ornithologique des districts de la Mongala et le l'Ubangi. 

Doc. Zool. Mus. Afr. Centr. 3: 1-144. 
Schouteden, H. 1971. La faune ornithologique de la Province du Katanga. Doc. Zool. Mus. 

Afr. Centr. 17: 1-248. 
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the British Museum (Natural History). 
Traylor, M. A. 1963. Checklist of Angolan Birds. Museo do Dundo, Lisboa. 
Verheyen, R. K. 1953. Oiseaux. in: Exploration du Pare national de l'Upemba. Mission 

G. F. de Witte (1946-1949). Inst. Pares Nat. Congo Beige 19: 1-687. 

P. A. Clancey 225 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Vrijdagh, J. M. 1949. Observations ornithologiques en region occidentale du Lac Albert et 

principalement dela plaine d'Ishwa. Gerfaut 39: 1-115. 
White, C. M. N. 1949. Systematic notes on African Birds. Ibis 91: 280-287. 

Address: Dr M. Louette, Koninklijk Museum voor Midden- Afrika, B-1980 Tervuren, 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

The status of Streptopelia capicola onguati 
Macdonald, 1957 

by P. A. Clancey 

Received 13 April 1989 

Streptopelia capicola (Sundevall) is the commonest of the ring-necked 
savanna woodland doves occurring in southern and eastern Africa, the 
southern subspecies being reviewed by Clancey (1960) and later adopted 
in the S.A.O.S. Checklist (Clancey 1980). Of the 5 subspecies recognized, 
one, 5. c. onguati Macdonald, 1957, was described on 2 specimens, one 
taken on the property "Onguati" in the Kamanjab district of north- 
western Namibia (at 19°48'S, 14°39'E) being the type-specimen. The 
second example, on loan from the Ubersee-Museum, Bremen, West 
Germany, had been collected on Eckenberg Farm in the same general 
area of Namibia in 1952. As part of his comparative material, Macdonald 
had, on loan from the Ubersee-Museum, the type of S. c. damarensis 
(Hartlaub & Finsch), 1870, a mid-1 800s C. J. Andersson skin from 
Otjimbingwe at 22°22'S, 16°08'E in the Namib. Macdonald did not 
further augment his material in order to define a plausible range for 
onguati and at the same time delimit that of the earlier damarensis. As will 
be appreciated, the type-localities of the 2 taxa do not lie particularly far 

Recent opinion (see Morel et al. 1 986) is that S. c. onguati represents the 
desert (Namib) population, and S. c. damarensis that of the Namibian 
plateau and dry subcontinental interior. Such a view, however, overlooks 
the obvious taxonomic complication so raised; onguati of 1957 is in fact 
based on a plateau sample and damarensis of 1870 on a desertic one. The 
interpretation as in Morel et al. (1986) appears to have as its basis the 
findings of Tray lor (1960), who commented to the effect that a series in 
the collection of the American Museum of Natural History, taken on the 
arid coast of southwestern Angola, conformed to the description of 
onguati in being paler than in the case of a putative sample of damarensis 
from Okahandja, north of Windhoek, in the Chicago Natural History 

With the type of damarensis before him, Macdonald described onguati 
as being paler, with the dorsal sepia reduced to a light wash on the mantle 
and adjacent wing-coverts, and with the forehead pale bluish grey. Ven- 
trally, the throat was described as white and the breast lilac-grey. The 
wing of the type was given as 1 55 mm. 

P. A. Clancey 226 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

A re-assessment of the geographical variation in southern Africa, dur- 
ing which over 70 specimens from central and northern Namibia were 
studied, confirms that at no point is it clinal but derives from an ancient 
secondary contact between (a) a restricted karoo and arid interior com- 
plex of populations distinguished by a bluish or light leaden grey 
pileum, drab or dull greyish brown dorsum and lavender grey breast, 
and (b) a tropical savanna woodland group, which arcs round (a) to the 
immediate north, east and southeast. In this latter group, the pileum is 
pinkish Mouse Gray (Ridgway 1912), the dorsum olive-brown, and the 
breast pale vinaceous-drab (pinkish) as opposed to lavender grey. Size 
also varies, arid country representatives having longer wings than those 
of moister, and especially coastal, regions. The secondary contact 
through time resulted in the formation of 2 relatively stabilized hybrid 
complexes, both of which share characters of one of the parental taxa, 
namely S. c. tropica (Reichenow), 1902: Songea, southeastern Tanzania. 
The western stabilized hybrid population extends from coastal south- 
western Angola, south in the Namib to at least the Kuiseb R., and 
extends some way over the northwestern plateau of Namibia, and con- 
stitutes the revised subspecies S. c. damarensis (see below). In the case of 
the eastern hybrid-based form, which is resident in the moist south- 
eastern highlands of southern Africa in Lesotho and adjacent areas — the 
subspecies S. c. abunda Clancey. 1960: Mooi River, Natal — this is more 
saturated than nominate capicola of the Cape Province, has the pileum as 
in tropica and the breast dark pinkish brown (Brownish Drab) as 
opposed to lavender grey. This taxon is, strangely enough, not alluded 
to by Morel etal. (1986). 

Specimens from the plateau of northern Namibia examined were from 
Ondangua (17°54'S, 15°59'E), Orupembe (18°09'S, 12°32'E), Ohopoho 
(18°03'S, 13°50'E), Warmquelle (19°13'S, 13°53'E), Outjo (20°07'S, 
16°09'E), Oshivelo (19°42'S, 20°35'E), Gaub Rhenisch Mission 
(Grootfontein), De Hoek (Gobabis), Okahandja, Karibib and Windhoek, 
etc. From further south in the territory, specimens from Aus, Bethanie, 
Mariental and near Keetmanshoop were available. This material reveals a 
marked shift in dorsal colouration with the mantle, scapulars and tertials 
increasingly more overlaid with light olive-brown as one proceeds north- 
westwards to the Namib Desert. While descriptive terms such as 'pale' or 
'paler' in defining minor colour nuances of xeric populations of polytypic 
bird species are frequently all but valueless, in the present case the 
characters laid out in the original diagnosis of onguati are confirmed. 
Macdonald's description and the evidence provided by the adequate 
series now examined equate it with the bulk of Namibian plateau birds 
and with those of the entire subcontinental arid interior, and necessitate a 
reversal in the current usage of the available names damarensis and 
onguati. This is effected hereunder. 

Streptopelia capicola damarensis (Hartlaub & Finsch), 1870 

Mantle, scapulars and tertials in fresh dress light olive-brown; grey in 
wings pale smoke grey. On underside, breast about Ecru-Drab. Size 
large: wings of SS (n6) 156-166 (160.3), sd 3.38; ?? (n8) 153-162 (156.5), 
sd 3.02 mm. 

P. A. Clancey 227 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Range. Locally along the desertic coast of southwestern Angola and the 
Xamib, Namibia, south to about the Kuiseb R. and over the plateau of 
Kaokoland and the immediate southeast. Intergrades with the following 
to the east of its range. 

Streptopelia capicola onguati Macdonald, 1957 

Differs from damarensis in having the vinaceous colouration over 
the hind-head and neck lighter (less saturated), and with the mantle, 
scapulars and tertials colder, with the upper mantle greyer and the rest of 
the dorsum Drab. Grey in wings a little darker and bluer, and with the 
breast pale drab-grev. Size ranging somewhat larger: wings of $ <$ (nl5) 
159-167 (162.3), sd 2.49; ?$ (n6) 153-162 (158.9), sd 3.38 mm. 

Range. The plateau of Namibia from Ovamboland and the Etosha Pan 
region, south to the lower Orange R., east to Botswana (to the south and 
southeast of the Okavango delta system), western Zimbabwe, western 
Transvaal and Orange Free State, and the northern Cape (south at least to 
Kuruman). Intergrades to the north of its range with S. c. tropica, and to 
the south with the nominate race of the Cape. 

The third Namibian subspecies is S. c. tropica, which occurs in northern 
Ovamboland and extensively in the mid-Okavango drainage to the Caprivi 
and Okavango Swamps, the complete range as given in Clancey (1960). 
This taxon has the pileum pinkish Mouse Gray, and is more extensively 
and warmer (buffier) vinaceous over the proximal head and neck, the 
mantle olive-brown. Below, it is pinker over the breast (pale vinaceous- 
fawn), with both the throat and lower venter extensively white. Size runs 
smaller than the foregoing subspecies, with wings in <^$ (nl4) from 
Mozambique 145-155 (150.3), sd 3.31 mm. There is evidence from the 
material examined that tropica extends on occasion south of its breeding 
range, as instanced by a Transvaal Museum specimen from Husab, on the 
SwakopR.intheNamibat22°43'S, 15°01'E. Unfortunately, it has no date. 


For the loan of additional material I am indebted to Dr J. M. Mendelsohn and Joris Komen 
of the State Museum, Windhoek, and Dr A. C. Kemp, Ornithologist of the Transvaal 
Museum, Pretoria. 


Clancey, P. A. 1960. The South African races of the Turtle Dove Streptopelia capicola 

(Sundevall). In Misc. Tax. Notes on African Birds XV, Durban Mus. Novit. 6(2): 

Clancey, P. A. (Ed) 1980. S.A.O.S. Checklist of Southern African Birds: 89-90. Southern 

African Ornithological Society, Johannesburg. 
Macdonald, J. D. 1957. A Contribution to the Ornithology of Western South Africa: 72-73. 

British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London 
Morel, S. J., Morel, M.-Y. & Fry C. H. 1986. In The Birds of Africa, 2: 484-^186. Academic 

Traylor Jr, M. A. 1 960. Notes on the birds of Angola, non passeres. Publ. Cult. Companha de 

Diamantes de Angola, No. 51:1 50. 
Ridgway, R. 1912. Color Standards and Color Nomenclature. The Author, Washington, DC. 

Address: Dr P. A. Clancey, Research Associate, Durban Natural History Museum, P.O. 
Box 4085, Durban 4000, South Africa. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

P. A. Clancey 228 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Subspeciation in the Sociable Weaver 
Philetairus socius of the South West Arid Zone 

of Africa 

by P. A. Clancey 

Received 13 April 1989 

The Sociable Weaver Philetairus socius (Latham), 1790: Warmbad, 
southern Great Namaqualand, Namibia, is the sole member of a genus of 
sparrowlike birds peculiar to the dry acacia country and sub-desert of 
the South West Arid Zone of the Afrotropics, and is renowned for the 
frequently bulky communal breeding structures it builds in Acacia and 
other trees and in the rigging of telephone poles. It extends from the 
northwestern Cape Province, north through Namibia to the Etosha Pan 
National Park, and east to southwestern Botswana, the northern Cape 
and, marginally, to the southwestern Transvaal and western Orange Free 
State. Its closest allies are species of Pseudonigrita: P. arnaudi (Bonaparte) 
and P. cabanisi (Fischer & Reichenow), and, more remotely, the larger 
Histurgops ruficauda Reichenow, all of which are eastern African. Moreau 
(1962), following Clancey (1957), and later White (1967), admitted 4 
subspecies of P. socius, these being the nominate race, P. s. geminus Grote, 
1922, P. s. eremnus Clancey, 1957, and P. s. lepidus Smith, 1837. However, 
in the S.A.O.S. Checklist (Clancey 1980) only 3 were recognised, lepidus 
being treated as part of nominate socius. 

Variation in the present species is complex with the 2 basic population 
groups clearly associated with the general colour of the substrate. The 
more widely distributed and numerically numerous of the groups — the 
nominate subspecies — is that directly inhabiting areas of reddish sand 
with scattered wind-contoured red Kalahari sand-dunes, which is distri- 
buted from southern Great Namaqualand and the Cape immediately 
south of the lower Orange R., east to southwestern Botswana and the 
northern Cape to the general area Kuruman-Olifantshoek-Postmasburg. 
This group is characterised by a buffish brown cap, dark brown sub- 
terminal feather crescents fringed greyish buff over the mantle, and light 
warm buff to the face and unpatterned ventral surfaces. Wings in such 
birds measure <£$ 75-80 mm. Immediately to the north and to the south of 
the foregoing group, darker birds are present, having the cap about Drab 
(Ridgway 1912), the dorsum darker with the mantle crescents blacker, 
and with the light facial and ventral surfaces less warm buff or whiter. In 
the north of the range in Namibia the wing-length declines (71-75.5), but 
in the dark birds lying to the south of the buffish ones, the wing-length is 
only fractionally shorter (73-79 mm) (Table 1). 

As the colour and size patterns of variation are not strictly congruent, 
the differences in wing-length can only be used to a limited degree in 
arranging the populations into readily recognisable subspecies. In the 
case of the darker group of populations, this is again seen as an edaphic 
correlate, such birds occurring in karoo country, sub-desert (Namib 
edge) and saline pan environments. The disposition of the variation 

P. A. Clancey 

The wing- and tail-length 



Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

(mm) variables (in <J§) in populations of the Sociable Weaver 
Philetairus socius 


range X 



range X 



Kochena, NE of 



Grunau, S Namibia. 


Perdepan, Gobabis, 




Gemsbok National 
Park, N Cape. 




Prieska & Carnarvon, 



Hoopstad, O.F.S. 




SW Transvaal. 








Aus & near Bethanie, 




Okaukuejo & 
Leeubron, Etosha 
Pan, N Namibia. 



Philetairus socius socius 
77.3 1.39 19 38-45.5 42-1 214 

73.2 1.23 

75.5 1.82 23 39-H 

41.2 1.33 

Philetairus socius eremnus 

75.8 1.63 8 40-15 42.2 1.48 

72.5-78.5 75.3 1.76 

73.7 1.43 10 38.5-44 41.0 1.80 

Philetairus socius xericus 

78.5 1.94 6 41.5-44 42.8 0.93 

Philetairus socius geminus 

73.7 1.28 8 38.5-^-2 40.3 1.18 

Size-variation in P. socius is 2 dimensional and probably temperature dependent, with wing- 
length as an indicator of overall size shortest in the north of the range (nos. 2, 6 & 8) and 
largest in the south (nos. 1 , 3, 4, 5 & 7). Transition between the extremes in the gradient is in 
the nature of a relatively narrow step centred from south-central Great Namaqualand, east 
to southwestern Botswana. In the case of the large-sized southern birds variation is clinal, 
with size (wing-length) increasing east (nos. 3, 4 & 5) to west (nos. 1 & 7) in association with 
cooler maritime conditions. 

suggests relatively recent sundering and distributional retreat of the 
populations of darker coloured phenotypes occasional by the (now) more 
numerous paler and buffier birds, this resulting from an eastward spread 
of the latter from the basin of the lower Orange. 

A re-assessment of the geographical variation in the Sociable Weaver 
(Fig. 1) based on an examination of over 270 specimens indicates the 
necessity of recognising 4 subspecies, for one of which a name is 
introduced. These are arranged hereunder. 

Philetairus socius socius (Latham) 

Loxiasocia Latham, Index Ornith., vol. i, 1790, p. 381 : inland of Cape of 
Good Hope, restricted to Warmbad, southern Great Namaqualand, 
Namibia, by Macdonald, Contr. Orn. West. S. Afr., 1957, p. 156. 
Synonym: Philetairus lepidus Smith, Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., 
new series, vol. 1, 1837, p. 536: districts round Latakoo = Kuruman, 
northern Cape. 

Pileum Buffy Brown; mantle with feather bases light grey, dark sub- 
terminal crescents brownish black, fringed greyish buff; rump washed 
with light brown. Light facial and ventral surfaces Warm Buff. Size large. 

P. A. Clancev 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Figure 1. Sketch-map showing the disposition of the races of the Sociable Weaver 

Philetairus socius 
1. Philetairus socius socius (Latham); 2. Philetairus socius eremnus Clancey; 3. Philetairus 
socius xericus Clancey; 4. Philetairus socius geminus Grote. It will be noted that the range of 2 
is split into two sectors and the taxon is as a result polytopic. 

Measurements. See Table 1. 207 specimens examined. 

Range. Northwestern Cape Province to the south of the Orange R. in 
Bushmanland, southeast to Kenhardt, southern Great Namaqualand, 
Namibia, south from about Keetmanshoop to the Orange, and in the east 
north to about Gobabis (at Perdepan), southwestern and southern 
Botswana in the Gemsbok National Park, and the northern Cape from the 
Namibian border to Kuruman-Olifantshoek-Postmasburg. Ecologically 
associated with reddish sands and areas with red Kalahari sand-dunes. 
The most numerous subspecies. 

Remarks. Smith, in his Illustrations (1838), uses the spelling Philetaerus 
for the generic name of the Sociable Weaver, the type of which is 
Swainson's Euplectes lepidus, as proposed in Lard. Cab. Cyclopaedia, vol. 
2, Menageries, p. 309, this earlier than 1837. Smith's Philetairus lepidus as 
named in Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. i, 1837, from Kuruman 
district is, therefore, pre-occupied by Swainson's slightly earlier combi- 
nation. Moreau (1962) equates Swainson's name with Latham's Loxia 
socia of 1790. 

In the event of Swainson's lepidus being viewed as a nomen nudum and 
Smith as the specific name's author, the locality Kuruman and diagnostic 
characters place it as a synonym of nominate P. socius. 

Philetairus socius eremnus Clancey, Durban Mus. Novit., vol. v, 4, 
1957, p. 48: Kransfontein, north of Prieska, northern Cape. 

P. A. Clancey 231 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Differs from the nominate race on the basis of a darker cap (about 
Drab), and less buffish upper-surface, the mantle duller and the sub- 
terminal dark crescents broader and blacker, the apices somewhat whiter; 
rump greyer and more squamated, less uniformly buffy. Ventrally, with 
the chin and throat blacker and the light surfaces rather browner, less 
buffy. Southern population similar in size, but birds of the northern 
segment shorter winged. 

Measurements. See Table 1. 52 specimens examined. 

Range. Karoo country of the middle Orange R. from just north of Prieska 
in Griqualand West, southwest to Carnarvon, and locally to the northeast 
in the Vaal R. drainage of the western Orange Free State (Hoopstad) and 
southwestern Transvaal (at Wolmaransstad, east to Klerksdorp and 
Potchefstroom). Also Namibia north of the nominate subspecies on 
the plateau, occurring locally from north of Keetmanshoop to about 
Otjiwarongo, with the following specimens seen: Neisib, 35 km SW of 
Helmeringhausen; Mariental; Keres, N of Windhoek; Talana; Otjikango, 
Otjiwarongo; and Sturmveld and Wilhelmsrute, Gobabis district. 

Remarks. P. s. eremnus is polytopic, with the nominate form interposed 
between its 2 population segments. A long series of specimens taken on 
the property Neisib, to the southwest of Helmeringhausen, and another 
sample from Kameelboom, to the northeast of Mariental, contain many 
specimens intermediate between nominate socius and eremnus, but with 
the majority referable to the latter. 

Philetairus socius xericus, subsp. nov. 
Type. 9, adult. Plateau 38, 20 km E of Aus, western Great Namaqualand, 
Namibia. 15 October 1970. Collected by P. J. Buys. In the collection of 
the State Museum, Windhoek, Reg. No. 800.31 and CA 3340. 

Similar to P. s. eremnus, as defined above, but with the light facial and 
ventral surfaces pearly vinaceous white rather than pale buff, and with the 
breast overlaid with drab. Compared with P. s. geminus of the Etosha Pan 
not so sharply marked with black and white over the mantle, the rump 
darker, and with the light facial and unpatterned ventral surfaces greyish 
white, washed with drab over the breast and not plain off-white as in 
geminus. Size larger than in geminus. 

Measurements. See Table 1 . 

Measurements of the Type. Wing 79.5, culmen from base 17.5, tarsus 20, 
tail 43 mm. 

Material examined. 6 (Plateau 38, 20 km, E of Aus; Vogelstrausskluft, 
Bethanie district, western Great Namaqualand). 

Range. Presently known from near Aus and Bethanie, in western Great 
Namaqualand, but probably extending north along the escarpment edge 
inland of the Namib to about the Namib Naukluft Park. 

Etymology . xericus, from Greek and modern ecology, affecting arid 

Remarks. The whiter facial and ventral surfaces of P. s. xericus of the 
escarpment edge overlooking the Namib associate it with P. s. geminus of 
the arid Etosha Pan region in the north of the species' range. Further 
sampling of colonies just inland of the Namib to the north of Aus is 
desirable in order to fix the northern limits of xericus. 

S.Lousada 232 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Philetairus socius geminus Grote, jfourn.f. Ornith., vol. lxx, 1922, p. 
45: Okaukuejo, Etosha Pan National Park, northern Namibia. 

Compared with P. s. eremnus differs in ranging a little paler over the 
pileum; mantle (including scapulars) lighter, the sub-terminal crescents 
blacker and sharply contrasted against the whitish apical fringes, and 
rump whiter. Facial and light ventral surfaces much whiter. Wings and 
tail colder, with the coverts and remiges edged paler. Similar in size to the 
northern population of eremnus. Differs from P. s. xericus in having the 
dorsal crescents deeper black and the mantle feather apices whiter. Facial 
and light ventral parts still whiter, and lacking the drab overlay to the 
breast present in xericus. Size smaller than in xericus. 

Measurements. See Table 1. 8 specimens examined. 

Range. Confined to the Etosha Pan National Park, northern Namibia, 
with most of the available records from Okaukuejo and Leeubron. 


For the loan of material I am grateful to Dr J. M. Mendelsohn and J. Komen of the State 
Museum, Windhoek, and to Dr A. C. Kemp of the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. 


Clancey, P. A. 1957. Miscellaneous taxonomic notes on African birds IX. Durban Mus. 

Novit. 5(4): 48-49. 
Clancey, P. A. (Ed.) 1980. S.A.O.S. Checklist of Southern African Birds .265-266. Southern 

African Ornithological Society, Johannesburg. 
Moreau, R. E. 1962. In Peters' Check-list of Birds of the World, Vol. 15: 8. Museum of 

Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 
Ridgway, R. 1912. Color Standards and Color Nomenclature, The Author, Washingtn, DC. 
Smith, A. 1838. Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa, Aves. Plate viii, No. 2, and text. 
White, C. M. N. 1967. Geographical variation in Philetairus socius (Latham). Bull. Brit. 

Orn. CI. 87(6): 97. 

Address: Dr P. A. Clancey, Research Associate, Durban Natural History Museum, P.O. 
Box 4085, Durban 4000, South Africa. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

Amazona auropalliata caribaea: a new 
subspecies of parrot from the Bay Islands, 
northern Honduras 

by Sebastian Lousada 

Received 27 April 1989 

In November 1987, S. Lousada, A. Morales and S. Ewing travelled to 
Honduras to investigate the distribution of Yellow-naped Parrots Ama- 
zona auropalliata. Our field work revealed 3 distinct forms of the subspe- 
cies A. a. parvipes inhabiting northern Honduras and the offshore islands. 
After discussions and correspondence with Burt L. Monroe and Thomas 
R. Howell, who first described A. a. parvipes from the Mosquitia region 
of eastern Honduras and northeastern Nicaragua, we concluded that 
there was evidence to describe one of these forms as a new subspecies: 

5. Lousada 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Typical soft-part colours of northern forms of the Amazona ochrocephala complex 


Upper Lower Eye-lid 

mandible mandible Cere Bristles Eye-ring edge 

A. oratrix 



A. o. belizensis 



A. o. belizensis 



(N\V Honduras) 

A. a. auropalliata 



A. a. caribaea 



at tip 


A. a. parvipes 



(Mosquitia birds) 

at tip 

White White White White 

White White White White 

Glauc. White White Black 

Glauc. Black P.G. Black 

Glauc. Black P.G. Black 

Glauc. Black P.G. Black 

Notes. Immature birds of all these forms have darker areas on their mandibles. Colours 
from Smithe (1975, 1981): V.P.H. = very Pale Horn (92); P.H. =Pale Horn (92); Glauc. = 
Glaucous (80); M.P. = Medium Plumbeous (87); P.G. = Pearl Gray (81); B.N.G. = Blackish 
Neutral Gray (82). 
Bristles = bristle-like feathers of the cere. 

Amazona auropalliata caribaea subsp. nov. 

Holotype. Carnegie Museum of Natural History No. 1 3 1 584; adult $ from 
Isla Barbareta, Islas de la Bahia, Honduras, 11 April 1948; collected by 
A. C. Twomey. 

Diagnosis. Differs from the type of A. a. parvipes of northeastern 
Honduras and northeastern Nicaragua in having a predominantly ivory- 
coloured bill closest to Pale Horn (92). (Capitalized colours from Smithe 
1975, 1981.) The tip of the upper mandible is often Medium Plumbeous 
(87), especially in immature birds, which may have larger areas of this 
colour. The lower mandible is always much paler than that of parvipes of 
the Mosquitia region, which is generally Blackish Neutral Gray (82). (See 
Table 1). 

A. a. caribaea also differs from the pale-billed, yellow-crowned and 
yellow-naped forms found in the Sula Valley of northern Honduras; 
fledgling A. a. caribaea have very little or no yellow in the head region, 
whereas the Sula Valley birds always leave the nest with yellow foreheads 
and crowns. 

Distribution. Known only from Roatan, Barbareta and Guanaja of the 
Bay Islands off the northern coast of Honduras. 

Description of holotype. General plumage Parrot Green (260). Lime 
Green (159) on underparts, but slightly more Cyan (164) on lores and 
forehead. Crown and forecrown have a narrow Sulfur Yellow band (157) 
running dorsally; nape and hindneck have a broad Spectrum Yellow band 
(55) across them, the green feathers in this region lightly margined in 
Blackish Neutral Gray (82). Bend of wing, Geranium Pink (13); carpal 
edge Lime Green (159); primaries and secondaries Parrot Green (260) 
becoming Indigo Blue (173) towards tips; the wing speculum, across 
bases of the 5 outer secondaries is Geranium Pink (13); under wing 
coverts and undersides of flight feathers Paris Green (63); dorsal major 
secondary caudal coverts towards Chartreuse (158). Tail, Parrot Green 

5. Lousada 234 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Selected measurements (mm) of Amazona a. auropalliata, A. a. parvipes and A. a. caribaea 

Wing Tail 



(from nostril) 

Middle toe 

(without nail) 


18^ ^(mean) 
15^ 9$ (mean) 






1 <S (type) 

1 S (Sula Valley) 
1 ? (Sula Valley) 






1 $ (type) 






(260) tipped with Chartreuse (158), lateral feathers basally marked with 
Geranium Pink (13) and Sulfur Yellow (157) on inner webs, the outer- 
most feathers lightly edged with Spectrum Blue (69). Mandibles closest 
to Pale Horn (92), edged and tipped very lightly in Medium Plumbeous 

Measurements. See Table 2. Note that A. a. caribaea and A. a. parvipes 
have smaller feet than A. a. auropalliata. 

Specimens examined. A. a. caribaea: — Honduras: Isla Barbareta, 3 
(CM = Carnegie Museum); Isla Guanaja. 1 (CM); Isla Roatan, 5 
(BMNH = British Museum of Natural History, Tring). A. a. parvipes: — 
Nicaragua: Leicus creek 56 miles NW Puerto Cabezas (UCLA = 
University of California, Los Angeles: Holotype, no. 51465, adult^). 
Honduras: Sula Valley, 2 (CM). 

I have also examined a series (20 + ) of A. a. auropalliata from Mexico, 
Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua (BMNH) for comparison. 

Etymology. This subspecies is named in recognition of the prominent 
role the tree species Pinus caribaea plays in the ecology of these birds. 


Variation within the subspecies. Variation among individuals of A. a. cari- 
baea is most usually in the quantity of yellow feathers in the head region. 
However the key features were manifest in all the 60 individuals (9 
museum skins, 51 captive birds) I have examined. 

There appear to be no sexual differences in plumage colour or pattern, 
although there are noticeable differences that can be correlated with age. 
Before their first moult, young A. a. caribaea have little or no yellow on 
the nape or crown, and mandibles with at least some Medium Plumbeous 
(87) colouring. As they age, over the next few moults, yellow gradually 
comes in on the nape and also usually on the forecrown, where it is 
frequently present as a narrow band or a roughly triangular patch. Mature 
specimens have large yellow nape and hindneck patches that may encircle 
the neck to quite a considerable extent. Any Medium Plumbeous (87) 
colouration on the mandibles may gradually decrease in area and change 
to ivory or Pale Horn (92). 

5. Lousada 235 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Ecology, The Caribbean Pine Pinus caribaea plays a prominent part in 
the ecology of these birds, providing nesting sites, food and shade. Twice 
a bird was seen on Isla Guanaja eating parts of 2 pine cones, probably the 
immature seeds (26% protein, 2% carbohydrate, 26% fat: per Rosemarie 
Gnam). Apparently during most of the year this is their sole food source, 
although farmers reported significant damage done to various fruit trees 
when in season, a habit which unfortunately leads to persecution. Three 
nest sites of A. a. caribaea were examined, all of them in the hollow trunks 
of Pinus caribaea trees. 

Island residents report that birds start to search for suitable nest sites in 
February and March (per Spicer Wood). Dead trees are given much 
attention, including exploratory chipping in an effort to break into the 
hollow centres or to enlarge existing cavities. A clutch of 2—3 is laid in 
March or April. 

Conservation. Isla Guanaja and Barbareta still have adequate parrot 
habitat due to the low economic value of existing timber. On the larger and 
more fertile Isla Roatan (c. 1 30 km ) there has been considerable develop- 
ment for tourism and a resulting increase in human population, which has 
led to destruction of forests and so may have affected the parrot population. 
However, on all these islands the robbing of nests to provide young birds 
for the pet trade is commonplace and has had a major and far more adverse 
impact. Indeed, on Isla Guanaja (c. 56 km ), at least 60 chicks were 
collected by one individual during the 1987 season {per Spicer Wood). 

Due to the fact that young birds have little or no yellow on the nape or 
hindneck, it is fairly easy to recognize the fledglings of these birds. As was 
the case in Puerto Rico in the 1940s (Snyder et al. 1987), it seems that 
virtually 100% of the nestling parrots are taken for the pet trade despite 
the fact that these "islena" birds are legally protected against export 
under Honduran law. Since this practice frequently involves destroying 
the nest holes, the populations are likely currently to be made up mainly 
of mature birds competing for fewer nest sites. Unless action is taken 
immediately and parrot reserves recognized and protected, their future is 
greatly imperilled. 


The following individuals have been invaluable in their help with this study. Burt Monroe, 
Thomas Howell, James Loughlin, Peter Colston and William Drury. Spicer Wood of 
Guanaja was extremely helpful while we were in the field, and others who have contributed 
are: Ann Miller, Rosemarie Gnam and Sergio Andrade Garcia. I would also like to thank the 
other members of the field team, Armando S. Morales III and Sabra Ewing. 

Finally many thanks to Robert Ridgely and James Monk for reading the manuscript and 
offering many helpful comments. 


Monroe, B. L. & Howell, T. R. 1966. Geographic variation in middle American parrots of 

the Amazona ochrocephala complex. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ. 34. 
Smithe, F. B. 1975. Naturalist's color guide. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

1981. Naturalist's color guide, Part III. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

Snyder, N. F. R., Wiley, J. W. & Kepler, C. B. 1987. The parrots of Luquillo: natural history 

and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation for Vertebrate Zoology. 

Address: S. Lousada, Flag Hill Farm, P.O. Box 31, Vershire, VT 05079, USA. 
© British Ornithologists' Club 1989 

jf.M. Bates etal. 236 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Notes on bird distribution in northeastern 

Dpto. Santa Cruz, Bolivia, with 15 species 

new to Bolivia 

by John M. Bates, Mary C. Garvin, Donna C. Schmitt & 
C. Gregory Schmitt 

Received 1 1 February 1 989 
From 30 June to 12 August 1988, an expedition from the Louisiana State 
University of Natural Science (LSUMZ), in conjunction with personnel 
from the Parque Nacional Noel KempfTMercado, surveyed the avifauna 
at 3 sites in the lowland rainforest to the west of the Serrania de 
Huanchaca, Dpto. Santa Cruz, in extreme eastern Bolivia near the 
Brazilian border. The 3 sites were: (1) Los Fierros, 30 km E Aserradero 
Moira (14°30'S, 61°10'W; elev. 450 m); this area contained broken- 
canopy, lowland tropical forest averaging 30 m tall, the terrain being fiat 
and the understorey difficult to walk through because of heavy vine tangles. 
(2) Arroyo del Encanto, 30 km E Florida (14°30'S, 60°40'W; elev. 
550 m), alongside a rocky stream that flowed off the Serrania 5 km to the 
east; the forest in this hilly terrain was slightly wetter, with more epiphytic 
vegetation than the previous site and contained scattered sections of 40 m- 
tall forest. (3) The west bank of the Rio Paucerna, 4 km upstream from 
its confluence with the Rio Itenez (13°43'S, 61 H'W; elev. 450 m); the 
forest here was stunted (5-1 5 m) with large patches of bamboo along the 

We observed 15 species not previously recorded in Bolivia and 7 not 
previously recorded west of the Madiera/Guapore rivers. Fourteen of 
these species had previously been recorded as close as Cachoeira Nazare, 
Rio Ji-Parana, Rondonia, Brazil (9°44'S, 61°53'W— D. F. Stotz et al. 
unpubl. data). Prior to our work, we assumed that the western limit of 
these 'Rondonian' taxa was the Madeira/ Guapore rivers; however, our 
work suggests that some of them cross the upper Guapore where its 
reduced width constitutes less of a barrier to bird dispersal. The barrier to 
westward dispersal may be the Rio Beni or the Rio Madre de Dios to the 

The taxonomic affinities of birds in this region are important for 
understanding the zoogeography of the southern Amazon basin. 
Although geographic variation in bird populations going from east to 
west across the Madeira/Guapore rivers includes several allopatric 
species-level replacements (Pipile cujubi by P. cumanensis , Pteroglossus 
bitorquatus by P. flavirostris mariae, Selenidera maculirostris by S. 
reinwardtii, Xiphorhynchus elegans by X. spixii, Dendrocolaptes concolor 
by D. certhia and Pipra natter eri by P. coronata), other species appear to 
be undifferentiated (Northarchus tectus, Piculus flavigula and Hylophilus 
semicinereus). Initial indicators from our inventories suggest that many 
subspecies in this region were known previously only westward as far as 
the western bank of the Rio Madiera. Other important findings of our 
survey were the presence of several widespread Amazonian species 
(Leucopternis kuhli, Myrmotherula surinamensis , Formicarius colma, 

J. M. Bates et al. 237 Bull.B.O.C. 1-989 109(4) 

Ornithion inerme, Chiroxiphia pareola regina) that were only recently 
recorded for the first time in Bolivia (in Dpto. Pando — Parker & Remsen 

All specimens are housed at the LSUMZ and the Museo de Historia 
Natural 'Noel Kempff Mercado', Santa Cruz, Bolivia. In addition to 
collecting specimens, an effort was made at each locality to tape-record 
nocturnal birds, tinamous, dawn choruses and mixed-species flocks 
whenever possible. Analysis of these tapes by T. A. Parker resulted in the 
addition of 20 species to our list, including the first record for Bolivia of 
Black-girdled Barbet Capito dayii. All sound recordings are housed at the 
Library of Natural Sounds (LNS), Laboratory of Ornithology, Cornell 
University. Four locality lists, including the 3 collecting sites and species 
recorded from a boat on the Guapore river between the town of Piso 
Firme and the mouth of the Rio Paucerna, are presented in the Appendix. 
Below, are details on the species new to Bolivia and several other poorly 
known species. 

ZIGZAG HERON Zebrilus undulatus 

CGS collected a $ on 2 Aug at the edge of a shaded water-filled de- 
pression 40 m from the banks of the Rio Paucerna, only the second speci- 
men record for Bolivia; the first was collected in Dpto. Beni by Pearson 


Encountered almost daily at sites 1-2 and fairly common at site 3. The 
presence of these large gamebirds, along with numbers of Spix's Guan 
Penelope jacquafu and Spider Monkeys Ateles paniscus , suggests that de- 
spite much logging in parts of the region, little hunting has occurred. 

CRIMSON-BELLIED PARROT Pyrrhura rhodogaster 

On 14 and 17 Jul 2 specimens were collected by MCG at Arroyo del 
Encanto. Flocks of 6-15 individuals were seen daily at sites 1-2. In 
stunted forrest along the Rio Paucerna, only the smaller P. picta was 
recorded. Both species were common along Rio Ji-Parana, Rondonia 
(D. F. Stotz et al. unpubl. data). P. rhodogaster was previously known 
only from Brazil between the Madeira and Tapajos rivers (Meyer de 
Schauensee 1966). 

BAND-TAILED NIGHTHAWK Nyctiprogne leucopyga 

On the evenings of 28, 29 Jul and 1 2 Aug, up to 6 individuals were seen 
at dusk flying low over the Rio Itenez. Previously known from several 
localities in adjacent Mato Grosso, Brazil, where it is common along 
rivers in the pantanal south and west of Cuiaba, Brazil (T. A. Parker). 

BROWN JACAMAR Brachygalba lugubris 

CGS collected 4 along the banks of the Rio Paucerna from 20 m up in 
canopy adjacent to the river. The only other published Bolivian record is 
also for Santa Cruz (Sclater & Salvin 1879, Remsen & Traylor in press). 

PIED PUFFBIRD Northarchus tectus 

A <$ and $ were collected by JMB and CGS on 30 Jun and 1 Jul from 
emergent-canopy trees along a road through rainforest at Los Fierros. 
This is the southernmost record for this widespread species, which is 

J. M.Bates etal. 238 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

found throughout Amazonia, the Guianas, and southern Middle America 
(Meyer de Schauensee 1966). 


A bird was tape-recorded by JMB in the canopy of tall forest at Arroyo 
dee Encanto on 14 Jul and was later identified by T. A. Parker as this 
species. The song consisted of a series of rough, guttural notes ("groh- 
groh-groh-groh") similar to those of C. aurovirens. C. dayi was previously 
reported from central Brazil south of the Amazon in a small area at the 
headwaters of the Madeira and Tapajos rivers (Meyer de Schauensee 
1966). It was fairly common along the Rio Ji-Parana (D. F. Stotz et al. 
unpubl. data). 

RED-NECKED ARACARI Pteroglossus bitorquatus 

Fairly common at Arroyo del Encanto, where 8 specimens were col- 
lected. An individual was also seen flying over the Rio Guapore on 29 Jul, 
and another collected at site 3 on 6 Aug. Recorded once before in this area 
(Cabot et al. in press) — the first record for Bolivia. 

SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET Selenidera gouldii 

2$? and a $ were collected by JMB and CGS on 13, 17 and 18 Jul in 
hillside forest at site 2; others were heard there and at site 1, but the 
species was not recorded every day. The voice (a frog-like croaking 
"gyow-gyow-gyow") is like that of its allospecies S. reinwardtii, known 
from northern Bolivia in Dpto. Pando (Parker & Remsen 1987). Peters 
(1948) considered S. gouldii to be one of 3 subspecies of S. maculirostris. 
Haffer (1974), on the other hand, merged the 2 northern subspecies, 
S. m. hellmayri (Griscom & Greenway 1937) and S. m. gouldii to create 
S. gouldii. 


JMB and CGS collected 2 on 30 Jul and 3 Aug (LSUMZ) from low 
forest adjacent to the Rio Paucerna. This species ranges throughout the 
Amazon basin (Meyer de Schauensee 1966), being most numerous in tall 
riverine forest and less common in upland terra firme forest (T. A. 

RED-BILLED WOODCREEPER Hylexetastes perrotii 

One was netted in forest at site 1 on 3 Jul. This species and Hemitriccus 
minor (see below) both occur on both banks of the Amazon: in the north to 
the Rio Negro, and in the south between the Madeira and Tapajos rivers 
(Meyer de Schauensee 1966), being replaced to the west of the Rio 
Madeira by H. stresemanni, known in Bolivia only from Dpto. Pando 
(Parker & Remsen 1987). 

CONCOLOR WOODCREEPER Dendrocolaptes concolor 

Three were netted at site 1 on 1 Jul. A single specimen also was netted 
from upland forest along the Rio Paucerna on 1 9 Jul. This member of the 
D. certhia complex was uncommon at the Rondonia site (D. F. Stotz et al. 
unpubl. data) and was known previously only from between the Madeira 
and Tocantins rivers (Meyer de Schauensee 1966). 

ELEGANT WOODCREEPER Xiphorhynchus elegans 

Frequently netted in tall forest at sites 1 & 2, 7 specimens being 
obtained from each site. Meyer de Schauensee (1966) reported this 

Jf. M. Bates etal. 239 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

species from the Dpto. Beni, though Remsen & Traylor (in press) find no 
record to report in Bolivia, but suggest that it could occur there between 
the Beni and Guapore rivers. Our records are from the eastern edge of that 
region. The species ranges east to the Rio Tapajos in Brazil (Meyer de 
Schauensee 1966) and was common at the Rondonia site (D. F. Stotz etal. 
unpubl. data). 

SATURNINE ANTSHRIKE Thamnomanes saturninus 

Five specimens were obtained. Encountered uncommonly in forest 
undergrowth at all 3 sites, and always noted in the forest undergrowth in 
mixed-species flocks that contained woodcreepers, antwrens and fly- 
catchers. Compared with other Amazonian forests, our study sites con- 
tained few such flocks. T. saturninus is widespread south of the Amazon 
basin, from northeastern Peru east to the Rio Tocantins (Meyer de 
Schauensee 1966). 

SNETHLAGE'S TODY-TYRANT Hemitriccus minor 

Common in open forest understory at all 3 sites. Fourteen specimens 
were obtained. Like Hylexetastes perrotii (see above), Hemitriccus minor is 
found north of the Amazon to the west of the Rio Negro to southwestern 
Surinam and south of the Amazon from the Rio Jurua to the Rio 
Tocantins; it was known previously from both Rondonia and Mato 
Grosso in Brazil (Traylor 1979). 

FLAME-CROWNED MANAKIN Heterocercus linteatus 

Nine were netted in or adjacent to 3-4 m-tall bamboo in stunted forest 
along the Rio Paucerna. Considered to be rare at the Rondonia site (T. S. 
Schulenberg). Previously it was known only from Amazonian Brazil 
south of the Amazon and from one site in northeastern Peru (Snow 1979). 

SNOWY-CAPPED MANAKIN Pipra natter eri 

Captured fairly frequently in mist nets at site 1 and less frequently at 
the other 2 sites; 19 specimens were obtained. Previously, the species was 
known only from between the Madeira and Tapajos rivers (Meyer de 
Schauensee 1966). 

GRAY-CHESTED GREENLET Hylophilus semicinereus 

CGS collected a $ on 3 1 Jul from river-edge forest on the Rio Paucerna, 
where several individuals were also tape-recorded by JMB. These are the 
southernmost records of this species, which occurs throughout eastern 
Amazonia (Meyer de Schauensee 1966). 


This expedition was supported by John H. Mcllhenny, H. Irving and L. Schweppe, and Mr 
and Mrs John Hageman. For assistance in working in Bolivia we thank the Nature Conser- 
vancy's Bolivia Program, especially Carlos E. Quintela. For permission to work in Bolivia 
we are grateful to Lie. Arturo Moscoso. Field work could not have been possible without the 
enthusiastic support of Ing. Nestor Ruiz and his staff at the Parque Nacional Noel Kempff 
Mercado and Dr Enrique Quintela and his family. For assistance in the 
field we are grateful to Abel Castillo, Edilberto Guzman, and Armando Yepez. Tom S. 
Schulenburg and Doug A. Stotz shared unpublished bird records from Rondonia with us. 
Theodore A. Parker lent his expertise for identifying species tape recorded, and provided 
useful criticism to the paper, as did J. V. Remsen and K. V. Rosenberg. 

J.M.Batesetal 240 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Cabot, J., Castroviejo, J. & Urios, V. in press. Cuatro especies de aves nuevas pare Bolivia. 

Donana, Acta Vetebrata. 
Griscom, L. & Greenway, J. C. Jr 1937. Critical notes on new neotropical birds. Bull. Mus. 

Comp.Zool. 81:417-437. 
Haffer, J. 1974. Avian speciation in tropical South America. Publ. Nuttal Ornithol. Club No. 

Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1966. The Species of Birds of South America and their Distribution. 

Livingston Publ. Co. 
Parker, T. A. & Remsen, J. V. Jr. 1987. Fifty-two Amazonian bird species new to Bolivia. 

Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 107: 94-107. 
Pearson, D. L. 1975. Range extensions and new records for bird species in Ecuador, Peru, 

and Bolivia. Condor 77: 96-99. 
Peters, J. L. 1948. Checklist of Birds of the World. Vol. VI. p. 80. Harvard University Press. 
Remsen, J. V. Jr. & Traylor, M. A. 1989. An Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Bolivia. 

Buteo Books (in press). 
Sclater, P. L. & Salvin, O. 1879. On the birds collected in Bolivia by Mr C. Buckley. Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond. 1879: 588-645. 
Snow, D. W. 1979. Plpridae. Pp. 281-308, in M. A. Traylor, Jr. (ed.), Checklist of Birds of 

the World, Vol. 8. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 
Traylor, M. A., Jr 1979. Tyrannidae. Pp. 1-245, in M. A. Traylor, Jr. (ed.), Checklist of 

Birds of the World, Vol. 8. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

Address: John M. Bates, Mary C. Garvin, Donna C. Schmitt, C. Gregory Schmitt, 
Museum of Natural Science, 119 Foster Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton 
Rouge, LA 3216, 70803, USA. 

© British Ornithologists Club 1989 


The following lists are for the 3 sites in the Parque Nacional Noel Kempf Mercado de- 
scribed in the text and species seen from a boat on the Guapore river. Column 1: Los Fierros 
(14°25'S, 61°10'W); Column 2: Arroyo del Encanto (14°30'S, 60°40'W); Column 3: Rio 
Paucerna(13°43'S, 61°11'W); Column4: Rio Guapore. Relative abundances were estimated 
for all species seen at each site; R = rare, encountered only once or twice; U = uncommon, 
found in small numbers and not seen every day; FC = fairly common, encountered irregu- 
larly in numbers or a few individuals seen almost every day; C = common, several individ- 
uals encountered daily. Average weights (gm) of adult birds (M = Male, F = Female) are 
given for specimens collected; sample sizes and ranges are given in parentheses, followed by 
the standard deviation when samples were large enough. Species marked with an asterisk 
were seen but not collected. Species documented by tape-recording are indicated by a 
double asterisk. 






Body w« 

Rhea americana* 


Tinamus tao 



Crypturellus cinereus 



Crypturellus soui 




Crypturellus undulatus 




Crypturellus strigulosus** 




M, 390(1) 

Phalacrocorax olivaceus* 


Anhinga anhinga* 


Zebrilus undulatus 


F, 144(1) 

Tigrisoma lineatum 





Pilherodius pileatus 



Ardea cocoi 



Casmerodius albus* 



Bubulcus ibis* 


Egretta thula 



M, 320(1) 

Butorides striatus 



M, 190(1); F, 210(1) 

Agamia agami 


M, 700(1) 

Nycticorax nycticorax* 


Cochlearius cochlearius 


Mycteria americana* 


Jabiru mycteria* 


Mesembrinibis cayennensis* 



J. M. Bates et al. 

Chauna torquata* 
Cairina moschata* 
Coragyps atratus* 
Cathartes aura* 
Cathartes melambrotus* 
Sarcoramphus papa* 
Pandion haliaetus* 
Elanoides forticatus* 
Elanus caeruleus* 
Rosthamus sociabilis* 
Leucopternis kuhli* 
Buteogallus urubitinga* 
Busarellus nigricollis* 
Buteo magnirostris 
Spizaetus tyrannus** 
Daptrius ater* 
Daptrius americamis 
Polyborus plancus* 
Herpetotheres cachinnans* 
Micrastur gilvicollis 
Falco rufigularis 
Penelope jacquacu 
Aburria cujubi 
Crax mitu* 
Odontophorus stellatus 
A ramus guarauna* 
Aramides cajanea* 
Eurypyga helias* 
Jacana jacana* 
Vanellus cay anus 
Charadrius collaris* 
Phaetusa simplex* 
Sterna superciliaris* 
Rynchops niger* 
Columba speciosa 
Columba plumbea 
Columba subvinacea 
Claravis pretiosa 

Leptotila ruf axilla 
Geotrygon violacea 
Geotrygon montana 

Ara araruana* 
Ara macao* 
Ara chloroptera* 
Ara sever a* 
Aratinga sp* 
Pyrrhura picta 
Pyrrhura rhodogaster 
Brotogeris versicolurus 
Brotogeris cyanoptera 
Pionites leucogaster** 
Pionus menstruus 
Amazona ochrocephala 
Amazona farinosa* 
Piaya cayana 
Crotophaga major* 
Crotophaga am 
Tapera naevia 
Dromococcyx phasianellus* 
Seomorphus geoffreyi* 
Opisthocomus hoazin* 
Lophostrix cristatus** 
Otus uatsoni** 
Pulsatrix perspicillata* 
Ciccaba virgata** 
Syctibius grandis** 
.Xyctibius griseus* 
Syctiprogne leucopyga* 
Syctidromus albicollis 
Syctiphrynus ocellatus 
Hydropsalis brasiliana 
Chaetura brachyura* 
Chaetura sp* 
Glaucis hirsula 

Phaethornis hispidus 

Phaethornis (nattererij? 
Phaethornis ruber 
























Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 
Body weights (gm) 






F, 312.5(2:310,315) 







F, 695(1) 




M, 186(1); F, 240(1) 





M, 130(1); F, 200(1) 




M, 1400(1); F, 1200(1) 
















M, 190(1); F, 280(1) 





M, 174(1) 





M, 169(3:160-185)+ 14.1 




M, 63.6(6:60-68) + 3.4; 
F, 59.2(8:48-75) + 8.2 




M, 163(1) 





M,110.6(S:108-125) + 11.7; 
F, 94.7(3:83-103) + 10.4 
















M, 69(1); F, 85(1) 



M, 102(1); F, 102(1) 



M, 52.5(1); F, 68.3(1) 







M, 254(2:248,260) 





M, 340(1) 









M, 103(2:102,104); F, 119(2:104,134) 





















F, 50(1) 



M, 35(2:35,35) 


M, 58(1) 





M, 6. 7(3:6-7) + 0.6; 
F, 5.8(5:5-8) + 0.3 
M, 5. l(3:5-5.2) + 0.1; 
F,4.5(3:4-5) + 0.5 

F, 2.2(3:2-2. 5) + 0. 3 

J. M. Bates eta\. 

Florisuga mellivora* 
Anthracothorax nigricollis 
Thalurania furcata 

Hylocharis sapphirina 
Hylocharis cyanus 
Heliothryx aurita* 
Trogon melanurus 
Trogon viridis 
Trogon collaris 
Trogon violaceus** 
Momotus motmota 

Ceryle torquata* 
Chloroceryle amazona 
Chloroceryle americana 
Chloroceryle inda 
Chloroceryle aenea 
Notharchus macrorhynchos 
Notharchus tectus 
Nonnula ruficapilla 

Monasa nigrifrons 
Monasa morphoeus 

Chelidoptera tenebrosa 
Brachygalba lugubris 
Galbula dea** 
Galbula ruficauda 










































Capito dayi** 


Selenidera gouldi 



Pteroglossus inscriptus 




Pteroglossus bitorquatus 



Pteroglossus castanotis 


Ramphastos vitellinus* 




Ramphastos tucanus 




Picumnus aurifrons 



Melanerpes cruentatus 




Veniliornis affinis 




Piculus flavigula 


Piculus chrysochloros 



Celeus flavus** 


Celeus torquatus 



Campephilus rubricollis 




Dendrocincla fuliginosa 




Dendrocincla merula 




Glyphorynchus spirurus 




Nasica longirostris** 


Hylexetastes perrotii 


Dendrocolaptes concolor 


Xiphorhynchus picus 


Xiphorhynchus obsoletus 




Xiphorhynchus elegans 




Xiphorhynchus guttatus 




Lepidocolaptes albolineatus 


Synallaxis gujanensis* 


Synallaxis rutilans 




Philydor pyrrhodes 


Automolus ochrolaemus 



Xenops minutus 




Sclerurus rufigularis 



Tar aba major 


Thamnophilus aethiops 




Thamnophilus schistaceus 




Thamnophilus amazonicus 




Pygiptila stellaris 


Thamnomanes saturninus 




Myrmotherula brachyura** 


Myrmotherula surinamensis 


Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 
Body weights (gm) 

M, 7(1); F, 7(1) 

M, 4(3:4-4); 

F, 4.0(3:3.5-4.5)±0.5 

M, 5(1) 

M, 3.7(3:3.5^*)±0.3;F,4(1) 

M, 107(2:100,114); F, 118(1) 

M, 88(1) 

M, 107.5(2:104,111); 
F, 102.5(4:98-110)±5.2 

F,l 19.5(2) 
M, 29(1); F, 30.2(3) 
M, 55(1); F, 62.5(2:60,65) 
M, 13(1); F, 14(1) 
M, 110(1); F, 129(1) 
M,40(1);F, 40(1) 
M, 15(3:15-15)10.0; 
F, 15.7(6:14-17)11.3 
M, 69.6(4:67-74.5) + 3.4; F, 80(1 ) 
M, 82(4:80-84)1 1.6; 
F, 87.7(5:81-92)18.1 
FC M, 37(1); F, 41.5(2:41,42) 
F, 19.3(3:17-23)13.2 

U M, 21. 5(2:21, 22); F, 22(1) 

M, 172(1); F, 180(2:172,188) 

M, 126(1); 

F, 122.3(3:116-126)15.5 
R M, 146(6:131-171)116.0; 

F, 149(3:136-162)113.0 

M, 268(1) 

M, 285(2:285,285) 

M, 9(2:9,9); F, 9.5(2:9.5-9.5) 

M, 65.8(2:65,66. 5); F, 60(1) 

M, 37.3(3); F, 40(2) 

M, 62.3(2:63-71.5) 

M, 74(1); F, 84(1) 

M, 131.5(2:128,135) 
M, 232(1); F, 200(1) 
M, 34.9(18:30-39)12.8; 
F, 33.1(7:27-41)±S.l 
M, 41.3(6:34.5^15)13.7; 
F, 37.8(4:29^11)15.6 
M, 13.6(19:12-17)12.6; 
F, 13.5(6:12.5-15.5)11.7 

F, 118(1) 

M, 66(1); F, 71(1) 

M, 36(2:35-37); F, 34(1) 

M, 30(3:29-32)1 1.7; 

F, 28.9(4:25-36)14.9 

M, 34.5(8:31-38)12.0; 

F, 30.4(5:29-33)11.7 

M, 64.3(3:60-69)14.5; 

F, 63(2:59,67) 

F, 22.5(2:22,23) 

M, 16.8(7:15-19)11.4; 

F, 15.3(3:15-16)10.6 

F, 24.5(1) 

M, 32.8(4:30-37)10. 3; F, 30(1) 

M, 11.9(4:11. 5-13)10.8; F, 11.3(2) 

M, 52.3(3:51-54)11.5; 

M, 23.2(7,22-25.5)13.1; 

F, 23.1(3:20-26)13.1 

M, 18.3(3:18-19);10.6; 

F, 17.9(5:17-19.5)11.0 

M, 19.4(7:14-22)13.0; 

F, 18.1(5:16-19)11.2 

M, 23(1); F, 22(1) 

M, 20.0(2:19,21); F, 20(2:18,22) 

M, 8.3(3:8-9) 10.6; F, 8(1) 

jf. M. Bates et al. 

Myrmotherula hauxteelli 
Myrmotherula leucopthalma 
Myrmotherula axillaris 

Myrmotherula menetriesii 
Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus* 
Cercomacra cinerascens 
Cercomacra nigrescens 

Pyroglena leuconota 
Myrmoborus leucophrys 
Hypocnemis cantator 

Hypocnemoides maculicauda 

Sclateria naevia 
\Iyrmeciza hemimelaena 

Hylophylax punctulata 
Hylophylax poecilonota 

Phlegopsis nigromaculata 

Formicarius colma 
Zimmerius gracilpes* 
Tyrannulus elatus 
Ornithion inerme* 
Camptostoma obsoletum* 
Sublegatus modestus 
Myiopagus gaimardii 
Myiopagus viridicata 
Elaenia flavogaster 
Elaenia parvirostris 
Inezia inornata 
Inezia subflava 
Euscarthmus melacoryphus 
Mionectes oleagineus 

Leptopogon amaurocephalus 

Corythopis torquata 

Myiornis ecaudatus* 
Hemitriccus minor 
Hemitriccus flammulatus 
Hemitriccus striaticollis 
Ramphotrigon ruficauda 
Tolmomyias assimilis 
Onychorhynchus coronatus 
Terenotriccus erythrurus 
Lathrotriccus euleri 
Cnemotriccus fuscatus 
Pyrocephalus rubinus 
Hirudinea ferruginea 
Attila bolivianus 
Attila spadiceus 
Casiornis rufa 
Rhytipterna simplex 
Laniocera hypopyrrha 
Myiarchus tuberculifer* 
Myiarchus swainsoni** 
Myiarchus tyrannulus 

Pitangus lictor* 
Pitangus sulphuratus 
Megarhynchus pitangua 

Myiozetetes cayanensis 
Myiodynastes maculatus 
Tyrannus melancholicus* 
Pachyramphus viridis 
Pachyramphus polychopterus 
Pachyramphus minor 
Pachyramphus validus 
Tityra cayana 
Schiffornis turdinus 

Heterocercus linteatus 





























































































































Bull.B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 
Body weights (gm) 

M, 10(2:9,1 1);F, 9.9(4:9. 5-11. 5)± 1.1 
M, 12.2(3:10-16)±3.3; F, 10.0(2:9,11) 
M, 7.9(4:6. 5-8.5)±0.9; 
F, 7.3(4:6.5-8)±0.6 
M, 9(2:9,9) 

M, 17.2(2:16,18.4) 

M, 18.9(6:17-20)±1.2; 

F, 19.8(10:15-25)±4.5 

M, 29.5(2:29,30); F, 28(2:28,28) 

M, 19(1) 

M, 12.8(7:11-15)11.3; 

F, 12.3(8:11-14) + 1.2 

M, 12.5(3:12-13)10.5; 

F, 13(2:13,13) 

M, 20(1); F, 20(6:18-2O.5)±1.3 


F, 13.8(12)±0.6 

M, 16.5(6:15.5-18)11.5; 

F, 17.0(6:14.5-18)11.5 

M, 12(3:12-12)10.0; F, 13(2:13,13) 

M, 17.3(12:15.5-20)11.5; 

F, 18.5(18:16-21)11.7 

M, 46(3:43^8)12.6; 

F, 44.8(4:42^17)1 2.2 


M, 11.5(1) 

M, 10.6(3:9-12)11.4; F, 11(1) 

M, 11.3(2:10.5,12) 

M, 24(1); F, 22(1) 

M, 17(1) 

F, 6.5(4:6-7)10.4 
M, 11.2(8:10-12)10.7; 
F, 10.8(6:8.5-12)11.5 
M, 11.5(6:10-13.5)11.5; 
F, 10.1(4:9-11.5)11.3 
M, 14.9(9:13-17.5)11.3; 
F, 13.7(3:13-15)11.2 

M, 7.4(12:6.5-8)10.6; F, 7.3(2:6.5,8) 

M, 9.5(1); F, 9(1) 


F, 18.3(4:17-20)11.5 

M, 17.3(2:17,17.5) 

M, 14(1); F, 11.5(1) 

M, 7.8(1) 

M, 9(1); F, 9.5(2:9,10) 

M, 12(7); F, 10.8(10) 

M, 12.3(2:12,12.5); F, 13(1) 

M, 28(1) 

F, 35(1) 

M, 31(1); F, 35.7(3:35-36)10.6 

M, 20.9(5:19-23.5)11.7; F, 20(2:19,21) 

F, 32.5(1) 

M, 43(2:43,43); F, 42(1) 

M, 26.7(5:26-28)10.7; 
F, 27.1(4:25.5-30)12.0 

M, 53(1); F, 53.8(2:53,54.5) 
M, 62.5(3:56-69)16.5; 
F, 61.2(3:58-67)15.1 
M, 30(1) 
M, 45.5(1); F, 47(1) 

M, 18(1) 

M, 39.5(2:39,40) 

M, 38(1) 

M, 78(1); F, 76(1) 

M, 29.8(10:27-31.5)11.5; 

F, 29.7(5:27-34.5)12.8 

M, 22(4:21-22.5)10.7; 

F, 22(4:21-24)11.4 

J. M. Bates etal. 

Seopelma suphureiventer 
Macheropterus pyrocephalus 

Manacus manacus 
Chiroxiphia pareola 
Pipra nattereri 

Pipra rubrocapilla 

Lipaugus vociferans 
Gymnoderus foetidus 
Cephalopterus ornatus 
Tachycineta albiventer 
Progne tapera* 
Atticora fascia ta 
Stegidopteryx ruficollis 
Thryothorus genibarbis 
Thryothorus guarayanus 
Donacobius atrocapillus 
Turdus amaurochalinus 
Turdus fumigatus 
Turdus albicollis 
Ramphocaenus melanurus 
Cyclarhis gujanensis 
Vireo olivaceus 
Hylophilus thoracicus** 
Hylophilus hypoxanthus** 
Hylophilus semicinerius 
Ammodramus humeralis 
Sporophila schistacea 
Sporophila sp. 
Arremon taciturnus 
Coryphospingus cucullatus 
Paroaria gularis 
Saltator maximus 

Cyanocompsa cyanoides 

Schistoclamys melanopsis 
Thlypopsis sordida* 
Hemithraupis guira 
Hemithraupis ftavicollis 
Eucometis penicillata 

Tachyphonus cristatus 
Tachyphonus luctuosus 
Habia rubica 
Ramphocoelus carbo 

Thraupis sayaca 
Thraupis palmarum 
Euphonia chlorotica** 
Euphonia laniirostris 
Euphonia musica 
Euphonia chrysopasta 
Euphonia minuta 
Euphonia mesochrysa 
Euphonia rufiventris 
Tangara mexicana 
Tangara chilensis 
Tangara gyrola 
Tangara nigrocincta 
Dacnis lineata 
Dacnis cayana 
Chlorophanes spiza 
Cyanerpes cyaneus 
Tersina viridis 
Pnrula pitiayumi* 
Granatellus pelzelni** 
Basileuterus culicivorus 
Phaeothlypis rivularis 
Conirostrum speciosum* 
Psarcolius decumanus* 
Psarcolius yuracares 
Cacicus cela 


BuIl.B.O.C. 1989 109(' 






Body weights (gm) 

M, 18(2); F, 13.7(2) 



M, 8.7(15:8-9. 5) + 0.5; 
F,8.7(17:8-10) + 0.7 




F, 14.3(2:13.5,15) 


F, 20(1) 




M, 7.8(6:7-9) + 0.8; F, 8. 6(9:8-9. 5) + 0.6 




M, 15.7(12:14-17)4-0.8; 

F, 15.7(35:14-19)+ 1.3 




M, 12.8(ll:12-14) + 0.7; 
F, 13.2(13:12-15)4-0.8 




M, 86.3(3:85-89) 4- 2.3 




F, 230(3:222-238)4-8.0 




F, 440(1) 



M, 17(1); F, 17(1) 





M, 15.4(4:14.5-17)4-1.1 




M, 18.8(2:18,19.5); F, 16.5(3:16-17)4-0.5 
M,13(1);F, 14(1) 





M, 64(2:63,65); F, 62.5(2:62,63) 




M, 47(1); F, 43(1) 
M, 9.5(1) 



M, 27(1); F, 28(1) 




M, 13.3(3:12-15)±1.5;F, 12(1) 






M, 16(1) 



M, 12.3(4:12-13)±0.5 


F, 22(1) 


M, 15(1); F, 13.5(1) 



M, 25.5(1) 



M, 43.4(7:39^6)4-5.6; 
F, 39.7(7:30-^3.5)4-4.6 




M, 26.1(4:25-27)4-0.8; 
F, 24.2(4:22-29)4-3.3 





M, 12.3(2:12,12.5) 



M, 13(1); F, 16(1) 




M, 25.3(5:22.5-27)4-1.7; 
F, 27.8(2:25,30) 




M, 18.5(1); F, 20(1) 




M, 12.5(1) 

M, 34.5(2:33,36); F, 35.5(1) 




M, 24.5(8:23-27)4-1.5; 
F, 22.6(5:22-23)4-0.6 




M, 29.3(2:27,31.5) 




M, 16.3(2:16.0,16.5) 
M, 13(1) 





M, 16(3:15-16.5)4-0.5; F, 14(1) 
M,8.8(3:8-10)±1;F, 10(1) 


M, 15(1) 




M, 20(1); F, 19.8(2:19.5,20) 




M, 21.8(3:20-23)4- 1.6; F, 19.5(2:18,21) 




M, 17.8(4:17.5-19)4-0.3 



M, 15(2:15,15) 



M, 12.5; F, 11(1) 




M, 14.5(6:14-16)4-0.8; F, 16.5(2:15,18) 





M, 17.3(3:16-19)4-1.6 

M, 10(1) 

M, 26(2:26, 26); F, 29(1) 






M, 9.3(2:9.0,9.5) 


M, 9. 3(3:9.0-9. 5)±0.4; F, 7.9(4:7-8.5)±0.6 




M, 430(1) 



M, 102(1) 

Books Received 245 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 


Vincent, J. 1989. Web of Experience. An autobiography. Pp. 365. Photographs, 2 Appendices 
and Index. Privately printed. Obtainable from the author, Col. Jack Vincent, PO Box 44, 
Mooi River, 3300 South Africa. Hardback £7.50, soft cover £6.50; surface mail free, 
airmail £5 extra. 

Colonel Jack Vincent, aged 85, Corresponding and later Honorary Life Member of the 
British Ornithologists' Union, has written an autobiography that is well titled "A Web of 
Experience" as it covers a varied and outstandingly successful life in many fields. Farming in 
Sussex and Natal; collecting birds for the British Museum and for Admiral Lynes; running a 
highly successful clove processing plant in Zanzibar; soldiering in East Africa and the 
Middle East; building up and developing the Natal game reserves, including pioneering the 
use of tranquillising darts for capturing white rhino; working worldwide for the ICBP from 

The author's interest in birds and all forms of animal life runs through every chapter, but 
of outstanding interest to ornithologists are those describing his field trips with Admiral 
Lynes in search of cisticolas required for the proposed Supplement to the 1930 Monograph. 
Lynes could hardly have found a more perfect assistant — a young man who was equally 
uncompromising in the pursuit of excellence and who shared his dedication to the task in 
hand (much of which entailed unpleasant wet season travel on bush roads), characteristics 
which reappear constantly throughout Jack Vincent's long life. It was a tragic loss to the bird 
world that Lynes died during the last war before the Supplement could be completed and 
that his notes, bequeathed to his assistant, were controversially never found. 

Older ornithologists will meet many friends and familiar names in these pages; younger 
readers will have an introduction to a naturalist and colonist of the old school. All will find 
the book intriguing and packed with amusing and revealing anecdotes. Their enjoyment will 
be enhanced if they have access to copies of past Ibis which contain the scientific papers and 
maps of the collecting trips or if they can see the immaculate skins and labels in the BMNH. 

Giraudoux, P., Degauquier, R., Jones, P. J., Weigel, J. & Isenmann, P. 1988. Avifaune du 
Niger : etat des connaissances en 1986. Pp. 140. Malimbus 10(1) June. Price £5 or 60FFr. 
(Available from Dr H. Q. P. Crick, BTO, Beech Grove, Tring, Herts, HP23 5NR, or Dr 
G. J. Morel, route de Sallenelles, Breville-les-Monts, 14860 Ranville, France.) 
This special issue of the Journal of the West African Ornithological Society is a compre- 
hensive annotated check-list of the birds of Niger. It is wholly in French, but the birds are 
also given their English names. A map shows the 9 ecological zones used in the distribution 
of each species, and these are described in 2 pages. The bibliography contains 52 entries and 
there is a (essential) gazetteer. 

Goodman, S. M. & Meininger, P. L. (Eds) 1989. The Birds of Egypt. Pp. xxi + 551. 6 
coloured plates; photographs, graphics, breeding and locality maps. Oxford University 
Press. Hardback. 25 x 19 cm. £7000. 

This expensive, attractively produced and well researched book will undoubtedly be the 
main source by which to judge the Egyptian avifauna for the next several decades. An 
explanatory and historical introduction is followed by sections on the geographical environ- 
ments, conservation, bird hunting and responses to changing habitats. The bulk of the book 
deals comprehensively and in detail with those species which are considered as having 
definitely occurred in Egypt, in systematic order. Each species is given its local names in 
Arabic and transliterated. There are 5 inch square maps of breeding distribution, while the 
text mainly concentrates on distribution details and breeding data. All ringing data are given 
when known. There is a long gazetteer, 70 figures/photographs, and 27 pages of references. 
The colour plates, by Sherif M. Baha el Din, include 41 species in good likenesses. An 
important addition to Middle East avifaunal literature. 

Pennycuick, C.J. 1989. Bird Flight Performance. A practical calculation manual. Pp. x + 153. 

Many figures, several photographs and diagrams, and an IBM-compatible computer disc. 

Oxford University Press Hardback. 24 x 16 cm. £25. 

The author, well known for his erudite studies of bird flight, has produced this special- 
ised manual, written with avoidance of too much jargon, with a view to "apply elementary 
aeronautics to birds' problems, and at the same time to avoid letting the discussion degener- 
ate into an arcane form of witchcraft, accessible only to high priests with supercomputers". 
The book is a distillation of ideas and knowledge gained over many pioneering years. 

Books Received 246 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Johnsgard, P. A. 1989. North American Owls. Biology and natural history. Pp. 295. 

23 coloured plates; 10 watercolours by L. A. Fuertes; line drawings; 52 figures and 

maps. Smithsonian Institution Press (Eurospan Group of Publishers, Covent Garden, 

London). Hardback. 26 x 18 cm. £32-50. 

The author, already rightly well known for several monographs of North American bird 
families (including the hummingbirds), has here turned his attention to the owl species 
which breed north of Mexico. The first part of the book deals with the comparative biology 
of owls, including evolution, ecology, morphology and physiology, behaviour, reproductive 
biology, and lastly owls in myth and legend. Part 2 deals with the natural history of 19 
species and their distribution. In 3 appendices there are keys to genera and species and to 
structural variation in the external ears of the group; description of calls, with diagrammatic 
sonograms; and the origins of the species' scientific and vernacular names. A glossary 
occupies 15 and the references 19 pages. The watercolours of Fuertes are an additional 
attraction to a well produced and expertly researched monograph. 

Turner, A. &Rose, C. 1989 . A Handbook to the Swallows and Martins of the World. Pp. viii + 
258. 24 colour plates; 74 maps. Christopher Helm. Hardback. 24 x 15 cm. £19-95. 
The introductory sections of this monograph (the first review it is extravagantly claimed by 
the publishers since Bowdler Sharpe & Wyatt's 1 885-1 894 monograph of the Hirundinidae) 
cover briefly the morphology and plumage, classification, distribution and migration, food 
and foraging, behaviour, breeding population and conservation of 74 species. Each is then 
dealt with in detail under the same headings and additionally under voice, measurements 
and subspecies. There are 21 pages of references. Chris Rose's illustrations appear accurate 
and are nicely drawn. The text reveals the considerable research the author must have done 
on this family both for her doctorate and since. 

Bundy, G., Connor, R. J. & Harrison, C. J. O. 1989. Birds of the Eastern Province of Saudi 
Arabia. Pp. 224. Profusely illustrated in colour. Witherby (in association with Saudi 
Aramco). Hardback. 28 x 22 cm. £3500. 

A sumptuous production with some lovely coloured photographs by G. K. Brown, A. L. 
Litke and B. Stanaland illustrating well over 300 species confidently recognised as having 
occurred in this arbitrary division of the Arabian Peninsula; only rare visitors are likely to be 
added to the list in the future. Introductory sections deal with topography and landscape, 
climate, vegetation, and the origins of the avifauna of the Eastern Province since the Mio- 
cene. Further discussion centres on adaptations of birds to harsh desert and other biotopes, 
habitats, migration, and on man's impact and predation and the resulting changes. The 
systematic section follows, dealing mainly with distribution and abundance and with breed- 
ing data (if any). There is a full status list of species in one Appendix and of passage migrants 
in another. The references are under different headings and there is a gazetteer. The 
coloured illustrations and colours are up to the high standard expected in this type of 
eye-catching production, but should not be allowed to distract from an informed text. 

Dunning, J. S. 1989. South American Birds. A photographic aid to identification. Pp. xvi + 
351. Over 1400 colour photographs. Harewood Books, PA. 23x15 cm. Paperback 
$35-00, hardback $47-50. 

The author sadly died on 31 December 1987 at the age of 81 before he had seen the 
completion of this book, a culmination of his 25 years photographing wild birds which he 
had caught and then placed in tents on the spot together with their natural habitat's veg- 
etation, there to photograph them from outside the tent when they had settled down. The 
book follows up his 1982 South American Land Birds, and has again been finalised by Robert 
S. Ridgely, who has created the distribution maps and compiled identification information 
for the text. Some 2700 species of inland land and water birds are described. The 1400 
photographs illustrate 1352 species and though the photos are only 4 x 4 cm or less, their 
clarity is surprisingly adequate. 

Meyburg, B.-U. & Chancellor, R. D. (Eds.) 1989. Raptors in the Modern World. Pp. 611. 

Line drawings and diagrams. WWGBP. Soft covers. 23 x 16 cm. No price. 

These are the Proceedings of the III World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls held at 
Eilat, Israel, 22-27 March 1 987, attended by nearly 400 participants from 30 countries and 5 
continents. The 9 parts cover migration, population biology and breeding conservation, the 
migration and wintering of rare raptors and rare owls, pollution of their environments, 
habitat analysis, promotion of legislation and education. The text ends with the resolutions 
passed at the ICBP meetings held there at the same time. 

Books Received 247 Bull. B.O.C. 1989 109(4) 

Stroud, D. A. (Ed.) 1989. Birds on Coll and Tiree. Status, habitats and conservation. Pp. 191. 

Photocopy photographs, drawings. Scottish Ornithologists' Club/Nature Conservancy 

Council, Edinburgh. Soft covers. £6-50. 

A useful descriptive survey of 2 Inner Hebridean Islands covering their habitats available 
to birds, the agriculture, a study of the distribution of breeding waders, waterfowl and sea 
birds, as well as wintering coastal waders and wildfowl. The survey is in response to a 
possibility of the islands being affected by agricultural intensification and drainage as the 
result of an ECC grant-aided Agricultural Development Programme. Such research epit- 
omises the conflicting choices between improving human living standards and conserving 
diminishing natural unspoiled habitats. 

Nelson, B. 1989. The Gannet. 

Tate, P. 1989. The Nightjar. 

Taylor, I. R. 1989. The Barn Owl. 

Garcia, E. 1989. The Blackcap and the Garden Warbler. 

Simms, E. 1989. The Song Thrush. 

All Pp. 24 with many coloured and black-and-white photographs. Shire Publications. 

£1-95. Soft covers. 15 x 21 cm. 

The latest 5 accounts in this excellent series by well-chosen experts. Bryan Nelson has 
written the authoritative tome on The Sulidae (1 978); Peter Tate was born within earshot of 
the East Anglian nightjars; Iain Taylor is involved in a long-term ecological study of Barn 
Owls in southern Scotland; Ernest Garcia attained his DPhil in studying inter-specific 
territoriality between Blackcaps and Garden Warblers; and Eric Sims, well known on BBC 
radio and TV, gained his knowledge of the Song Thrush during 29 years' study of London 
suburban wildlife. Beautifully illustrated and lucidly written for the intelligent and inter- 
ested budding ornithologist, these booklets and the others in the series are to be strongly 


Papers, from Club Members or non-members, should be sent to the Editor, 
Dr J. F. Monk, The Glebe Cottage, Goring, Reading RG8 9AP, and are 
accepted on the understanding that they are offered solely to the Bulletin. 
They should be typed on one side of the paper, with treble-spacing and a 
wide margin, and submitted with a duplicate copy on airmail paper . Scien- 
tific nomenclature and the style and lay-out of papers and of References 
should conform with usage in this or recent issues of the Bulletin. Inform- 
ants of unpublished observations should be cited by initials and name only, 
e.g. ". . .of grass (C.Deiter)", but "P. Wee informs me that. . .".A limited 
number of photographic illustrations in black-and-white may be pub- 
lished annually at the Editor's discretion. Authors are requested to give 
their title, initials, name and full address (in the form they wish to be 
corresponded with) at the end of the paper. 

An author wishing to introduce a new name or describe a new form 
should append nom., gen., sp. or subsp. nov., as appropriate, and set out 
the supporting evidence under the headings "Description", "Distri- 
bution", "Type", "Measurements of Type" and "Material examined", 

plus any others needed. 

A contributor is entitled to 10 free offprints of the pages of the Bulletin in which his 
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contributions of less than one page may be ordered when the manuscript is submitted and will 
be charged for. Authors may be charged for proof corrections for which they are responsible. 


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Correspondence about Club meetings and other matters not mentioned 
above should go to the Hon. Secretary, Mrs A. M. Moore, 1 Uppingham 
Road, Oakham, Rutland LEI 5 6JB. 




D. rinke. The relationships and taxonomy of the Fijian parrot 

genus Prosopeia 185 

B. massa. Comments on Passer italiae (Vieillot 1817) 196 

c. j. feare & y. mungroo. Notes on the House Crow Corvus splen- 

dens in Mauritius 199 

s. l. olson. Notes on some Hawaiian birds from Cook's third 

voyage 201 

d. t. holyoak & m. b. seddon. Distributional notes on the birds of 

Burkina Faso 205 

M. louette. Additions and corrections to the avifauna of Zaire (4) 217 
p. a. clancey. The status of Streptopelia capicola onguati 

Macdonald, 1957 225 

p. a. clancey. Subspeciation in the Sociable Weaver Philetairus 

socius of the South West Arid Zone of Africa 228 

S. lousada. Amazona auropalliata caribaea: a new subspecies of 

parrot from the Bay Islands, Northern Honduras 232 


Notes on bird distribution in northeastern Dpto. Santa Cruz, 
Bolivia, with 15 species new to Bolivia 236 


The Bulletin is now being sent by Bulk Air Mail to all European destinations outside the 
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their copies despatched by surface mail, after their current subscription has been paid. 


R. E. F. Peal (Chairman) (1989) J. H. Elgood (V ice-Chairman) (1989) 

Dr J. F. Monk (Editor) (1975) Mrs D. M. Bradley (Hon. Treasurer) 

Mrs A. M. Moore (Hon. Secretary) (1989) (1978) 

R. H. Kettle (1988) N. H. F. Stone (1986) 

D. Griffin (1989) S. J. Farnsworth (1989) 

Published by the BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB and printed by 
Henry Ling Ltd., at the Dorset Press, Dorchester, Dorset 




of the 




Volume 109 


Volume 109 contains 247 pages, more pages than it has been possible to 
make available in any previous ordinary year. This is due both to the 
healthy financial state of the Club and to the wealth of submissions of 
papers for publication. The editor is glad to acknowledge the standard 
that authors set themselves prior to sending in a paper, though it isn't 
everyone that quite succeeds in this attainment. In every case submissions 
have been welcomed, and it is hoped that, even when rejecting papers, the 
editor has not been too disagreeable to any author. To quote R. E. Moreau 
(E. African Agric.jf. 1947, 12(3): 171-175— and still well worth reading): 
— 'You are at liberty to ascribe the strength of my prejudices to "senile 
obstinacy that seems like mellow wisdom to its possessor".' 

Some 45% of the papers in this issue were related to systematics and 
nomenclature involving museum work. Regrettably, no good news has 
come from the Sub-Deptof Ornithology of the BMNH in 1989. Research 
is having to defer it seems to spectacle and 'fun education'. The aim of 
the policy must be, one hopes, to raise public interest and funds, but 
meanwhile ornithology must wilt and wait. One can but wonder for how 

As in all previous years, I am pleased to thank referees for their 
welcome and ready criticisms and advice, John Elgood for his continued 
compilation of the indices and the Hon Secretary and Hon Treasurer for 
their attentions to the membership list. Our printers, Henry Ling at The 
Dorset Press, under the guidance of Mr Frank Hemmings this year, have 
continued their good work, even earning rarely proffered gratuitous 
praise from authors for the cleanliness of their proofs, praise which the 
editor is glad to echo. 

J. F. Monk (Editor) 


page 5, Bush Steppe, line 8: temminckii not temininckii 

page 48, Title: Goodman & Gonzales. For 12 read 13 

page 66, penultimate line: 20°40'S not 28°40'S 

page 67, line 19: Euphorbia not Euforbia 

page 103, line 23: T. libonyanus not libonyana 

page 127, line 27: T. ochropus not T. ocrophus 

page 144, line 19: COELIGENA not COELIGINIA 

page 146, Appendix 1, line 12: chimachima not chimchima 

page 146, Appendix 1, line 19: Actitis not Actitus 

page 146, Appendix 1, line 21: Margarornis not Mar gerornis 

page 146, Appendix 1 1st column, 2nd from foot: Coeligena not Coeliginia 

page 147, 6 lines from foot: O. leucorhoa not O. leucorrhoa 

page 186, line 13: Psittrichas not Psittichr as 

page 193, line 29: vanikorensis not vanicorensis 



P.L.Sclater 1892-1913 

Lord Rothschild 1913-1918 

W. L. Sclater 1918-1924 

H. F. Witherby 1 924-1 927 

DrP. R. Lowe 1927-1930 

Maj. S. S. Flower 1930-1932 

Dr D. A. Bannerman 1932-1935 

G. M. Mathews 1935-1938 
Dr A. Landsborough 

Thomson 1938-1943 

D. Seth-Smith 1943-1946 

DrJ. M.Harrison 1946-1950 
Sir Philip Manson-Bahr 1950-1953 

Col. R. Meinertzhagen 1953-1956 

C. W. Mackworth-Praed 1956-1959 
Capt. C. R. S. Pitman 1959-1962 
Maj. -Gen. C. B. Wainwright 1962-1965 
R. S. R. Fitter 1965-1968 
DrJ.F. Monk 1968-1971 
Sir Hugh Elliott 1 971-1 974 
J. H. Elgood 1974-1977 
P. Hogg 1977-1980 

D. R. Calder 1980-1983 
B.Gray 1983-1986 
Revd G. K. McCulloch 1986-1989 
R. E. F. Peal 1989- 


Lord Rothschild 1930-1931 

W. L. Sclater 1931-1932 

H. F. Witherby 1932-1933 

G.M.Mathews 1933-1934 

N. B. Kinnear 1934-1935 

H. Whistler 1935-1936 

D. Seth-Smith 1936-1937 

Col. R. Sparrow 1937-1938 

Dr G. Carmichael Low 1938-1939 

Hon. Guy Charteris 1938-1939 

W. L. Sclater 1939-1940 

Dr D. A. Bannerman 1939-1940 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant 1940-1943 

B . W. Tucker 1 940-1 943 
F. J. F. Barrington 1943-1945 
Dr E. Hopkinson 1 943-1 945 

C . W. Mackworth-Praed 1 945-1 946 
DrJ.M. H.arrison 1945-1946 
Sir Philip Manson-Bahr 1 946-1 947 

B. G. Harrison 1 946-1 947 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison 1947-1948 

Miss E. M. Godman 1947-1948 

Col. R. Meinertzhagen 1 948-1 949 

Maj. A. G. L. Sladen 1948-1949 

Col. R. Meinertzhagen 1949-1953 

E.M.Nicholson 1953-1956 

Capt. C. R. S. Pitman 1956-1959 

Mrs B.P.Hall 1959-1962 

R. S. R. Fitter 1962-1965 

DrJ. F. Monk 1965-1968 

Sir Hugh Elliott 1968-1971 

J. H. Elgood 1971-1974 

P.Hogg 1974-1977 

DrG. Beven 1977-1980 

B.Gray 1980-1983 

Revd G. K. McCulloch 1 983-1 986 

D. Griffin 1986-1989 

J. H. Elgood 1989 


R. Bowdler-Sharpe 1892-1904 

W. R. Ogilvie-Grant 1904-1914 

DrD. A. Bannerman 1914-1915 

D. Seth-Smith 1915-1920 

Dr P. R.Lowe 1920-1925 

X. B. Kinnear 1925-1930 

Dr G. Carmichael-Low 1930-1935 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant 1935-1940 

Dr G. Carmichael Low 1 940-1 945 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison 1 945-1 947 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant 1 947-1 952 

Dr J. G. Harrison 1952-1961 

J.J.Yealland 1962-1969 

C.W.Benson 1969-1974 

Sir Hugh Elliott 1 974-1 975 

DrJ.F. Monk 1976- 

Honorary Secretaries and Treasurers 

Howard Saunders 1892-1899 

W. E. De Winton 1 899-1 904 

H. F. Witherby 1904-1914 

DrP. R.Lowe 1914-1915 

C. G. Talbot-Ponsonby 1915-1918 

DrD. A. Bannerman 1918-1919 

Dr Philip Gosse 1 9 1 9-1 920 

J. L. Bonhote 1920-1922 

C. W. Mackworth-Praed 1 922-1 923 

Dr G. Carmichael Low 1923-1929 

C. W. Mackworth-Praed 1929-1935 

Honorary Secretaries 

Dr A. Landsborough 

Thomson 1935-1938 

C. R. Stonor 1938-1940 

N. B. Kinnear 1940-1943 

Dr G. Carmichael Low 1 943-1 945 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison 1945-1947 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant 1947 

W. E. Glegg 1947-1949 
Miss G. M. Rhodes 1950 

N. J.P. Wadley 
Miss E. Forster 
Dr J. G. Harrison 

C. J. O. Harrison 
M. W. Woodcock 

D. R. Calder 
R. E. F. Peal 
Mrs A. M. Moore 


Honorary Treasurers 

C. W. Mackworth-Praed 1935-1936 

Maj.A. G. L. Sladen 1936-1942 

Miss E. P. Leach 1 942-1 949 

C.N.Walter 1950-1962 

P. Tate 
M.St. J.Sugg 
Mrs D. M. Bradley 



Elected 9 May 1989 

R. E. F. PEAL Chairman (1989) 
Dr J. F. MONK Editor (1976) 
Mrs A. M. MOORE Hon. Secretary 

N. H. F. STONE (1986) 
D. GRIFFIN (1989) 

J. H. ELGOOD Vice-Chairman (1989) 
Mrs D. M. BRADLEY Hon. Treasurer 

R. H. KETTLE (1988) 
S. J. FARNSWORTH (1989) 


New Members 

G. Allport 

Dr M. Al-Safadi 

J. M. Bates 

B. H. Beck 

P. R. Boardman 

Dr K. B. Briggs 

P. J. Bull 

A. P. E. Cain 
M. C. A. Clarke 

B. Coleman 
J. K. Cross 

M. C. Edwards 
J. H. Elphick 
W. A. Franks 
N. J. Gay 

C. D. B. Gibbons 
A. Greensmith 

Dr A. Gretton 
C. Helm 
M. C. Higgins 
A. Hill 

W. Hoogendoorn 
W. C. P. Johnson 
J. P. Johnston 
R. S. Kennedy 
Kimiya Koga 
Dr P. C. Lack 
Laurence of Mar 
R.J. W. Ledgerton 

C. R. Lind 
J. Lovell 

N. S. Malcolm 
P. Maskell 

D. B. Massie 

B. S. Meadows 

Mons. X. Monbailliu 

Dr G. Morel 

W. Morris 

R. Morrow 

N. J. Musgrove 

Mons. G. Olioso 

A. Onrubia-Baticon 

D. E. M. Peart 

Dr R. Perera 

R. Perron 

M. Pesente 

S. E. Piper 

Pere Prats-Trinidad 

Dr R. P. Prys-Jones 

A. Randall 

J. E. Richardson 

D. Roberts 

I. S. Robertson 

K. Schulze-Hagen 

S. A. Saether 


A. W. Smith 

Ms B. Stewart-Cox 

R. D. E. Stott 

A. D. Tomlins 

A. Turner 

S. T. A. Turner 

R. A. Warren 

Prof. W. E. Waters 

Sir Denys Wilkinson 

F. Willemyns 

R. G. Williams 


J. D. Lindsay, J. R. van Oosten 


The Committee very much regrets to report the deaths of the following Members (see 
Report of the Committee for 1989): H. G. Alexander (Member 1911-1989), Sir Hugh 
Elliott, Bt., O.B.E., (Member 1953-1989, Committee 1964-1967, Vice-Chairman 1968- 
1971, Chairman 1971-1974, Editor 1974-1975) and Dr P. G. Morris (Member 1986- 

Resignations in respect of 1989 

C. J. Fitzpatrick, C. M. Francis, Dr L. Hoffman, N. P. E. Langham, R. B. Ratcliffe, 

D. W. Simpson, J. B. Smith, I. D. A. Tunks. 

Removed from membership under Rule (7) 

P. Bennett, N. G. Borrissow, W. W. Cole, Jnr, R. S. Craig, D. Evans, J. E. Griffith, 

A. P. Johnson, P. Lackie, C. Moore, J. Nocedal, I. C. Orr, M. P. Pullen, A. Schulte, 

B. G. Thompson, P. Tyreman, I. R. Willis, L. Young. 


paid up at 31 December 1988 


1960 Adams, J. K.; 95 Alleyn Park, London SE21 8AA (Committee 1971-1973) 

1986 Adcock, M. A.; "The Saltings", 53 Victoria Drive, Great Wakering, southend-on-sea, Essex SS3 OAT 

1983 Aguillo Cano, I. F.; Apartado 129, 26200 Haro (la rioja), Spain 

1984 Aidley, Dr D. J.; The Old Woolpack, Morley St. Botolph, wymondham, Norfolk NR18 9AA 

1988 Alberti, P.; Via B, Cellini 10, 21052 busto arsizio, Italy 

1984 Albrecht, J. S.M.; 12 Hemingford Road, Cambridge CB1 3BZ 

1979 Alder, J. R.; c/o Stanley Cottage, Tucking Mill, tisbury, Wilts SP3 6NR 

1980 Allison, R.; The Laurels, Manchester Road, Sway, lymington, Hants SO4 0AS 

1989 Allport, G.; Flat 2, 13 Beaufort Road, clifton, Bristol BS8 
1989 Al-Safadi, Dr M. M.; PO Box 392, sana'a, Yemen 

1978 Altman, Dr A. B.; PO Box 441 , great barrington, MA 01230, USA 

1980 Amadon, Dr D.; American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th St, new york, NY 10024, 

1984 Anderson, F.G., Ph.D.; 10406 Iris Place, adelphi, MD 20783, USA 

1983 Andrew, P.; 1/38B Mona Road, Darling Point, Sydney, NSW 2027, Australia 

1980 Antram, F. B. S.; c/o Traffic (Australia), 53 Sydney Road, PO Box 799, manly, NSW 2095, Australia 
1976 Arita Ichiro; 23 ban lgo 5F, Minami Aoyama4 chome, Minato-ku, tokyo 107, Japan 

1986 Arlott, N. A.; Hill House, School Road, tilney st Lawrence, Norfolk 

1978 Ash, DrJ. S.; Godshill Wood, fordingbridge, Hants SP6 2LR 

1974 Ashton, P. J.; National Institution for Water Research, C.S.I.R., PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 

1981 Aspinwall, Dr D. R., PO Box 50653, Lusaka, Zambia 

1 969 Backhurst, G. C; PO Box 24702, Nairobi, Kenya 

1986 Bain, Major P. M.; 15 Witham Bank East, boston, Lines PE21 9JU 

1986 Baker, E. W.; 10 Rose Grove, Roman Bank, skegness, Lines PE25 1SH 

1986 Baker, Miss H.; 27 Pheasants Way, rickmansworth, Herts WD3 2EX 

1986 Baker, N. E.; Aquila Engineering Services, PO Box 23404, dar es salaam, Tanzania 
1951 Barlow, Capt. Sir Thomas, Bt., D.S.C., R.N.; 45 Shepherds Hill, Highgate, London N6 

1989 Bates, J. M.; Museum of Natural Science, 119 Foster Hall, Louisiana State University, baton rouge, LA 70803, 

1987 Baylis, A. H.; 135 Fairbridge Road, London N19 3HF 

1985 Beakbane, Mrs A. J.; 26 Cathcart Road, London SW10 9NN 

1947-51 , 1979 Beal, Major N. A. G. H., R.M.; Dunkery, Church Road, hythe, Kent CT31 5DP 

1 979 Beaman, M. A. S.; Two Jays, Kemple End, Birdy Brow, stonyhurst, Lanes BB6 9QY 
1 989 Beck, B. H.; 25 St Thomas, West Parade, bexhill-on-sea, Sussex TN39 3YA 

1976 Becking, J. H.; I.T.A.L., Ericalaan 7, 6703 EM wageningen, Netherlands 

1982 Beecroft, R.; 2 Fen Cottages, Fen Lane, Creeting St Mary, ipswich, Suffolk IP6 8QE 
1976 Beer, T.; Tawside, 30 Park Avenue, Barnstaple, Devon EX31 2ES 

1976 Belman, P. J.; Number Two, School Passage, southall, Middx UB1 2DR 

1966 Bennett, P.; 29 Loop Road South, Whitehaven, Cumbria 

1979 Betton, K. F.; 8 Dukes Close, Folley Hill, farnham, Surrey GU9 0DR (Committee 1985-1988) 

1948 Beven, Dr G., M.D.; 16 Parkwood Avenue, esher, Surrey (Committee 1954-1958, 1976-77, Vice-Chairman 

1986 Bindeman, Mrs J.; 41 Lovett Road, Byfield, daventry, Northants NN1 1 6XF 
1982 Bishop, K. D.; Semioptera, Lot 15, Kerns Road, kincumber, NSW 2250, Australia 

1980 Bison, P. W.; C Springerstraat 11-11, 1073 LD Amsterdam, Netherlands 
1989 Boardman, P. R.; 105 Stour Road, christchurch, Dorset BH23 1JN 

1985 Bock, Prof. W. J., Ph.D.; Dept of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, new york, NY 10027, USA 
1958 Booth, Major B. D. McDonald; The Moorland Gallery, 23 Cork St, LONDON W1X 1HB 

1986 Borello, MrsW. D.; PO Box 603, Gaborone, Botswana 

1981 Borras Hosta, Antoni; Poeta Mistral 101-3, Manresa, Barcelona, Spain 

1966 Boswall, J. H. R.; Birdswell, Wraxall, Bristol BS19 1IZ (Committee 1973-1976) 

1985 Boswell, MrsE. M.; PO Box 23404, dar es salaam, Tanzania 

1981 Boughton, R. C; Croftfoot, Ennerdale, cleator, Cumbria CA23 3AZ 
1956-70, 1984 Bourne, DrW. R. P.; 3 Contlaw Place, Milltimber, Aberdeen AB1 0DS 

1986 Bowley, J. J.; Little Orchard, Silkmore Lane, west horsley, Surrey KT24 6JB 

1986 Boyd, Dr M . ; 1 07 High Road, Cotton End, Bedford MK45 3AX 

1 953 Bradley, Mrs D. M.; 53 Osterley Road, isleworth, Middx TW7 4PW (Committee 1968-1972, 1975-1978. Hon. 
Treasurer 1978- ) 

1985 Bradley, Mrs P. E.; Waterloo, Government House, grand turk, Turks & Caicos Islands, West Indies 

1980 Bradshaw, C. D.; 13/23 Shinohara, kitamachi 4-chome, Nada-ku, kobe, Japan 
1989 Briggs, DrK.B.; 2 Osborne Road, farnborough, Hants GU14 6PT 

1966 Britton, P. L.; All Souls' and St Gabriel's School, PO Box 235, charter towers, Queensland 4820, Australia 

1987 Broad, D.; 15 Cotsford Avenue, new malden, Surrey KT3 5EU 

1988 Brown, B. J.; 24 Clifton Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HF 

1986 Brown, J. N. B.; Holly Cottage, Watersplash Lane, Cheapside, ascot, Berks SL5 7QP 

1987 Brown, S. P.; 7 Bartle Place, Ashton, preston, Lanes PR2 1 LS 

1979 Browne, P. W. P.; 115 Chrichton Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada KIM 1V8 

1970 Bruce, M. D.; 8 Spurwood Road, turramurra, NSW 2074, Australia 

1981 Bryant, Dr D. M.; Dept of Biology, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA 

1976 Bull, Dr J.; American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th St, new york, NY 10024, USA 

1989 Bull, P. J.; 35 Melbury Avenue, Norwood green, Middlesex UB2 4HS 
1979 Burgess, J. P. C; 26 Chapel Lane, Costock, Loughborough, Leics LE12 6UY 

1970 Burton, J. A.; The Old Mission Hall, Sibton Green, saxmundham, Suffolk IP17 2TY (Committee 1971-1974) 

1963 Burton, Dr P. J. K.; High Kelton, Doctors Commons Road, berkhamsted, Herts HP4 3DW 

1976 Bynon, Dr J.; School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1 E 7HP 

1988 Cabot, J.; Pabellon del Peru, Avda Maria Luisa S/N, 41013 sevilla, Spain 

1989 Cain, A. P. E.; 1 Molesworth Road, Parsons Green, LONDON SW6 4BU 

1963 Calder, D. R.; "Birdwood", Madeira Road, west byfleet, Surrey KT14 6DN (Committee 1967-1969, 1984- 
1987, Hon. Secretary 1969-1971, Chairman 1980-1983) 

1957 Campbell, Dr N. A.; PO Box 3136, Paulington, mut are, Zimbabwe 

1987 Cannings-Bushell, P. C; c/o 32 Chesterton Park, Cirencester Glos GL7 1XT 

1988 Carpenter, C. F.; PO Box 1763, englewood, CO 80150-1763, USA 

1977 Carswell, Dr M.; 38 Park Avenue, Orpington, Kent 

1981 Carter, A. G. T.; UNICEF (New Delhi), Palais de Nations, CH 121 1 geneva 10, Switzerland 

1982 Carter, C; PO Box 71793, ndola, Zambia 

1970 Carthy, D. P.; Data Processing Unit, Dept. of Dentistry, university of hong kong, Hong Kong 

1971 Casement, Cdr M. B., O.B.E., R.N.; Dene Cottage, West Harting, petersfield, Hants 
1986 Cattaneo, G.; Via Mussatti 2, 10090 Rivara CAM, (Torino) Italy 

1979 Chancellor, R. D.; 15b Bolton Gardens, London SWS (Committee 1979-1982) 

1986 Chapman, S. E.; "Steeplefield", Marlpost Road, Southwater, horsham, Sussex RH13 7BZ 

1988 Chapman-Kofron, Ms A.; US E&CFin Liberia, PO Box 1011, Monrovia, Liberia 
1973 Chatfield, D. G. P.; Rhiwenfa, Rhiw, pwllheli, Gwynedd LL53 8AE 

1963 Chaytor, Dr R. G.; Triangle, Keenley, allendale, Northumberland NE47 9NT 

1980 Cheke, Dr R. A.; O.D.N.R.I., Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Chatham, Kent ME4 4TB 

1987 Cheshire, N. G.; 4Willora Road, eden halls, South Australia 5050, Australia 

1977 Christmas, T. J.; 40 Highbury Hill, Highbury, London N5 1AL 
1985 Christy - , P.; 1 Rue des Promenades, 79.500 melle, France 

1938 Clancey, P. A., D.Sc; Fernleigh Gardens, 8 Lambert Road, Morningside, Durban 4001, South Africa (Hon. 
Life Member) 

1985 Claridge, J. C. R.; 17 Moana Road, Plimmerton, via Wellington, New Zealand 

1981 Clark, K. W. F.; 136 Evans Road, bloomfield, NJ 07003, USA 

1989 Clarke, M. C. A.; Hilltop, Newtown, martley, Worcester WR6 6RR 

1982 Coldewey, C. J,; Holmansweg 6, 7214 dl epse, Netherlands 

1989 Coleman, B.; Little Place, Rogers Lane, stoke poges, Bucks SL2 4LU 

1986 Coleman, J. R.; "Hewelsfield", Fulwith Road, harrogate, N. Yorks HG2 8HL 

1972-76, 1980 Coles, S. J. W., M.B.E.; 7 Chipstead Park Close, Chipstead, sevenoaks, KentTN13 2SJ 

1983 Collar, Dr N. J.; 45 de Freville Avenue, Cambridge CB4 13HW 

1983 Collins, D. R.; 12 Beach Grove, Wallasey, Merseyside L45 7QU 

1987 Collins, I. D.; 30 Clonmel Way, burnham, Bucks SL1 7DA 

1979 Collins, R. E. C; Seatonden, Seaton, Ickham, canterbury, Kent CT3 1SL 

1976 Colston, P. R.; Sub-Dept. of Ornithology, British Museum (Natural History), tring, Herts HP23 6AP 

1952 Conder, P. J.; Old Close Orchard, 12 Swaynes Lane, Comberton, Cambridge CB3 7EF (Committee 1982-1985) 

1986 Contento, G.; Via Desenibus 8, I 34074 monfalcone, Italy 

1981 Coomber, R. F.; Springfield, Bashley Road, new milton, Hants BH25 5RX 

1984 Cornwallis, Dr L.; Glyrhe Farm, Charlbury Road, chipping Norton, Oxon OX7 5XJ 
1961 Cottrell, G. W., Jnr; PO Box 1487, hillsboro, NH 03244, USA 

1979 Court-Smith, Sq.Ldr D. St J.; 38 Sand Hill, farnborough, Hants GU14 8EW 

1980 Cowan, Dr P. J.; Dept of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kuwait University, PO Box 5969, 1 3060 safat, Kuwait 
1975 Cowles, G. S.; Tetherstones, 23 Kirkdale Road, harpenden, Herts AL5 2PT 

1986 Cox, Dr R. A. F.; Linden House, Long Lane, Fowlmere, royston, Herts SG8 7TG 

1984 Craddock, B.; 44 Haling Road, Penkridge, Stafford ST19 5DA 

1973 The Earl of Cranbrook, Ph.D.; Great Glemham House, Great Glemham, saxmundham, Suffolk IP17 1LP 

1986 Crick, Dr H. Q. P.; B.T.O. Beech Grove, tring, Herts HP23 5NR 

1 986 Crilley, T. L.; 73 Cleveland Road, north shields, Tyne & Wear NE29 0NW 

1981 Crocker, N. J.; Arlington, Douro Road, Cheltenham, Glos GL50 2PF 

1986 Crosby, M. J.; c/o I.U.C.N., 53 The Green, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AA 

1989 Cross, J. K.; 62 Hulbert Road, Bedhampton, havant, Hants P09 3TG 

1978 Croucher, R. A. N.; Uplands Lodge, Manor Road, smethwick, W. Midlands B67 6SA (Committee 1980-1984) 

1958 Cudworth, J.; 17a Prospect Road, ossett, Yorks WF5 8AE 

1980 Cull, S. B.; Trevenna Cottage, Harlyn Road, St Merryn, padstow, Cornwall 

1946 Cunningham van Sommeren, G. R.; PO Box 24947, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya 

1980 Curtis, W. F.; Farm Cottage, Church Lane, Atwick, Driffield, E. Yorks Y025 8DH 

1988 Da Fonseca, P. S. M.; R. Benjamin Batista 161 #101, CEP 22.461, riode janiero RJ, Brazil 
1988 Daulne, J-M.; Rue Laforge 11, 5460 mormont-erezee, Belgium 

1986 Davidson, I. S.; 49 Benton Park Road, newcastle-on-tyne NE7 7LX 

1977 Davies, Miss H. M.; 43 Endcliffe Glen Road, Sheffield Sll 8RW 

1986 Davies, J.; 83 Rectory Lane, Leybourne, west malling, KentME19 SAD 

1983 Davies, Dr M. G.; Summerleas, Crapstone Road, yelverton, Devon PL20 6BT 

1986 Davis, C. J.; 4 Muller Road, Horfield, Bristol BS7 0AA 

1973 Davison, Dr G. W. H.; Zoology Dept, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, selangor, Malaysia 

1985 Dean, A. R.; 2 Charingworth Road, solihull, W. Midlands B92 8HT 
1975 Dean, W. J. R.; PF1AO, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa 

1987 Demey-, R.; Project Fonction Publique, Zai 84/012, c/o Office des Nations Unies, Palais de Nations, CH 1211, 

geneva, Switzerland 

1986 Dennis, M. K.; 173 Collier Row Lane, romford, Essex RMS 3ED 

1985 Denton, M. L.; 77 Hawthorne Terrace, Crosland Moor, huddersfield, Yorks HD4 5RP 

1986 De Ruiter, M.; Postfach 44, 2303 Gettorf, West Germany 
1970 Desfayes, M.; Prevan, CH 1920 fully, Switzerland 

1988 De Sola, L. G.; Laboratorio Oceanografico, Apd 285, 29640 fuengirola, Spain 

1978 Devillers, DrP. J.; 11 Avenue de l'Oiseau Bleu, Bl 150 Brussels, Belgium 

1984 Diamond, Dr A. W.; 1033 University Drive, saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0K4 

1974 Dick, J. A., F.R.C.S.; 21 Liskeard Gardens, LONDON SE3 OPE 

1965 Dickinson, E. C; Norman Chapel, Aston Magna, moreton in marsh, Glos. GL56 9QN 

1952 Dickinson, H. J.; Abinger Cottage, Paston, north walsham, Norfolk NR28 9TB 

1957 Dillingham, I. H.; The Low House, Lower Longwith, Collingham, wetherby, Yorks LS22 5BX 

1986 Dobbins, R.; 317 Gladbeck Way, enfield, Middx EN2 7HR 

1988 Dowland, A. S.; 149 Broadway, sheppey, Kent ME12 2SB 

1962 Dowsett, R. J.; Rue de Bois de Breux 194, B 4500, jupille-liece. Belgium 
1986 Duckett, J. E.; PO Box 12378, kuala LUMPUR, Malasyia 

1965 Du Pont, Dr J. E.; Foxcatcher Farms, PO Box 356, NEWTOWN square, PA 19073, USA 

1986 Earp, M. J.; 63 Ivinghoe Road, Bushey, watford, Herts WD2 3SW 

1967 Eddie, W. M. M.; c/o Pirie, 55 Silverknose Crescent, Edinburgh EH4 5JA 

1985 Eden, R. M. G.; Haliki, Lower Beach Road, West Bexington, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 9DG 

1989 Edwards, M. C; 1 18 Wood Lane, Bramlev, rotherham, S. Yorks S66 OUP 

1977 Eley, J. T.; 5 Morgan Close, Saltford, BRISTOL BS18 3LN 

1963 Elgood, Prof. J. H.; 26 Walkford Way, highcliffe, Dorset BH23 5LR {Committee 1967-1970, 1986- , Vice- 

Chairman 1971-1974, Chairman 1974-1977) 

1973 Elkins, D. A.; Le Frugier, St Mesmin, 24270 lanouaille, France 
1989 Elphick, J. H.; Centre Cottage, Clapham, exeter, Devon EX2 9UN 

1985 Elsworthy, Dr G. C; 14 Greenbank Avenue, Maghull, Liverpool L31 2JQ 

1986 Ennis, L. H.; School Cottage, Plaistow, billingshurst, W. Sussex RH14 OPX 
1986 Erritzoe, J.; Taps GL Praestegaard, DK 6070 christiansfeld, Denmark 

1952 Etchecopar, R. D.; 15 Rue Vineuse, 75016 Paris, France 

1986 Evans, G. G.; 1 Coach House Mews, Upper Church Road, weston-super-mare, Avon BS23 2DY 

1988 Fanshawe, J.; c/o I.C.B.P., 32 Girton Road, Cambridge CB3 0PJ 

1979 Farmer, R. J.; 82 Ramsey Road, Dovercourt, Harwich, Essex C012 4RN 

1986 Farnsworth, S. J.; Hammerkop, Frogmill, Hurlev, maidenhead, Berks SL6 5NL (Committee 1989- ) 

1988 Feare, Dr C. J.; MAFF, Tangley Place, worplesdon, Surrey GU3 3LQ 

1981 Fergenbauer-Kimmel, Angelika, Dipl.Biol..; Donrather Str. 2, D 5204 lohmarl, W. Germany 

1979 Field, G. D.; 37 Milton Grove, new milton, Hants 

1978 Fisher, Miss C. T.; 46 Rossett Road, Crosby, Liverpool 
1976 Fisher, D. J.; 56 Western Way, sandy, Beds SG19 1DU 

1986 Fishpool, Dr L. D. C; ORST OM, Adiopodoume, BP V51, Abidjan 01 , Cote d'lvoire 

1943 Fitter, R. S. R.; Drifts, Chinnor Hill, oxford OX9 4BS (Committee 1959-1962. Vice-Chairman 1962-1965. 

Chairman 1965-1968) 

1986 Flack, L. J. H.; 34 Hastings Road, Addiscombe, croydon, Surrey CR0 6PH 

1984 Fowler, Dr J. A.; Hafod Heli, High Street, borth, Dyfed SY24 5JE 

1985 Franke, Ms I.; Museo de Historia Natural, Casilla 140434, lima 14, Peru 

1989 Franks, J. A.; Flat 6, Lakeland House, Marine Road East, morecambe, Lanes LA4 6AY 

1978 Fraser, M. W.; Sandbanks, Kenmum Steps, Hopkirk Way, glencarm 7995, South Africa 

1979 Frusher, D. M.; The Barn House, Greatworth, banbury, Oxon OX17 2DT 

1965 Fry, Prof. C. H., D.Sc; Zoology Dept., Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 6281, Ruwi, muscat, Sultanate of 


1985 Futter, K.; Arkles, 29 Hunstanton Road, heacham, Norfolk PE31 7JY 

1981 Galey, C. P.; 29 Ainsdale Drive, Werrington, Peterborough, Cambs PE4 6RL 

1959 Gallagher, Major M. D.; 83 West Front, Pagham, bognor regis, Sussex P021 4TB 

1976 Galsworthy, A. C, CMG; c/o FCO (Hong Kong) King Charles Street, London SW1A 2AH 

1988 Gardner-Medwin, Dr D.; Flocktous, Station Road, Heddon-on-the-Wall, newcastle-upon-tyne NE15 0EG 

1989 Gay, N. J.; 9 Surrey Place, Trowbridge, Wilts BAH 0AW 
1989 Gibbons, C. D. B.; 59 Rheanbreck, lairg, Sutherland IV27 4DQ 
1988 Gibbons, H. S.; 35 Lamont Road, London SW10 0HS 

1974 Gibbs, A.; 48 Bolton Road, chessington, Surrey KT9 2JB 

1966 Gibson, Dr J. A.; Foremount House, kilbarchan, Renfrewshire PA10 2EZ 

1986 Gil Diego; Vitoria 37, 09004 burgos, Spain 

1962-70, 1988 Gillham, E. H.; 31 Coast Drive, Lydd on Sea, romney marsh, Kent TN29 9NL 

1975 Gilston, H.; Chemin des Mouettes 16, CH 1007, lausanne, Switzerland 

1983 Gladwin, The Rev. T. W.; 99 Warren Wav, Digswell, welwyn, Herts AL6 0DL 
1981-1983, 1986 Gochfeld, Dr M.; 54 Hollywood Avenue, somerset, NJ 08873, USA 
1970 Goodall, A. E.; 46 Adrian Road, Abbots Langley, watford, Herts WD5 0AQ 

1981 Goodman, S. M.; Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, ann arbor, MI 48109, USA 

1968 Goodwin, D.; 6 Crest View Drive, petts wood, Kent BR5 1 BY 

1985 Gordon, J.; 1 Gallowsclough Road, stalybridge, Cheshire SK15 3QS 

1984 Gordon, Major J. J.; Officers Mess, RA Range Hebrides, isle of benbecula, Outer Hebrides PA88 5NL 

1953 Gorton, E.; 249 Wigan Road, Westhaughton, bolton, Lanes BL5 2AT 

1977 Gosler, Dr A. G.; c/o E.G. I., Dept of Zoology, South Parks Road, oxford OX1 3PS 

1986 Gosling, A. P.; 8 The Walk, Fox Lane, Palmers Green, London N13 4AA 
1986 Goulding, Mrs J. D.; 239a Carr Road, northolt, Middx UB45 4RL 
1986 Goulding, R. V. G.; 239a Carr Road, northolt, Middx UB45 4RL 

1988 Goutner, Dr V.; PO Box 50211, GR 54013, thessaloniki, Greece 

1968 Gray, B.; 6 Totland Court, Victoria Road, milford-on-sea, Hants S041 0NR (Committee 1977-1980. Vice- 

Chariman 1980-1983, Chairman 1983-1986) 

1977 Green, Prof. J., Ph.D.; School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary College, Mile End Road, LONDON El 4NS 

1984 Greenlaw, Dr J. S.; Biology Dept, L.I. University, brookville, NY 1 1 548, USA 

1989 Greensmith, A.; 14 Woodfield Avenue, carshalton beeches, Surrey SM5 3JB 
1977 Greenwood, Dr J. G.; Science Dept, Stranmillis College, Belfast BT9 5DY 

1963 Greenwood, Dr J. J. D.; B.T.O. Beech Grove, tring, Herts HP23 5NR 
1983 Gregory', P. A.; c/o 37 Wilden Road, Hedge Lane, Southampton 

1986 Gregory, S. M. S.; 35 Monarch Road, Kingsthorpe Hollow, Northampton NN2 6EH 

1989 Gretton, Dr A.; ICPB, 32 Cambridge Road, Girton, Cambridge CB3 0PJ 

1974 Griffin, D.; 51a Palace Road, east molesey, Surrey (Committee 1983-1986. Vice-Chairman 1986-1989, 
Committee 1989- ) 

1964 Grimes, Dr L. G.; 3 St Nicholas Court, St Nicholas Church St, Warwick 
1956 Grimwood, Major I. R., O.B.E.; PO Box 45079, Nairobi, Kenya 

1986 Grossmann, Dr H.; Wietreie 78, D 2000 Hamburg 67, West Germany 

1987 Gullick, T. M.; c/o Mrs M. Parker, 5 Tile Barn Close, farnborough, Hants GUM 8LS 

1981 Hacking, Dr C. N.; Moorlish, Woodgreen, fordingbridge, Hants SP6 2AU 

1981 Haffer, Dr J.; Tommesweg 60, 4300 essen 1 , West Germany 


1981 Hale, Prof. W. G., Ph.D.; 5 Rvder Close, Aughton, ormskirk, Lanes 

194S Hall, Mrs B. P.; Woodside Cottage, Woodgreen, fordingbridge, Hants SP6 2QU (Committee 1955-1959, 
1962-1965. Vice-Chairman 1959-1962) 

1978 Hall, Prof. G. A., Ph.D.; Dept of Chemistry, PO Box 6045, West Virginia University, morgantown, WV 

26506-6045, USA 

1963 Hancock, J. A.; Brookside, Back Street, St Cross, Winchester, Hants S023 9SB 

1979 Hanmer, Mrs D. B.; PO Box 3076, Paulington, Mutare, Zimbabwe 

1986 Hansen, B. G.; Slettebakken 2, Lille Sverige, DK 3400 hillerod, Denmark 

1956 H.arley, B. H.; Martins, Great Horkesley, Colchester, Essex C06 4AH 
1985 Harman, A. J. E.; 20 Chestnut Close, hockley, Essex SS5 5EJ 

1979 Harper, W. G.; 8 Winton Grove, Edinburgh EH10 7AS 

1977 Harpum, Dr J.; 58 Shurdington Road, Cheltenham, Glos GL50 

1960 Harrison, C. J. O., Ph.D.; 48 Earls' Crescent, harrow, Middx HA1 1XN (Committee 1963-1964, 1965-1968, 
1974-1977. Hon. Secretary 1964-1965) 

1977 Harrison, I. D.; No address 

1979 Harrison, Dr Pamela, F.R.P.S.; Merriewood, St Botolph's Road, sevenoaks, Kent TN13 3AQ 

1974 Harvey, E. G.; c/o F.C.O. (Dhaka), King Charles St, London SW1A 2AH 

1953 Harwtn, Dr R. M.; 2 Norman Close, Chisipite, Harare, Zimbabwe 

1974 Hasegawa, H.; Dept of Biology, Faculty of Science, Toho University, Miyama-cho, funabashi, Chiba 274, 


1985 Haubitz, Dr B.; Steimbker Hof 1 1 , D 3000, hanover 61 , West Germany 

1986 Heard, G. E.; 4 Lambley Lane, gedling, Notts NG4 4PA 

1989 Helm, C; The Banks, Mountfield, robertsbridge, East Sussex TN32 5JY 

1987 Henderson, A. C. B.; Perrv Fields Cottage, Wingham, canterbury, Kent CT3 1ER 
1986 Henshall, K. W.; Crofthead, Penmark, barry, W. Glamorgan CF6 9BP 

1986 Heron, Cpl K.; COMCEN, 33 SU RAF, Ayios, nikolaos, BFPO 53 

1985 Herremans, M. L. J.; Prinses Lvdialaan 65, B 3030 heverlee, Belgium , 

1987 Herringshaw, D.; 303 Bellhouse Road, Sheffield, S. Yorks S5 0RD 
1984 Hesketh, W.; 2 Gramere Close, Walton-le-Dale, preston, Lanes PR5 4RR 

1984 Hewitson, D. R.; 2 Donnelly Road, Tuckton, Bournemouth, Dorset 
1989 Higgins, M. C; 1 Acorn Close, Bridlington, N. Humberside Y016 5YX 
1989 Hill, A.; Albrecht-Haushofer-Str 10, 3200 hildesheim. West Germany 

1959 Hill, Brig. S. J. L., D.S.O., M.C.; Bristol Court Cottage, Seymour Street, Brighton BN2 1DP 

1979 Hiraldo, Dr F.; Estacion Biologica, de Doiiana, Pabellon del Peru, Avda. Maria Luisa s/n, 41 01 3, Seville, Spain 

1985 Hockey, Dr P. A. R., P.F.I.A.O.; University of Cape Town, rondesbosch 7700, South Africa 
1981 Hodgson, M. C; c/o Tanganyika Wattle Company, PO Box 1807, dar es salaam, Tanzania 

1986 Hoffmann, T. W.; Haus Sonneberg, CH 89914, a'eugst, Switzerland 

1957 Hogg, P.; 33 Vine Court Road, sevenoaks, Kent TN13 3UY (Committee 1962-1966, 1972-1974. Vice-Chairman 

1974-1977. Chairman 1977-1980) 

1933 Hollom, P. A. D.; Inwood Cottage, Hydestile, godalming, Surrey GU8 4AY (Committee 1938-1941, 1947- 

1949, 1959-1963) (Hon. Life Member) 

1970 Holloway, L. G.; 30 Fernhurst Gardens, Aldwick, bognor regis, Sussex P021 4AZ 

1973 Holmes, D. A.; 31 South View, uppingham, Leics LE15 9TU 

1972 Holyoak, D. T.; College of St Paul & St Mary, The Park, Cheltenham, Glos GL50 2RH 

1980 Homberger, Dr Dominique G.; Dept. of Zoology & Physiology, Louisiana State University, baton rouge, 

LA 70803, USA 

1989 Hoogendoorn, W.; Notengaard 32, 3941 LW, doorn, Netherlands 

1970 Horne, Ms J. F. M.; Dept of Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th St, 

new york, NY 10024-5192, USA 

1960 Horwood, M. T.; 2 Church Close, Benson, oxford, Oxon 

1981 Hounsome, Dr M. V.; Manchester University Museum, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL 
1981 Houston, Dr D. C; Dept of Zoology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ 

1978 Hovel, Ing. H. G.; 55 Einstein Str., 34602 haifa, Israel 

1985 Howard, R. P.; Hogg House, Lower Basildon, reading, Berks RG8 9NH 
1981 Howe, S.; Alma House, 12 William Street, torphins, Grampian AB3 4JR 

1987 Hughes, R. A.; Casilla 62, mollendo, Peru 

1986 Huijbers, H. J. E. G.; General van Teynst 10, 5623 HN, eindhoven N-Br, Netherlands 

1986 Hunter, A.; 16 Bollin Walk, Reddish Road, South Reddish, Stockport SK5 7JW 

1980 Hutson, A. M.; Winkfield, Station Road, plumpton green, E. Sussex BN7 3BU 

1975 Ingels, Dr J. T. T., D.Sc; Galgenberglaan 9, B 9120 destelbergen, Belgium 

1987 Inskipp, T.; 87 Girton Road, CAMBRIDGE CB3 

1985 Irons, Dr J. K.; 9 Babylon Way, Ratton, Eastbourne, E. Sussex BN20 9DL 

1983 Jackson, N. C. S.; 68 Deanery View, lanchester, Co. Durham DH7 0NJ 

1981 Jackson, Dr S. J.; 2 Orion Drive, Little Stoke, Bristol BS12 6JB 

1986 James, S. L.; 83 Welbeck Street, Hull HU5 3SB 

1984 James, T. J.; 65 Back Street, Ashwell, baldock, Herts SG7 5PG 

1958 Jany', J. E.; Hohemarkweg 2, D 6231 sulzbach TS, West Germany 

1984 Jehl, J. R., Jnr; Hubbs Sea World Research Institute, 1700 South Shores Road, san diego, CA 92109, USA 

1984 Jennings, M. C; Moonraker Cottage, 1 Eastcourt, Burbage, Marlborough, Wilts SN8 3AG 

1981 Jennings, P. P.; Garnfawr Bungalow, Bettws, Hundred House, llandrindod wells, Powys LD1 5RP 
1978 Jensen, H.; Tolstoje Alle 26, DK 2860 soeborg, Denmark 

1974 Jensen, J. V.; Skolebakken 5 4tv, DK 8000 aarhus C, Denmark 
1983 Jepson, P. R.; 6 Habberley, Nr pontesbury, Shropshire SY5 0TP 

1973 Jobling, J. A.; 14 The Valley Green, welwyn garden city, Herts AL8 7DQ 
1970 Johnson, E. D. H.; Crabiere Cottage, Route des Mielles, st ouen, Kersey, CI 

1986 Johnson, Major F.; 6 Norrington Mead, Broadmead Village, Folkestone, Kent CT19 5TF 

1951 Johnson, H. P. H.; 17 Via Bontempi, perugia, Italy 

1989 Johnson, W. C. P.; 34 Pembroke Road, The Heath, Salisbury, Wilts SP2 9DG 

1985 Johnston, D.; 4 Burn Street, Longtown, Carlisle, Cumbria CA6 5XW 

1 989 Johnston, J . P.; Department of Biological Sciences, The University, Dundee DD 1 4HN 

1974 Jones, Dr A. M.; Calle Sacrificio 35, El Rocio, Almonte, huelva 21750, Spain 

1982 Jones, Dr C. G.; c/o Forestry Quarters, black river, Mauritius, Indian Ocean 
1980 Jongeling, T. B.; 3ae Oosterparkstraat 46-1 , 1091 JZ Amsterdam, Netherlands 

1985 Kasoma, P. M. B.; c/o Dr Eltringham, Dept of Applied Biology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke St, 


1988 Keanc, Lim Kim; 177 Jalan Loyang Besar, Singapore 1750 

1965 Keith, G. S.; Dept of Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th St, 
new york, NY 10024, USA 

1985 Kelly, C; 15a Bridewell Road, Cherrv Hinton, Cambridge CB1 4EN 

1988 Kelly, P. R. A.; Malmsy House, Church Road, Leigh Woods, Bristol BS8 3PG 

1986 Kelsey, Dr F. D.; White Cottage, Church Lane, Cley-next-the-Sea, HOLT, Norfolk NR25 7UD 

1983 Kelsey, Dr M. G.; White Cottage, Church Lane, Clev-next-the-Sea, HOLT, Norfolk NR25 7UD 

1986 Kench, A. J.; 141 Cozens Road, ware, Herts SG12 7JB 

1989 Kennedy, Dr R. S.; Cincinnatti Museum of Natural History, 1720 Gilbert Avenue, cincinnatti, OH 45202, 


1960 Kent, J. de R.; Mews Cottage, Church Hill, midhurst, Sussex GU29 9NX 

1982 Kettle, R.; 75 Dupont Road, London SW20 8EH (Committee 1988- ) 

1981 King, J.; 96 Forbes Avenue, potters bar, Herts EN6 5NQ 

1988 King, J. R.; Haregrove Cottage, Hvdon Heath, godalming, Surrey GU8 4BB 

1982 Klonowski, T. J.; 6356 Meadville Road, middleport, NY 14105, USA 

1 984 Knight, J. E.; 33 North Road, Stokesley, Middlesbrough, Cleveland TS9 5DZ 

1973 Knox, Dr A. G.; The Bothy, Mentmore, leighton buzzard, Bucks LU7 0QG 

1989 Koga, Kimiya; 332-12-12-2 Terukini, Chuo-Ku, fukuoka 810, Japan 
1979 Koike, Shigeto; 1523 Honjo, Niigata-shi, niigata prefecture, 950 Japan 

1987 Kramer, D.; 7 Little Headlands, Putnoe, Bedford MK41 8JT 

1989 Lack, Dr P. C; B.T.O., Beech Grove, Station Road, tring, Herts HP23 SNR 

1986 Laing, R. M.; 87 Johnston Gardens East, Peterculter, Aberdeen AB1 OLA 

1985 Lambert, F. R.; c/o 15 Bramble Rise, Westdene, Brighton, Sussex BN1 5GE 

1986 Lambertini, M.; Via Voltone 8, 57100 livorno, Italy 

1982 Lamothe, Ms L.; Dept of Forestry, PNG University of Technology, PMB LAE, Papua New Guinea 

1988 Lardelli, R.; Via Franchini 5, CH 6850 mendrisio, Switzerland 

1989 Laurence of Mar, Lt.-Cdr.; 8 The Square, DYRMS, Dover, Kent CT15 5DR 

1988 Lawson, I. B.; 73 Waller Crescent, Roseglen, Durban 4091, South Africa 

1974 Layton, A. W.; 95 Manning Road, woollahra, NSW 2025, Australia 

1989 Ledgerton, R. J. W.; 25 Bunyan Road, braintree, Essex CM7 7PL 

1959-74, 1986 Lees-Smith, D. T.; 134 The Avenue, Starbeck, harrogate, N. Yorks HG1 4QF 

1975 Leighton, Sir Michael, Bt.; Loton Park, alberbury, Salop 
1985 Lemauviel, Y.; 1 1 Rue de Medicis, 75006 paris, France 

1975 Leveque, R.; Station Ornithologique, CH 6204, sempach, Switzerland 

1985 Lewis, I. T.; 15 Elyston Court, 121 Howards Lane, Putney, London SW15 6QH 

1989 Lind, C. R.; LesAugres Manor, trinity, Jersey CI 

1968-71, 1989 Lindsay, J. D.; 17c Walbrook Avenue, Springfield, milton keynes, Bucks MK6 3JB 

1985 Lister, S. M.; 31 Lisle Street, Loughborough, Leics LEI 1 0AY 

1982 Littlemore, F. P.; Plemstall, 264 Dunchurch Road, rugby, Warwicks CV22 6HX 

1951-55, 1977 Liversidge, R., Ph.D.; McGregor Museum, PO Box 316, kimberley, Cape Province 8300, South 


1979 Lloyd, Capt. G. C, C.B.E., R.N.; Lanterns, Buckmore Avenue, petersfield, Hants GU32 2EF 

1986 Lloyd, J. V.; Cynghordy, Llandovery, Dyfed SA20 0LN 

1 987 Loske, K-H . ; In den Kuhlen 44, D 4787 geseke, West Germany 

1985 Lossy, G.; Jan de Voslei 29/1, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium 

1981 LovejoyIII, DrT. E.; 3526 Georgetown Pike, mclean, VA 22102, USA 

1990 Lovell, J.; 23 Hollybush House, Hollybush Gardens, Bethnal Green, London E2 

1 973 McAndrew, R. T.: 5 Thornhill Gardens, Hartlepool, Cleveland TS26 0HY 

1944 McCulloch, The Rev G. K., O.B.E.; 5 Roy Road, northwood, Middx HA6 1 EQ (Committee 1981-1983. Vice- 
Chairman 1983-1986, Chairman 1986-1989) 

1988 McGowan, P.; Biology Dept, The Open University, Walton Hall, milton keynes MK7 6AA 

1978 McKean, J. L.; 1 Avondale Street, Hampton, Vic 3188, Australia 

1981 McLaughlin, T. J.; Lisnacarrig, Brighton Road, foxrock, Co. Dublin, Eire 

1974 McNeil, Dr D. A. C; 175 Byron Road, Loughborough, Leics 

1981 Madge, S. C; 2 Church Row, Sheviock, torpoint, Cornwall PL11 3EH 
1977 Magnusson, A. H.; Riihitie 10 A3, SF 00330 Helsinki, Finland 

1986 Main, J. S.; 67 Farm Fields, sanderstead, Surrey CR2 0HR 
1985 Malacarne, Prof. G.; Corso Chieti 36, 10153, Torino, Italy 

1989 Malcolm, N. S.; FAO DDF, Via Delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 rome, Italy 

1970 Mann, C. F.; Box 2359, bandar seri begawan, State of Brunei (Committee 1977-1981) 

1988 Mansfield, R. C; "Birdwood", 15c Lyles Road, Cottenham, Cambridge CB4 4QR 
1957 Marchant, S.; Box 123, moruya, NSW 2537, Australia 

1985 Martin, J. W. P.; 54 Wolsey Road, east molesey, Surrey KT8 9EW 

1985 Martin, Dr M.; 35 Auburn Road, Hawthorne, Melbourne, Victoria 3122, Australia 

1983 Martins, R. P.; 6 Connaught Road, Norwich, Norfolk NR2 3BP 

1 989 Maskell, P.; 32 Mansted Gardens, Chadwell Heath, romford, Essex RM6 4ED 

1982 Mason, I. J.; CSIRO Div. of Wildlife Research, PO Box 84, lyneham ACT 2602, Australia 

1987 Mason, V.; Interhash 88, PO Box 400, denpasar 80001, bali, Indonesia 

1988 Massa, Bruno; Via Archirafi 18, Institute di Zoologia, 90123 Palermo, Italy 

1986 Massey, K. G.; 4 Hall Terrace, Great Sankey, Warrington, Ches WA5 3EZ 

1989 Massie, D. B.; 43 Hazel Road, Purley Beeches, reading, Berks RG8 8HR 
1929 Mayaud, N.; 80 Rue du Ranelagh, paris 16, France (Hon. Life Member) 

1964 Mead, C. J.; c/o B.T.O., Beech Grove, tring, Herts HP23 5NR (Committee 1971-1975) 

1975 Mead, Mrs U. V.; "Clovelly", 4 Beaconsfield Road, tring, Herts 

1989 Meadows, B. S.; c/o Amartech Ltd., PO Box 30227, yanbu al-sinaiyah, Saudi Arabia 

1987 Medland, R. D.; PO Box 30370, lilonge 3, Malawi 

1982 Medway, D. G.; PO Box 476, new Plymouth, New Zealand 

1979 Meek, E. R.; Smyril, Stenness, stromness, Orkney 

1981 Meeth, P.; Bramenlaa 5, 21 16 TR bentveld, Netherlands 

1982 Meeus, Dr H.; Langvenstraat 25, B 2300 turnhout, Belgium 

1980 Meldrum, Dr J. A. K.; Heath House, 1 Millgate, Lisvane, Cardiff CF4 5TY 

1980 Melville, D. S.; c/o WWF (Hong Kong), GPO Box 12721 , Hong Kong 

1986 Meredith-Middleton, Miss J.; Anatomy Dept, University College London, Gower St, LONDON WC1E 6BT 

1981 Metcalfe, J. W. W.; Four Corners, Church Lane, Barnwell, Peterborough, PE8 5PG 
1986 Miles, D. T.; "Clareville", 24 Belmont Road, westgate-on-sea, Kent CT8 8AX 
1986 Mills, T. R.; 36 Chartfield Avenue, Putney, London SW15 6HG 

1988 Moller, E.; Parkstr. 1 3, 4900 herford, West Germany 

1989 Monbailliu, X.; 20 Rue St Martin, 75004 Paris, France 

1946 Monk, Dr J. F., D.M.; The Glebe Cottage, Goring, reading, Berks RG8 9AP (V ice-Chairman 1965-1968, 
Chairman 1 968-1 9 71 . Editor 1976- ) 

1988 Montemaggiori, A.; Via Emilio de Cavalieri 12, 00198 roma, Italy 

1978 Moore, A. G.; 34 Clarendon Gardens, London W9 

1985 Moore, Mrs A. M.; 1 Uppingham Road, Oakham, Rutland LEI 5 6JB (Committee 1987-1989, Hon. Secretary 

1989- ) 

1989 Morel, Dr G.; Route de Sallenelks, Breville-les-Mouts, F 14860 ranville, France 

1972 Morgan, P. J.; Zoologv Dept, National Museum of Wales, Cathays Park, Cardiff CF1 3NP 

1986 Morgan, R. G.; 13 Cloncurry St, London SW6 6DR 

1989 Morrow, R.; 2 Wentworth Street, randwick, NSW 2031, Australia 

1951 Mountfort, G. R., O.B.E.; Hurst Oak, Sandy Lane, lyndhurst, Hants S04 7DN 

1983 Moyer, D. C; Research Div., Museum of Zoology, Louisiana State University, baton rouge, LA 70803-3211, 


1986 Muller, Mrs M. N.; Lovedays Mill, painswick, Glos GL6 6SH 

1983 Murphy, M.; Sherkin Island, co cork, Eire 

1989 Musgrove, N. J.; 41 Emery Close, walsall, West Midlands WS1 3AC 

1974 Nakata, Yukio; 17-11, 3 chome, Kuwazu, Higasisumiyosi-ku, osaka 546, Japan 

1988 Narusue, Mrs Masae; Kikukawa 3-1 1-1 6, Sumidaku, tokyo 1 30, Japan 

1986 Nash, J. W.; 13 Farm Hill, Brighton, Sussex BN2 6BG 

1 987 Nattress, B.; 25 West Lea Drive, West Ardsley, Wakefield, W. Yorks WF3 1 DH 
1986 Newland, R. A.; 93 Arne Avenue, Parkstone, poole, Dorset BH12 4DP 

1986 Nichols, Dr T. D.; University Medical Center, 5620 Greenbriar Suite 103, Houston, TX 77005, USA 

1 974 Nicholson, M. P.; The Christopher Hotel, High Street, bath, Avon BA1 5AQ 

1975 Nielsen, B. P.; Skippervaenget 6 B, DK 2791 dragor, Denmark 

1 983 Nikolaus, G.; Bosenbuettel 4, 2859 spieka. West Germany 

1979 Noble-Rollin, C; Greystones, Glanton, alnwick, Northumberland NE66 4AH 

1979 Oba, Dr T.; Nat. Hist. Mus. & Inst. Chiba 955-2, Aoba-Cho, chiba, Japan 

1985 O'Halloran, DrJ.; Department of Zoology, University College, cork, Eire 

1986 Old, A. B.; "Kalinka", Flimby Brow, Flimby, maryport, Cumbria CA15 8TD 

1989 Olioso, G.; Le Grand Faubourg, F 26230, grignan, France 

1973 Oliver, P. J.; The Briar Patch, Trevereux Hill, Limpsfield Chart, oxted, Surrey RH8 0TL (Committee 1978- 


1974 Olney, P. J. S., F.I.Biol.; Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY 

1970 Olson, Dr S. L.; National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20560, USA 
1989 Onrubia-Baticon, A.; C/Francisco Suarez 2-C, 2°D, 47006, valladolid, Spain 

1982 Oren, Dr D. C; Caixa Postal 399, Belem, para, CEP 66040, Brazil 

1984 Ormerod, Dr S. J.; UWIST Acid Waters Unit, Penyfal House, Furnace, llanelli, Dyfed SA15 4EL 

1987 O'Rourke, R. M.; 1/54 Hunter Street, hornsby, NSW 2077, Australia 

1977 Pain, H. M.; 57 Lings Coppice, Dulwich, London SE21 8SX 

1986 PAlsson, P.; Carlandersplatsen 4, S 41255, Gothenburg, Sweden 

1988 Parish, D.; Asian Wetland Bureau of IPT, Universitii Malaya, 59100 KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia 

1977 Parker, J. G.; Clavering House, Foulden Road, Oxborough, kings lynn, Norfolk PE33 9BL (Committee 1979- 


1971 Parkes, Dr K. C; Carnegie Museum, 4400 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA 
1986 Payne, D.; Grovesbrook, Gough Road, fleet, Hants GUI 3 8LJ 

1966 Payne, Dr R. B.; Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, ANN arbor, MI 48109, USA 

1957 Paynter, DrR. A., Jnr; Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 021 38, USA 

1963 Peal, R. E. F.; 2 Chestnut Lane, sevenoaks, Kent TNI 3 3AR (Committee 1969-1971 , Hon. Secretary 1971-1989, 
Chairman 1989- ) 

1 989 Peart, D. E. M.; 35 Salisbury Road, wilton, Wilts SP2 0DT 

1979 Peckover, W. S.; 14 Balanda Street, jindalee, Queensland 4074, Australia 

1988 Penry, Dr E. H.; PO Box 138, Orkney, Transvaal 2620, South Africa 

1989 Perera, Dr R.; 56 Ash Rise, kingsthorpe, Northants 
1989 Perron, R.; 1 14 Park Lane East, reigate, Surrey 

1 989 Presente, M.; via Villa 1 9, 37052 Sustinenza di Casaleone, verona, Italy 

1982 Petersen, Aevar; Narturufraedistofnun Islands, PO Box 5320, Reykjavik 125, Iceland 

1978 Pettet, Prof. A., Ph.D.; 11 Wilton Close, deal, Kent CT14 9AJ 

1 957 Phillips, Dr A. R.; Reforma 825 A, Col Chapultepac, San Nicolas de los Garza, neuvo leon, Mexico 

1982 Pickering, R. H.; c/o FCO (Kathmandu), King Charles St, London SW1A 2AH 

1948 Pickford, K. D.; Longridge Corrie, stroud, Glos GL6 7HU 

1989 Piper, S. E.; 2 Canal Drive, westville 3630 Natal, South Africa 

1986 Pitman, R. A.; Straiddorn House, Ringneill Road, comber, Co. Down BT23 6EF 

1968 Plenge, M. A.; c/o Arthur Elinson, 20 Bosko Drive, east Brunswick, NJ 08816, USA 

1981 Pomeroy, Dr D. E.; Resource Centre, Muient, PO Box 10066, Kampala, Uganda 

1985 Powell, N. M.; PO Box 197, howe, DK 74940, USA 

1978 Poyser, T.; Town Head House, Calton, waterhouses, Staffs ST10 3JQ 
1989 Prats Tinidad, P.; Cami de Rafalat 59, menorca, Spain 

1 979 Price, R. C; 3 Ashchurch Park Villas, London Wl 2 

1957 Prigogine, Dr A.; Avenue des Volontaires 243, bte27, B 1150 Brussels, Belgium 

1 981 Prince, P. A.; c/o British Antarctic Survey, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET 

1982 Pritchett, R. S.; First Floor Flat, 91 Winchester Street, London SW1 V 4NU 
1989 Prys-Jones, Dr R. P.; B.T.O., Beech Grove, tring, Herts HP23 5NR 

1988 Purroy, F. J.; Departamento de Biologia Animal, Facultad de Biologia, 24071 leon, Spain 

1982 Quay, Dr W. B., 2003, Ida Street, napa, CA 94558, USA 


1987 Rae, M. C.j Roydon Hall, Roydon, kings lynn, Norfolk PE32 1 AR 

1986 RAJKOWSKI, Dr K. M.; 14 rue des Poissons, F 93600, aulnay-sous-bois, France 
1989 Randall, A.; 6 Wilmar Close, uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 IAS 

1981 Rasmussen, S. H.; Mollevej 6, Flong, DK 2640 hedehusene, Denmark 

1977 Raynor, E. M.; Priorsmead, Nash Meadow, south warnborouch, Hants 

1981 Redfern, C. P. F., Ph.D.; Westfield House, Acomb, hexham, Northumberland NE46 4RJ 

1978 Redman, N. J.; Holly Bank, Grindleton, clitheroe. Lanes BB7 4QT 

1976 Redman, P. S.; Les Quatre Vents, Cap Gris-Nes, 62179 wissant, France 

1987 Reed, J. M.; 21 Hardings, Panshanger, welwyn garden city, Herts AL7 2EQ 
1987 Reed, R. W.; 48 Alister Street, shortland, NSW 2307, Australia 

1982 Reid, J. B.; 8 Temple Crescent, crail, Fife KY10 3RS 

1989 Richardson, J. E.; Hazebrow, Rad Lane, Peaslake, Guildford, Surrey GUS 9PB 

1987 Ripley, Dr S. D., K.B.E., Sc.D.; Museum of Natural History, RM 336, Smithsonian Institution, Washington 

DC 20560, USA 

1989 Roberts, D.; 8 Greenacres Close, Brayton, selby, Yorks Y08 9HA 

1982 Roberts, T. J.; Cae Gors, Rhoscefnhir, pentraeth, Anglesey LL75 8YU 
1989 Robertson, I. S.; 1 Central Avenue, clitheroe, Lanes BB7 2PZ 

1 989 Robertson, K. W.; Nigerian Ropes Ltd, c/o British Ropes Ltd, Shipping Dept, Carr Hill, doncaster DN4 8DG 

1983 Robinson, Mrs J. W.; PO Box 1950, Alexandria, VA 22313-1950, USA 
1986 Robinson, P. J.; c/o R.S.P.B., The Lodge, sandy, Beds SG19 2DL 

1984 Rollin, DrP.; 17 Rue Varet, 75015 Paris, France 

1962 Romer, M. L. R.; Gillingshill, Arksden Road, Clavering, saffron walden, Essex CB1 1 40U (Committee 1964- 


1986 Roskaft, Dr E.; Kangshaugvegen 12, N 7560 vikhamar, Norway 

1978 Ross, N.; 71 Buckingham Road, wilmslow, Ches SK9 5LA 

1984 Round, P. D.; Centre for Conservation, Fac. of Science, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand 

1986 Rowbury, T. J.; 25 Priestley Drive, Larkfield, maidstone, Kent ME20 6TX 

1986 Rowe, G. Z.;51 Grange Avenue, Leagrave, luton, Beds LU4 9AS 

1987 Rowley, I. C. R.; CSIRO Locked Bag 4, PO midland, Western Australia 6056, Australia 

1981 Rozendaal, F. G.; Prins Hendriklaan 58, 3721 AT bilthoven, Netherlands 

1972 Rudge, P.; National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, Queen Square, London WC1N 3RG 

1982 Rumsey, S. J. R.; c/o Barclays de Zoete Wedd, Ebbsgate House, 2 Swan Lane, London EC4R 3TS 

1981 Saari, Dr C. L. V.; Aasla, SF 21 1 50 roola, Finland 

1989 Saether, S. A.; Klaebuvegen 102, N7030 trondheim, Norway 

1954 Sage, B. L.; Waveney House, 41 Waveney Close, wells-next-the-sea, Norfolk NR23 1HU 

1986 Salt, D.; 32 Cromwell Tower, The Barbican, London EC2Y 8DD 

1987 Samwald, O.; Muhlbreitenstrasse 61, A 8280 furstenfeld, Austria 
1987 Sassoon, Miss S.; Flat 1, 21 Upper Phillimore Gardens, London W8 7HF 

1 986 Sawle, V. J.; Home Farm, Lower Green Road, Rusthall, tunbridge wells, Kent TN4 8TT 

1974 Savers, B. C; 164 Chelmer Road, Chelmsford, Essex CM2 6AB 

1986 Scharfenberg, CD.; Rebaek soepark 3, 1505, DK 2650 hvidovre, Denmark 

1984 Schuchmann, Dr K-L.; Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut u Museum Alexander Koenig, 5300 BOON 1, 

Adenauerallee 150-164, West Germany 

1989 Schulze-Hagen, K; Bergerstr. 163, D 4050 munchengladbach 1 , West Germany 

1984 Schutt, R.; Roseggerstr. 35, D 1000 Berlin 44, West Germany 

1954 Schuz, Prof. Dr E.; Museum Direktor, Elmer Doch Strasse 39, D 7140 ludwigsburg, West Germany 

1961 Scott, R. E.; 8 Woodlands, Priory Hill, st neots, Cambs PE19 1UE 

1980 Scott, Dr W. C; Muston Manor, Winterbourne Muston, blandford, Dorset DTI 1 9BU 

1986 Self, Dr R.; 21 Firs Avenue, London N10 3LY 

1968 Sell, P. D.; Botany School, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA 

1979 Sellar,P. J.; 89 Riddlesdown Road, purley, Surrey CR2 1DH 

1979 Seller, T. J., Ph.D.; Zoology & Applied Entomology Dept., Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ 

1945 Serle, The Rev. Dr W., O.B.E.; 9 Hallcroft Gardens, Ratho, Newbridge, Midlothian EH28 8SG 

1985 Sharland, R. E., F.C.A.; 1 Fisher's Heron, East Mills, fordingbridge, Hants SP6 2JR 
1989 Sharp, B. J.; 1 Meadow Close, Marshalswick, st albans, Herts AL4 9TG 

1 979 Sharrock, Dr J . T. R. ; Fountains, Park Lane, Blunham, Bedford M K44 3 NJ 

1985 Sheldon, F. H.; Dept of Ornithology, Academy of Natural Science, 19th & parkway, Philadelphia, PA 19103, 


1987 Shigeta, Y.; Bird Migration Research Center, Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, Konoyama, Abiko, chiba 

270- 11, Japan 

1984 Shirihai, H.; PO Box 4168, eilat 88102, Israel 

1988 Short, D.; 35 Earls Mill Road, Plympton, Plymouth, Devon PL7 3BX 

1980 Sick, Prof. Dr H.; Academia Brasileira de Ciencas, Caixa Postal 229, rio de Janeiro, RJ 20.00, Brazil 
1988 Siegel-Causey, D.; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA 
1970 Skinner, Prof. N. J., Ph.D.; 60 Gunton Drive, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR32 4QB 

1988 Slack, E.; Norwood, 30 Reid Park Road, Jesmond, newcastle-upon-tyne NE2 2ES 

1989 Smith, A. W.; 7 St Brelades Road, Broadfield, crawley, Sussex RH1 1 9RQ 
1980 Smith, D. A., F.R.P.S.; Scoretulloch, by darvel, Ayrshire KA17 0LR 

1973 Smith, G. A., Jnr; 158 Broadway, Peterborough PE1 4DG 

1986 Smith, Dr J. B.; School of Modern Languages, The University, bath, Avon BA2 7AY 

1980 Snell, R. R.; Dept of Zoology, University of Toronto, Ramsay Wright Zoological Labs., 25 Harbord St, 

Toronto M5S 1A1, Canada 

1977 Snow, Dr D. W., D.Sc; Sub-Dept of Ornithology, British Museum (Natural History), tring, Herts HP23 6AP 

1981 Somadikarta, Dr S.; Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, bogor, Indonesia 

1 981 Spaans, Dr A. L.; c/o Research Institute for Nature Management, PO Box 9201 , 6800HB arnhem, Netherlands 

1980 Sparks, Mrs G. M. B.; The Old Vicarage, Compton Abdale, Cheltenham, Glos GLK54 4DS 

1985 Spitzer, Dr G.; Inst. f. Zoologie D. Univ. Wien, Abt F, Terr, Okologie, Althanstr. 14, A 1000 wien, Postfach 

282, Austria 

1980 Stack, Dr C. G.; "Treetops", 8 Dovedale Road, West Bridgford, Nottingham NG2 6JA 
1957 Stafford, J.; Westering, Moor Lane, brighstone, Isle of Wight PO30 4DL 

1988 Stanfield, Dr J. P.; c/o African Medical & Research Foundation, Wilson Airport, PO Box 30125, Nairobi, 


1979 Statham, S. A. H.; Woodcock Hill, Durrants Lane, berkamsted, Herts HP4 3TR (Committee 1983-1986) 

1981 Stevens, J. P.; Dept of Animal Science, University of Saskatchewan, saskatoon SK, Canada S7N 0W0 


19S9 Stewart-Cox, Miss B., The Old Rectory, Bishopstow, Warminster, Wilts BA23 9HN 

1971 Stjernstedt, R.; No address 

1983 Stone, N. H. F.; 64 Trinitv Road, Old Wolverton, milton keynes, Bucks MK12 5PB (Committee 1986- ) 
1989 Stott, R. D. E.; 503 May Tower, 7 May Road, Hong Kong 

1988 Strahl, Dr S. D.; Univ. Simon Bolivar, Dpto Bilogia de Organismos, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080 A, 

1987 Stronach, N. R. H.; Dept Applied Biology, Pembroke St, Cambridge CB2 3DX 

1977 Stuart, Dr S. N.; Species Survival Commission, IUCN, Avenue de Mont-Blanc, CH 1196 gland, 


1986 Summerfield, Dr B. J.; 1 la Avenue Gdns, Margate, Kent IT9 3BD 

1988 Swash, A. R. H.; 22 Stratfield Avenue, New Park, tadley, Hants RG26 6UD 

1961 Talbot-Kelly, Miss C. E.; 22 St Philip's Road, Leicester LE5 5TQ 

1985 Tanner, A. R.; 24 Eustace Road, East Ham, London E6 3ND 

1956 Tate, P.; Half Acre, Rooks Hill, Loudwater, rickmansworth, Herts (Hon. Treasurer 1962-1974) 

1985 Tay'LOR, P. B.; c'o Prof. G. L. Maclean, Dept of Zoology, University of Natal, PO Box 375, pietermaritzburg 
3200, South Africa 

1975 Teixeira, Prof. D. L. M.; Museu Nacional, Quinta da Boa Vista, Soa Cristovam, Rio de janiero, RJ, CEP 20941 2, 


1982 Tetlow, H. H.; Westbury, 35 Stone Road, Eccleshall, Stafford 

1976 Thibalt, J-C; La Bergerie, F 20253 patrimonio. France 

1982 Thiede, Dr W.; An der Ronne 184, D-5 koln 40, West Germany 

1979 Thomas, Mrs B. T.; Waterfield, Route 1 , Box 21 2c, castleton, VA 22716, USA 

1982 Thomas, Dr D. H.; School of Biology, University of Wales at Cardiff, PO Box 915, Cardiff CF1 3TL 

1979 Thompson, K. V., F.C.A.; Primrose Bank, Gaggerhill Lane, Brighstone, Newport, Isle of Wight PO30 4DX 

1988 Thompson, P.; Middlesex Polytechnic, Queensway, enfield, Middx EN3 4SF 

1981 Timmis, W. H.; Curator, Lotherton Hall Bird Garden, Tanton Road, Abberford, Leeds LS25 3ED 

1984 Todd, D.; Dressors, eversley, Hants RG23 0PJ 

1985 Todd, W.; 3370 Graustark, Houston, TX 77006-3810, USA 

1989 Tomlins, A. D.; 29 Gerard Road, Barnes, London SW13 9RQ 

1988 Tostain, O.; 7 Place du General de Gaulle, 77850 hericy, France 

1959 Traylor, Major M. A.; Birds Division, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL 60605, USA 

1977 Tucker, J. J.; 13 Brook Road, po.ntesbury, Shropshire SY4 30U 
1985 Tucker, N. A.; 8 Julius Road, Bishopston, Bristol BS7 8EU 

1985 Tucker, W. T.; 61 Main St, Kingston, NH 03848-3209, USA 

1989 Turner, A.; 2 Valley Road, Hackenthorpe, Sheffield S12 4LM 

1984 Turner, B. C; Uplands, Green Lane, Raymonds Hill, axminster, Devon EX13 5TD 

1986 Turner, C. F.: Lakers, Church Road, St Johns, redhill, Surrey RH1 6QA 
1970 Turner, D. A.; PO Box 48019, Nairobi, Kenya 

1989 Turner, S. T. A.; Box 357, sharjah, United Arab Emirates 

1986 Tutt, D.; 27 Seaview Road, gillingham, Kent ME7 4NL 

1985 Tye, Dr A.; 2 School Lane, King's Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambs PE17 2NL 

1974 Tyxer, Dr S. J.; Yew Tree Cottage, Lone Lane, penallt, Gwent 

1 975 Urban, Prof. E. K.; Dept of Biology, Augusta College, augusta, GA 309 1 0, USA 

1982 van den Berg, A. B.; Duinlustparkweg 98, 2082 EG sandpoorte-zuid, Netherlands 
1959-1972,1985-86, 1989 van Oosten, J. R.; 8023 17th NE, Seattle, WA 98115, USA 

1987 Veling, Dr E. J. M.; J.M. Coenenstraat 31-11, 1071 WE Amsterdam, Netherlands 
1934 Vincent, Col. J.; PO Box 44, Mooi River, 3300 natal, South Africa (Hon. Life Member) 
1981 Violani, Dr C. G.;'Via S. Vittore 38/A, 20123 milan, Italy 

1976 Vittery, A.; The Saltings, Coast Road, Cley-next-the-Sea, holt, Norfolk NR25 7RZ 

1976 Voous, Prof. K. H.; V. D. Duyn van Maasdamlaan 28, 1872 EM huizen, N.H., Netherlands 

1979 Walker, R. L.; Mount Cottage, parwtch, Derbyshire DE6 1QS 

1985 Wall, J. W.; 76 Brambach Road, scarsdale, NY 10000583, USA 

1986 Walmsley, M. A.; Woodpeckers, Broughton, stockbridge, Hants SO20 8BD 

1968 Walsh, J. F.; 80 Arundel Road, lytham st annes, Lanes 

1969 Walters, M. P.; Sub-Dept of Ornithology, British Museum (Natural History), tring, Herts HP23 6AP 

1986 Wang, Dr Ying; Institute of Biology, College of Science, National Taiwan Normal University, 88 Sect, 

5 Roosevelt Road, Taipei, Taiwan 1 1718 

1975 Warham, DrJ.; 14 Konini Street, christchurch 4, New Zealand 

1984 Warr, Mrs F. E.; 6 Mansion Drive, tring, Herts HP23 5BD 

1989 Warren, R. A.; 45 Arkwright Road, Irchester, Wellingborough, Northants NN9 7EE 

1985 Warriner, R. E.; 9 Bucklands View, Nailsea, Bristol BS19 2TZ 

1989 Waters, Prof. W. E.; Orchards, Broxmore Park, Sherfield English, romsey, Hants 

1981 Watling, R. J.; Aqua Foods Fiji, PO Box 9269, nandi airport, Fiji 

1986 Webster, B. D.; 17 Prentice Court, Goldings, Northampton NN3 4XS 
1967 Weir, The Hon J. V.; 85 Whitehall Court, London SW1A 2EL 

1985 Welch, G. R.; 21a East Delph, whittlesey, Cambs PE7 1RH 

1975 Wells, Dr D. R.; Dept. of Zoology, University of Malaya, 59100 kuala lumpur, Malaysia 

1986 Westoll, J.; Dykeside, Longtown, Carlisle, Cumbria CA6 5ND 

1985 Wheatley-, J. J.; 6 Boxgrove Avenue, Guildford, Surrey GUI 1XG 

1973 Wheeler, C. E.; 3 Woodhurst Close, Cuxton, Rochester, Kent (Committee 1975-1979) 

1988 Wheeler, Mrs G. F.; Pumlani, Otters Creek, zeekoevlei 7945, South Africa 

1987 Wheeler-Holohan, B. J.; 38 Oregon Square, Orpington, Kent BR6 8BQ 

1980 White, Lt.-Col. T. C; 6c Rosebery Avenue, harpenden, Herts AL5 2PL 
1984 Wiersma,L.J.; Singel 282, 3311 HKdordecht, Netherlands 

1986 Wigley, M. W.; 9 Elm Street, colne, Lanes BB8 0RQ 

1989 Wilkinson, Sir Denys, F.R.S.; Gayles Orchard, Friston, Eastbourne, Sussex BN20 0BA 

1982 Wilkinson, Dr R.; 2 Weston Grove, upton-by-chester, Cheshire CH2 1QJ 

1987 Wilkinson, Sir William; 119 Castelnau, Barnes, London SW13 9EL 
1987 Willett, D. R.; 18 Main Street, Newbold Verdon, Leicester LE9 9NL 
1989 Willemyns, F.; Dianadreef 3 1 , 8200 brugge, Belgium 

1986' Williams, Dr E. J.; 24 Birkett Drive, ulverston, Cumbria LAI 2 9LS 


1951 Williams, J. G.; 14 Tyne Road, oakham, Rutland LE15 6SJ 

1988 Williams, K. F.; 28 Falconers Close, dan-entry, Northants NN1 5PR 

1989 Williams, R. G.; 2 Milwain Road, stretford, Manchester M32 9BY 
1985 Wilson, H, E.; PO Box 10463, marine parade 4056, South Africa 

1985 Wilson, J. D.; 8 Haworth Grove, Heaton, Bradford, W. Yorks BD9 5PE 
1976 Wilson, R. T.; Bartridge House, umberleigh, Devon EX7 9AS 

1987 Winfield, K. W.; 7 Burlington Road, skecness, Lines PE25 2EW 

1986 Wolsey, R. P. S.; 7 Farnham Park, bangor, Co Down BT20 3SR 
1976 Wood, J. B.; 73 Vicarage Road, Marsworth, tring, Herts 

1985 Wood, V. J.; PO Box 401 , dalby, Queensland 4405, Australia 

1961 Woodcock, M. W.; The Fives, Elderden Farm, Staplehurst, tonbridge, Kent (Hon. Secretary 1965-1969) 

1987 Woods, R. W.; Aller Park Road, newton abbot, Devon TQ12 4NQ 
1984 Woodson, J. L.; 410 North 600 East, logan, Utah 84321, USA 

1986 Woolfall, S. J.; B.T.O., Beech Grove, tring, Herts HP23 5NR 

1 983 Wright, A. A.; 7 Fairhurst Drive, Parbold, wigan, Lanes WN8 7DJ 

1 988 Ziegler, A. P.; Titcombs, Sheep Street, burford OX8 4LT 

1963 Ziswiler, Prof. Dr V.; Zoological Museum of the University of Zurich, Kunstlergasse 16, CH 8006, Zurich, 


1973 Zonfrillo, B.; 28 Brodie Road, Glasgow G21 3SB 



ASH, J. S., PEARSON, D. J., NIKOLAUS, G. & COLSTON, P. R. The man- 
grove reed warblers of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coasts, with descriptions of 

anew subspecies of the African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus 36 


C. G. Notes on bird distribution in northeastern Dpto. Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 

with 1 5 species new to Bolivia 236 

BOLES, W. E. A new subspecies of the Green-backed Robin Pachycephalopsis 

hattamensis , comprising the first record for Papua New Guinea 119 

BOOKS RECEIVED 59, 123,184,245 


CARSTAIRS, D. N. The status of the Rufous-chested Dotterel Zonibyx modestus in 

the Falkland Islands 166 

CHAPPUIS, C, ERARD, C. & MOREL, G. J. Type specimens of Prinia subflava 

(Gmelin) and Prinia fluviatilis Chappuis 108 

CHEKE, ROBERT A. & WALSH, J. FRANK. Westward range extension into 

Togo of the Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia hypopyrrha 47 

CLANCEY, P. A. The status of Anthus caffer mzimbaensis Benson, 1955 43 

The status of (Cursorius temminckii) damarensis Reichenow, 1901 51 

Subspeciation in the Larklike Bunting of the southwestern Afrotropics 130 

The southern isolate of Parus rufiventris pallidiventris Reichenow, 1885 134 

The status of Streptopelia capensis onguati Macdonald, 1957 225 

Subspeciation in the Sociable Weaver Philetairus socius in the South West Arid 

Zone of Africa 228 


Report of the Committee for 1988 and Annual General Meeting Agenda 1 

Annual General Meeting 61 

Meeting reports 1, 63-64, 125, 185 

COLSTON, P. R. See ASH, J. S. 

DAVIS, S. E. Migration of the Mississippi Kite Ictinia mississippiensis in Bolivia 

with comments on Ictinia plumb ea 149 

DEAN, W. R. J. A review of the genera Callandrella, Spizocorys & Eremelauda 

(Alaudidae) 95 


DICKERMAN, R. W. Notes on Sturnella magna in South America with a descrip- 
tion of a new subspecies 160 

Notes on the Malachite Kingfisher Corythornis (Alcedo) cristata 158 

DOWSETT, R. J. The nomenclature of some African barbets of the genus 

Tricholaema 180 


FEARE, C. J. & MUNGROO, Y. Notes on the House Crow Corvus splendens in 

Mauritius 1 99 

FISHER, CLEM. The discovery of new Australian species by John Gilbert, 1838- 

1845 64 

FRITH, C. B. & HARRISON, C. J. O. An undescribed plumage of the Crested Bird 

of Paradise Cnemophilus macgregorii 137 



graphic support for the Spanish Imperial Eagle as a distinct species 86 

GONZALES, P. C. & KENNEDY, R. S. Notes, on Philippine Birds, 14. Additional 

records for the island of Palawan 126 


GOODMAN, STEVEN M. & GONZALES, PEDRO C. Notes on Philippine 

Birds, 12[= 13]. Seven species new to Catanduanes Island 48 


HAZEVOET, C.J. Notes on behaviour and breeding of the Razo Lark Alauda rozea 82 

Wing clapping display of Dupont's Lark Chersophilus duponti 181 


HOLYOAK, D. T. & SEDDON, M. B. Distributional Notes on the birds of 

Burkina Faso 205 


IN BRIEF CLANCEY, P. A. The gender of the genus Batis Boie, 1933 122 

WALTERS, J. Dwarf eggs in the Black-headed Gull Lams ridibundus 122 
JACKSON, H. D. Weights of birds collected in the Mutare Municipal Area, 

Zimbabwe 100 

KAWAJI, N., HIGUCHI, H. & HORI, H. A new breeding record of the Izu Island 

Thrush Turdus celaenops from the Tokara Islands, southwest Japan 93 



JUAN CARLO & SCHMITT, N. JOHN. Notes on the nests and eggs of some 

Ecuadorian birds 25 

KIFF, L. F. See MARIN A, M. 

KING, BEN. The avian genera Tesia and Urosphena 162 

KING, J. R. Notes on the birds of the Rio Mazan Valley, Azuay Province, Ecuador 

with special reference to Leptosittaca branickii, Hapalopsittaca amazonina 

pyrrhops and Metallura baroni 140 

LOUETTE, M. Additions and corrections to the avifauna of Zaire (4) 217 

LOUSADA, S. Amazona auropalliata caribaea; a new subspecies of parrot from the 

Bay Islands, Northern Honduras 232 


MARIN A, M., KIFF, L. F. & PENA G, L. Notes on Chilean birds, with descrip- 
tions of two new subspecies 66 


MASSA, B. Comments on Passer italiae (Vieillot 1817) 196 


MLIKOVSKY, JIRI. Note on the osteology and taxonomic position of Salvadori's 

Duck Salvadorina waigiuensis (Aves: Anseridae [Anatidae]) 22 

MONROE, B. L. Jr. The correct name of the Terek Sandpiper 106 

MOREL, GERARD J. Paradoxical Sahel; rich wetlands surrounded with arid bush 

steppe 4 


OLSON, S. L. Notes on some Hawaiian birds from Cook's third voyage 201 


Petrel Oceanodroma monorhis; a species new for Thailand 9 

PARISH, D. & PRENTICE, C. Chestnut-cheeked Starling Sturnus philippensis; a 

first record for mainland South-East Asia 107 

PAYNE, R. B. Commentary on the Melba Finches Pytilia melba of Djibouti and the 

requirement of a specimen for taxonomic description 117 



RINKE, D. The relationships and taxonomy of the Fijian parrot genus Prosopeia . . 185 

RYAN, P. G. Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor and new records of seabirds 

from Tristan da Cunha and Gough Islands 147 






SMITH, P. W. & SMITH, S. A. The Bahama Swallow Tachycineta cyanoviridis; a 

summary 170 

SMITH, S. A. See SMITH, P. W. 

STRONACH, N. Notes on the ecology and nesting of the Spangled Kookaburra 

Dacelo tyro in Southern New Guinea 115 

SUTER, WERNER. Feeding ecology of Cormorants wintering in Switzerland .... 125 
TEIXEIRA, D. M., NACINOVIC, J. B. & LUIGI, G. Notes on some birds of 

northeastern Brazil (4) 152 

TYE, ALAN. The systematic position of the Buff-streaked Chat (Oenanthel Saxicola 

bifasciata) 53 


WENDELKEN, PETER W. & MARTIN, ROBERT F. Recent data on the distri- 
bution of birds in Guatemala, 2 31 

WILSON, J. D. Range extensions of some bird species of Cameroon 110 

WOOD, BRIAN. Biometrics, iris and bill colouration, and moult of Somali forest 

birds 11 

(Compiled by J. H. Elgood) 

All generic and specific names (of birds only) are indexed. New subspecific names are indexed in 
bold print under generic, specific and subspecific names. Other subspecies of special interest are 
also included. 

Birds listed in the appendix to the paper of J. M. Bates et al. (pp. 240—244) are not included in 
this index. 

abdimii, Ciconia 101 
aberrans, Cisticola 104 
abingoni, Campethera 13, 102 
abunda, Streptopelia 226 
abyssinica, Coracias 211 

— , Hirundo 212 
abyssinicus, Bucorvus 6 

— ,Turtur210 
acanthizoides, Cettia 164 
Accipiter badius 1 3 , 1 5 , 1 1 , 209 

— minullusl3,15, 101 

— ovampensis 101, 110 

— striatus 33, 146 

— soloensis 127 

— tachiro 13, 101 
Acestrura mulsant 146 
Acrocephalus agricola 38 

— baeticatus 36^4-0, 42 
Acrocephalus baeticatus avicennae 

subsp. nov. 38-40 
Acrocephalus cinnamomeus 37^4-0 

— dumetorum 37, 38, 40 

— palustris 103 

— scirpaceus 36, 37, 40 
Actitis hypoleucos 210 

— macularia 146 
Actophilornis africana 209 
acuminatus, Calidris 128 
acuta, Anas 8 

acuticaudata, Aratinga 154 
acutirostris, Calandrella 96, 97, 99 
adalberti, Aquila 86-91 
adansonii, Coturnix 101 
Adelomyia melanogenys 146 
adsimilis, Dicrurus 103, 216 
adusta, Muscicapa 104, 214 
aequatorialis, Apus 102 
aeruginosus, Circus 209 
aethiopicus, Laniarius 104 

— , Threskiornis 7 
afer, Euplectes 214 

• , Nilaus 104, 213,219 

— , Ptilostomus 216 

— ,Sphenoeacus 103 
affinis, Apus 102, 211 
afra, Pytilia 105 
africana, Actophilornis 209 

— , Mirafral02, 182, 183 
africanus, Bubo 102 

— ,Buphagus215 

— , Phalacrocorax 7, 208 
Agapornis roseicollis 189 

Agelaius phoeniceus 35 
Aglaeactis cupripennis 146 
agricola, Acrocephalus 38 
Agriornis microptera 76 

— montana 146 
Aix sponsa 173 
Alaemon 183 
Alauda82, 83,96, 183 
Alauda arvensis 83 

— gulgula 82 

— razae 82, 83 
alba, Motacilla 8 

■ ,Tyto211 
albicapilla, Cossypha 112 
albicollis, Corvus 103 

— , Merops 5 

— , Scelorchilus 76 
albifrons, Amblyospiza 104 
albigularis, Hirundo 112 

— , Sclerurus 28 
albilinea, Tachycineta 34 
albinucha, Xenopsaris 156 
albirostris, Bubalornis 215 
albiventris, Halcyon 13, 16, 101 
albogularis, Francolinus 209 
albonotatus, Buteo 33 

— , Trochocercus 104 
alboterminatus, Tockus 102 
albus, Casmerodius 32 

— , Corvus 103, 216 
Alcedo cristata 102, 158 
Alisterusl86, 187, 188 
Alisterus amboinensis 188 
alleni, Porphyrio 209 

— , Porphyrula 101 
alopex, Falco 111, 209 
alpina, Muscisaxicola 146 
amabilis, Charmosyna 193 
Amazilia violiceps 31, 34 
Amazona auropalliata 233—235 
Amazona auropalliata caribaea subsp. 

nov. 233 
amazonina, Hapalopsittaca 142-143, 146 
Amblyospiza albifrons 104 
amboinensis, Alisterus 188 
americana, Parula 35 

amethystina, Nectarinia 13, 104, 221—223 
Ampelion rubrocristatus 146 
Anairetes parulus 77, 146 

— reguloides 77 
analis, Catamenia 146 
Anaplectes rubriceps 105 

Anas acuta 8 

— flavirostris 143, 146 

— georgica 143 

— querquedula 8 

— smithii 100 
Anastomus lamelligerus 101 
andicola, Leptasthenura 146 
Andigena hypoglauca 145, 146 
Andropadus importunus 13, 17, 103 

— milanjensis 103 
angolensis, Uraeginthus 105 
angulata, Gallinula 101, 209 
Anhinga melanogaster 103 

— rufa 7 
Anisognathus igniventris 146 
Anthracothorax prevostii 33 
Anthreptes collaris 13, 19, 104 

— platurus 214 
Anthus bogotensis 1 46 

— caffer 43-47 

— campestris 6 

— lineiventris 104 

— mzimbaensis 43—46 

— similis 104 

— trivialis 104 

— vaalensis 104 
Anthoscopus caroli 103 
Apalis chirindensis 103 

— flavidal03 

— jacksoni 220 

— melanocephala 13 

— thoracica 103 
Apaloderma narina 13, 15 
apiaster, Merops 21 1 
apiata, Mirafra 182 
apivorus, Pernis 208 
Aplopelia larvata 102 
Aprosmictus 187, 188 
Apus aequatorialis 102 

— affinis 102,211 

— caffer 211 
Aprosmictus jonquillaceus 188 
aquatica, Muscicapa 214 
Aquila adalberti 86-91 

— fulvus 89 

— heliaca 86-90 

— imperialis 87—89 

— melanaetus 87 

— rapaxllO 

— verreauxii 101 

Aramides mangle 153 
Aratinga acuticaudata 154 
arborea, Lulula 85 
Ardea cinerea 208 

— herodias 32 

— melanocephala 208 

— purpurea 208 
ardens, Euplectes 105 
Ardeola ralloides 7, 208 
ardosiaceus, Falco 217, 218 

aridus, Cursorius temminckii subsp. 

nov. 52 
armata, Merganetta 146 

arnaudi, Pseudonigrita 228 
arvensis, Alauda 83 
Asio flammeus 128 
Asthenes flammulatus 146 
Asthenes humicola goodalli subsp. nov. 

— humicola 74, 75 

— polysticta 74, 75 
astrild, Estrilda 105 
aterrimus, Phoeniculus 212 
Atlapetes rufinucha 146 

— torquatus 146 
atra, Pyriglena 155 
atricapilla, Sylvia 6 
atriceps, Phrygilus 78, 80 

— , Phalacrocorax 69 
Atrichornis clamosus 65 
atrocaudata, Terpsiphone 1 29 
atrogularis, Prosopeia 186, 187, 188 
audeberti, Pachycoccyx 218 
auguralis, Buteo 209 

aura, Cathartes 146 

auratus, Oriolus 103, 216 

auritus, Nettapus 208 

auropalliata carabaea, Amazona subsp. 

nov. 232-235 
australis, Hyliota 103 

— ,Tchagral04 
Automolus 155 
Automolus ochrolaemus 28 
Aviceda cuculoides 101 

avicenniae, Acrocephalus baeticatus 

subsp. nov. 38^40 
avosetta, Recurvirostra 210 
azarae, Synallaxis 146 
azureocapilla, Myiagara 193 

badius,Accipterl3, 15, 101,209 
baeticatus avicenniae, Acrocephalus 

subsp. nov. 38^40, 42 
bairdi, Oreomystis 202 
bairdii, Calidris 146 
barbarus, Laniarius 212 
barbatus, Pycnonotus 103, 212 
baroni, Metallura 143, 144, 146 
Basileuterus coronatus 146 

— culicivorus 154 

— nigrocristatus 146 
batesi, Caprimulgus 219 

Batis capensis 104, 122 

— molitorl04 

— minima 122 

— minor 122 

— occulta 122 

— poensis 122 

— senegalensis 122, 214 
bengalus, Uraeginthus 215 
benghalensis, Rostratula 101 
biarmicus, Falco 209 
bicalcaratus, Francolinus 209 
bicolor, Ploceusl3, 19, 20 

— , Spermestes 105 

, Tachycineta 34, 171, 176 

bifasciata, Oenanthe 53, 55 
, Saxicola 53, 55, 58 
bilineatus, Pogoniulus 102 
blanchoti, Malaconotus 104, 213 
boehmi, Sarothrura 101 
bogotensis, Anthus 146 
boissonneautii, Pseudocolaptes 146 
bonariensis, Molothrus 78, 79 
bonelli, Phylloscopus 6 
borealis, Contopus 34 
borin, Sylvia 103 
Bostrychia hagedash 208 
bottae, Oenanthe 213 
brachydactyla, Calandrella 96, 97, 98 
brachyura, Camaroptera 13, 17, 20, 103 

■ ,Sylvietta213 
Bradornis pallidus 213, 214 
Bradypterus 162, 163 

branickii, Leptosittaca 140-142, 146 
brasilianum, Glaucidium 33, 69-71, 72 
brevicaudata, Camaroptera 213 
brunnifrons, Cettia 164 
Bubalornis albirostris 215 
Bubo africanus 102 

— virginianus 146 
Bubulcus ibis 208 
Bucco leucomelas 181 
Bucorvus abyssinicus 6 
Buphagus africanus 215 
Burhinus capensis 210 

— senegalensis 210 
Butastur rufipennis 209 
Buteo albonotatus 33 

— auguralis 209 

— poecilochrous 29 

— polyosoma 146 
Butorides striatus 208 

cabanisi, Emberiza 105 

— , pseudonigrita 228 
caerulea, Egretta 33 
caerulescens, Estrilda 1 14, 215 

■ , Muscicapa 13, 104 
caeruleus, Elanus 33, 40, 208 
caffer, Anthus 43, 47 

cafifra, Cossvpha 103 
Calandrella"82, 95,96,97, 98 
Calandrella acutirostris 96, 97, 99 

brachydactyla 96, 97,98 

cinerea 96, 97, 99 

— conirostris 96, 97 
dunni 96, 97 

— fringillaris 96, 97 

— obbiensis 96, 97 

— personata 96, 97 
raytal 96, 97, 99 
rufescens83,85,96, 97, 99 

- somalica96,97, 99 

- starki 96, 97 
Calidris 106 

— acuminatus 128 

— bairdii 146 

— canutus 106 

Calidris ferruginea 120 
■ fuscicollis 148, 168 
- minuta 138 
temminckii 127 
Callichelidon 170 
calva, Treron 102 

Camaroptera brachyura 13, 17, 20, 103 
brevicaudata 213 

— lopesi 113 
stierlingi 103 

camelus, Struthio 6 
Campephaga flava 102 
campestris, Anthus 6 
Campethera abingoni 13, 102 

— punctuligera 212 
Campy lopterus falcatus 146 
canorus, Cuculus 6 
cantans, Cisticola 103, 213 
canutus, Calidris 106 
capense, Glaucidium 13,15 
capensis, Batis 104, 122 

— .Burhinus 104, 122 

— , Emberiza 105 

— , Euplectes 105 

— , Muscicapa 122 

— ,Oena210 

— , Smithornis 102 

— , Zonotrichia 146 
capicola, Streptoplia 225—227 
Caprimulgus batesi 219 

— climacurus 211 

— europaeus 102 

— fossii 102 

— longirostris 26, 71, 46 

— pectoralis 102 

— tristigma 102 
caprius, Chrysococcyx 102 
carbo, Phalacrocorax 101, 125 
caribaea, Amazona auropalliata subsp. 

nov. 232 
caroli, Anthoscopus 103 
carunculata, Foulehaio 193 
carunculatus, Phalcobaenus 146 
Casmerodius albus 32 
castaneocoronata, Tesia 164, 165 
Catamblyrynchus diadema 146 
Catamenia amalis 146 

— homochroa 146 

— inornata 146 
Cathartes aura 146 
caudatus, Lamprotornis 215 
celaenops, Turdus 93-95 
Celeus torquatus 154 
Centropus grillii 21 1 

— senegalensis 102, 211 

— superciliosus 102 
Ceryle rudis 211 
Cercomela 53, 58 
Cercomela familiaris 103 
Cercotrichas galactotes 213 

— quadrivirgata 13, 17, 20 
Certhia coccinea 203—204 

— pacifica 204 

Ceryle rudis 211 
cetti, Cettia 164 
Cettia 162-166 
Cettia acanthizoides 164 

— brunnifrons 164 

— cetti 1 64 

— diphone 164 

— flavolivacea 164 

— fortipes 164 

— major 164 

— pallidipes 164, 168 

— vulcania 164 
Chalcopsitta 197 
chalcopterus, Cursorius 5, 210 

— , Rhinoptilus 101 
chalcospilos, Turtur 13, 15, 102 
Chalcostigma stanleyi 146 
chalcurus, Lamprotornis 216 
chalybeata, Vidua 215 
chalybeus, Lamprotornis 216 
chapmani, Oceanodroma 9, 10 
Charadrius falklandicus 168 

— hiaticulal26, 127 

— pecuarius 100 

— tricollaris 101 
Charmosyna 187 
Charmosyna amabilis 193 
Chasiempis sandwichensis 202 
chelicuti, Halcyon 102, 21 1 
Chersomanes 183 
Chersophilus 182, 183 
Chersophilus duponti 181—183 
chimachima, Milvago 144, 146 
chinensis, Streptopelia 49 
chiniana, Cisticola 103 
chirindensis, Apalis 103 
Chlidonias leucopterus 102 
Chloebia gouldiae 65 
chloris, Halcyon 193 

— , Nicator 13, 17 
Chlorocichla flaviventris 13, 103 
chlororhynchos, Diomedea 153 
Chordeiles minor 147, 148 
Chrysococcyx caprius 102 

— klaasl02 
chrysoconus, Pogoniulus 102, 212 
Chrysoenas 188 

chrysolaus, Turdus 95 
chrysopeplus, Pheucticus 146 
Chubbiajamesoni 146 
Ciccaba woodfordi 13 
Ciconia abdimii 101 

— ciconia 7 
Cinclodes fuscus 146 
Cinclus leucocphalus 146 
cinerea, Ardea 208 

, Calandrella 96, 97,99 

— , Scolopax 106 

— , Serpophaga 146 

— ,Tringal06 
cinereum, Conirostrum 146 
cinereus, Circus 68 

— , Xenus 106 

cinnamomea, Pyrrhomyias 146 
cinnamomeus, Acrocephalus 37—40 
cinnamomeiventris, Thamnolaea 103 
Cinnyricinclus leucogaster 104, 215 
Circaetus gallicus 209 
Circus aeruginosus 209 

— cinereus 68 
Ciridops 204 
Cisticola aberrans 104 

— cantans 103, 213 

— chiniana 103 

— erythrops 104 

— fulvicapilla 104 

— galactotes 213 

— juncidis213 

— lais 103 

— natalensis 104, 213 

— rufa213 
Cistothorus platensis 146 
clamosus, Atrichornis 65 
Climacteris picumnus 65 
climacurus, Caprimulgus 211 
Cnemophilus 138 
Cnemophilus macgregorii 137—139 
coccinea, Certhia 203-204 

■ , Vestiaria 202-203 
Coeligena iris 144, 146 
coerulescens, Saltator 35 
Colibri coruscans 27, 72, 146 
Colius indicus 102 

— striatus 102 

collaris, Anthreptes 13, 19, 104 

, Lanius 104 
collurio, Lanius 104 
collybita, Phylloscopus 6 
Colorhamphus parvirostris 77 
Columba fasciata 111 

— guinea 210 

— Iivia210 

— unicincta 111 

— vitiensis 128 
columbarius, Falco 146 
communis, Sylvia 6 
conirostris, Calandrella 96, 97 

— , Spizocorys 97, 99 
Conirostrum cinereum 146 

— sitticolor 146 
Contopus borealis 34 
Coracias abyssinica 21 1 

— garrulus 102 

— naevia 102, 211 
Coracopsis 186 

cornutus, Eunymphicus 187, 194 
coronatus, Basileuterus 146 
coruscans, Colibri 27, 72, 146 
corvina, Corvinella 212 
Corvinella corvina 212 
Corvus albicollis 103 

- albus 103, 216 

- splendens 199-200 
Corythornis cristata 158—159, 211 
Corythornis cristata stuartkeithi subsp. 

nov. 159 
Cossypha albicapilla 112 

Cossvpha caffra 103 

heuglinil3, 17, 103 

— humeralis 103 

— natalensis 13, 20, 103 

— niveicapilla 213 

— roberti 112 
Cossvpha spp. 101 
Coturnix adansonii 101 

— coturnix 6 

— delegorguei 101 
Crex egregia 101 
Crinifer piscator 210 
cristata, Alcedo 102 

cristata stuartkeithi, Corythornis subsp. 

nov. 158-159,211 
Cryptospiza reichenovii 105 
cryptoxanthus, Myiophobus 29 
cubla, Dryoscopus 13, 18, 104 
cucculata, Lonchura 215 
cucullatus, Ploceus 105, 214 

— , Spermestes 105 
cuculoides, Aviceda 101 
Cuculus canorus 6 

- gularisl02, 211 

— solitarius 102 
culicivorus, Basileuterus 154 
cupripennis, Agleactis 146 
Cursorius chalcopterus 5, 210 

— damarensis 51-52 

— temminckii 5, 51-52, 210 
Cursorius temminckii aridus subsp. nov. 

cyanea, Diglossa 146 
cyaneoviridis, Tachycineta 170—180 
cyaniventer, Tesia 164, 165 
cyanoleuca, Notiochelidon 146 
Cyanolyca turcosa 146 
cyanomelas, Trochocercus 13,18 
cyanopterus, Pterophanes 146 
Cyanoramphus 186, 187, 188, 194 
Cyornis herioti 50 
Cypseloides rutilus 26, 27 
Cypsiurus parvus 102, 21 1 

Dacelo gaudichaud 116 

— leachii 116 

■ tyro 115-117 
damarensis, Cursorius 51-52 

— , Streptopelia 225-227 
dauma, Zoothera 50 
delegorguei, Coturnix 101 
Delichon urbica 102, 212 
Dendrocygna viduata 208 
Dendroica striata 106 
Dendronanthus indicus 129 
Dendropicos goertae 212 
denhami, Otis 5 

■ , Neotis 209 
dentata, Petronia 215 
deserti, Oenanthe 54, 55 
diadema, Catamblyrynchus 146 
dickinsoni, Falco 217, 218 
Dicrurus adsimilis 103, 216 

— ludwigii 13,17 

Diglossa cyanea 146 

— humeralis 146 

— sittoides 146 
Diomedea chlororhynchos 153 
diphone, Cettia 164 
dissimilis, Turdus 95 

Dives, dives 35 

domesticus, Passer 104, 196-198 
Drepanis pacifica 204 
Drymocichla superciliosa 109 
Drymophila ferruginea 155 

— squamata 155 
Dryoscopus cubla 13, 18, 104 

— gambensis212 
dubius, Lybius 212 
Dubusia taeniata 146 
dumetaria, Upucerthia 73 
dumetorum, Acrocephalus 37, 38, 40 
dunni, Calandrella 96, 97 

, Eremalauda97, 100 
duponti, Chersophilus 181-183 

ecaudatus, Terathopius 209 
Eclectus 187 

edolioides, Melaenornis 214 
egregia, Crex 101 
Egretta caerulea 33 

— garzetta 208 

— thula33,67 
Elanoides forficatus 146 
Elanus caeruleus 33, 49, 208 
elegans, Platycercus 187 
Emberiza cabanisi 105 

— capensis 108 

— flaviventris 105, 214 

— forbesi 214 

— hortulana 6 

— impetuana 130— 134 

Emberiza impetuana eremica subsp. 

nov. 133 
Emberiza tahapisi 105, 214 
Ensifera ensifera 146 
Eos 187 

epops, Upupa 6, 212 
Eranornis longicauda 214 
Eremalauda95,96, 97, 98 
Eremalauda dunni 97, 98, 100 

- starki 97, 98, 100 
eremica, Emberiza impetuana subsp. 

nov. 132-134 
Eremomela 5 
Eremomela icteropygialis 103, 113 

— pusilla213 

— scotops 103 
Eremopterix leucotis 5, 212 
Eriocnemis luciani 146 

— vestitus 146 
Erythrocercus holochlorus 13, 18 
erythrops, Cisticola 104 

— Quelea215 
erythroptera, Heliolais 104, 113 
Erythropygia leucophrys 103 

— quadrivirgata 103 
erythropygius, Myiotheretes 146 

erythrorhynchus, Tockus 212 
Estrilda astrild 105 

— caerulescens 114, 215 

— perreini 105 

— quartinia 105 

— troglodytes 215 
euchrysea, Kalochelidon 176 

— , Tachycineta 176 
Eumomota superciliosa 34 
Eunymphicus 187, 888, 194 
Eunymphicus cornutus 187, 194 

— euveaensis 194 
Euphonia minuta 35 
Euplectes afer 214 

— ardens 105 

— capensis 105 

— franciscanus 215 

— hordaceus 105, 215 

— orix 105 
Eupodotis ruficrista 209 
europaeus, Caprimulgus 102 
Eurystomus glaucurus 212 
euryzonoides, Rallina49 
euveaensis, Eunymphicus 194 
everetti, Tesia 164, 165 
exilis, Laterallus 153 
exustus, Pterocles 5 

falcatus, Campylopterus 146 
falcirostris, Xiphocolaptes 154 

— ardosiaceus 217, 218 

— biarmicus 209 

— columbarius 146 

— dickinsoni 217, 218 

— imperialis 88 

— naumanni 111 

— peregrinus 144, 146 

— sparverius 146 

— tinnunculusl01,209, 218 
falklandicus, Charadrius 168 
familiaris, Cercomela 103 
famosa, Nectarinia 104 
fasciata, Columba 141, 146 

fasciata harrisoni, Geositta subsp. nov. 

fasciata, Rallina 127 
fasciatus, Laterallus 153 

— , Myiophobus 29, 77 
ferruginea, Calidris 128 

— , Drymophila 155 
ferrugineus, Laniarius 13, 101 
flammeus, Asio 128 
flammulata, Asthenes 146 
flammulatus, Thripadectes 146 
flava, Campephaga 102 

— , Motacilla 8, 212 
fiavibuccale, Tricholaema 181 
flavida, Apalis 103 
flavipunctata, Tricholaema 180 
flavirostris, Anas 143, 146 
fiaviventris, Chlorocichla 13, 103 

— , Emberiza 105, 214 
flavolivacea, Cettia 164 

flavostriatus, Phyllastrephus 103 
fluviatilis, Prinia 108-109 
forbesi, Emberiza 214 
forficatus, Elanoides 146 
formicivora, Myrmecocichla 53 
fortipes, Cettia 164 
fossii, Caprimulgus 102 
Foulehaio 193 
Foulehaio carunculatus 193 

— provocator 193 
franciscanus, Euplectes 215 

— , Xiphocolaptes 1 54 
Francolinus albogularis 209 

— bicalcaratus 209 
fraseri, Oreomanes 145, 146 
fremantlii, Pseudalaemon 82 
fringillaris, Calandrella 96, 97 

— , Spizocorys 97, 99 
fringilloides, Spermestes 105 
frontalis, Ochthoeca 146 

— , Sporopipes 215 
fuliginosa, Nectarinia 221—224 
fulvicapilla, Cisticola 104 
fulvus, Aquila 89 

fumicolor, Ochthoeca 28, 29, 146 
fumigatus, Myiotheretes 146 
fuscater, Turdus 30, 146 
fuscicollis, Calidris 148, 168 
fuscus, Cinclodes 146 

gabar, Micronisus 209, 217 
gaimardi, Phalacrocorax 69 
galactotes, Cercotrichas 213 
Galerida82, 183 
Galerida cristata 85 

— modesta212 
gallicus, Circaetus 209 
Gallinago media 101 
Gallinula angulata 101 , 209 
gambagae, Muscicapa 214 
gambensis, Dryoscopus 212 
garrulus, Coracias 102 
garzetta, Egretta 208 

gayi, Phrygilus 78, 80, 81 

georgica, Anas 143 

Geositta fasciata harrisoni subsp. nov. 73, 

Geositta rufipennis 73 
Geotrygon saphirina 26 
Geranoaetus melanoleucus 146 
gigas, Patagona 144, 146 
Glaucidium 71 
Glaucidium brasilianum 33, 69-71 , 72 

— capense 13,15 

— jardinii 146 

— nanum 69-71 , 72 

— perlatum211 
glaucurus, Eurystomus 212 
goertae, Dendropicos 212 

goodalli, Asthenes humicola subsp. nov. 

gouldiae, Chloebia 105 
Grallaria quitensis 146 

— ruficapilla 146 

Grallaria rufula 146 

— squamigera 146 
granatinus, Uraeginthus 105 
grillii, Centropus 211 
griseiventris, Parus 135, 137 
griseopyga, Hirundo 113 

— , Pseudohirundo 102 
griseus, Passer 215 
gryphus, Vultur 143, 146 
guatemalensis, Sclerurus 28 
guinea, Columba 210 
gularis, Cuculus 102, 21 1 

, SerinuslOl, 105 

— , Synallaxis 146 
Gymnomyza viridis 193 

hagedash, Bostrychia 208 
Halcyon albiventris 13, 16, 102 

— chelicuti 102, 211 

— chloris 193 

■ leucocephala 102, 111,211 

— senegalensis 102, 211 

— senegaloides 13 
Hapalopsittaca amazonina 142-143, 146 
harrisoni, Geositta fasciata subsp. nov. 73 
hattamensis lecroyi, Pachycephalopsis 

subsp. nov. 119-121 
heliaca, Aquila 86-98 
Heliangelus viola 144, 146 
Heliolais erythroptera 104, 113 
Hemispingus superciliaris 146 

— verticalis 145, 146 
Helmitheros vermivorus 35 
herioti, Cyornis 50 

— , Niltava 50 
herodias, Ardea 32 
Herpsilochmus pileatus 154 
heuglini, Cossypha 13, 17, 103 
hiaticula, Charadrius 126, 127 
Himantopus himantopus 209 
Hippolais pallida 40, 213 

— polyglotta 213 
hirsuta, Tricholaema 180 
hirsutus, Lybius 181 
hirundinacea, Sterna 69 
hirundineus, Merops 102 
Hirundo abyssinica 212 

albigularis 112 

— griseopyga 1 12 

— Iucida212 

— pyrrhonota 35 
rusticall, 102, 212 

— semirufa212 

— senegalensis 212 
hispaniolensis, Passer 196—198 
Histurgops ruficauda 228 
holochlorus, Erythrocercus 13, 18 
homochroa, Catamenia 146 

— Oceanodroma 10 
hordaceus, Euplectes 105, 215 
hortulana, Emberiza 6 
humeralis, Cossypha 103 

— , Diglossa 146 

humicola goodalli, Asthenes subsp. nov. 

humicola, Thripophaga 75 
Hyliota australis 103 

— violacea 113 
Hylophilus poicilotis 154 
Hypargos niveoguttatus 105 
hypoglauca, Andigena 145, 146 
hypoleucos, Actitis 210 
hypophyrrha, Streptopelia 47^-8 

ibadanensis, Malimbus 125 

ibis, Bubulcus 208 

Ibis ibis 7 

icteropygialis, Eremomela 103, 113 

Ictinia mississippiensis 149-151 

plumbea 149-151 
Ictinia spp 150-151 
igniventris, Anisognathus 146 
imperialis, Aquila 87-89 

, Falco 88 
impetuana eremica, Emberiza subsp. 

nov. 130-134 
importunus, Andropadus 13, 17, 103 
Indicator indicator 102, 212 

— minor 102 
variegatusl3, 16, 20, 102 

indicus, Colius 102 

— , Dendronanthus 129 
inerme, Ornithion 156 
inornata, Catamenia 146 

— , Pachycephala 65 
iris, Coeligena 144, 146 
Ispidina picta 13, 16, 102 
italiae, Passer 196-198 
Ixobrychus minutus 208 

— sinensis 49 

jacksoni, Apalis 220 
jacobinus, Oxylophus 210 
jacosus, Pycnonotus 200 
jamaicensis, Oxyura 146 
jamesoni, Chubbia 146 
jardineii, Turdoides 103 
jardinii, Glaucidium 146 
juncidis, Cisticola 213 
Jynx torquilla 6 

Kalochelidon euchrysea 176 
Kaupifalco monogrammica 101 
kilimensis, Nectarinia 104 
klass, Chrysococcyx 102 
Knipolegus nigerrimus 156 
koroensis, Prosopeia 187, 191 
krameri, Psittacula 5, 210 

lacrymosa, Tricholaema 187 
Lafresnaya lafresnayi 144, 146 
lafresnayi, Lafresnaya 144, 146 
Lagonosticta rhodopareia 105 

— rubricata 105 

— senegala 105, 215 

— vinacea215 
lais, Cisticola 103 

lamelligerus, Anastomus 101 
Lamprolia victoriae 188 
Lamprotornis caudatus 215 

— chalcurus216 

— chalybeus 216 

— purpureus216 
Laniarius aethiopicus 104 

— ferrugineus 104 
Lanius barbarus 212 

— collaris 104 

— collurio 104 

— senator 6, 212 
Larus maculipennis 69 

— ridibundus 122—123 

— serranus 146 
larvata, Aplopelia 102 
larvatus, Oriolus 103 
latebricola, Scytalopus 146 
Laterallus exilis 153 

— fasciatus 153 

— levraudi 153 

— melanophaius 153 

— viridis 153 
layardi, Ptilinopus 193 
Layardiella 186 
Layardiella tabuensis 186 

lecroyae, Pachycephalopsis hattamen- 

sis subsp. nov. 120 
Leipoa ocellata 64 
Leptasthenura andicola 146 
Leptotila verrauxi 146 
Leptosittaca branickii 140-142, 146 
Lesbia nuna 146 

— victoriae 27, 28, 146 
leucocephala, Halcyon 102, 111, 211 
leucocephalus, Cinclus 146 
leucogaster, Cinnyricinclus 104, 215 
leucomelaina, Tricholaema 181 
leucomelas, Bucco 181 

— , Parus 135 
Leucophaeus scoresbii 69 
leucophrys, Erythropygia 103 

— , Mecocerculus 146 

— , Sylvietta 220 
leucopleurus, Oreotrochilus 72 
leucoptera, Pyriglena 155 
leucopterus, Chlidonias 102 
leucopygius, Serinus 214 
leucorhoa, Oceanodroma 9, 10, 147 
leucotis, Eremopteryx 5, 212 

— , Galbalrhynchus 28 

— , Otis 211 
levaillantii, Oxylophus 211 
levraudi, Laterallus 153 
libonyanus, Turdus 103 
Limosa limosa 8 
lineiventris, Anthus 104 
livia, Columba 210 
Loboparadisea 139 
Loboparadisea sericea 139 
Lonchura cucullata 21 
longicauda, Eranornis 214 
longicaudus, Stercorarius 148 
longipennis, Macrodipteryx 211 

longirostris, Camprimulgus 26, 71, 146 

lopesi, Camaroptera 113 


Loria loria 139 

Lorius 187 

luciani, Eriocnemis 146 

lucida, Hirundo 212 

ludoviciana, Piranga 35 

ludwigii, Dicrurus 13, 17 

Lulula arborea 85 

luteola, Sicalis 35 

luteolus, Ploceus 214 

luteovirens, Ptilinopus 193 

Lybius dubius 212 

— hirsutus 181 

— torquatus 102 

— vieilloti212 

Macgregorii 138 

macgregorii, Cnemophilus 137—139 

Macrodipteryx longipennis 211 

— vexillaria 102 
macroura, Vidua 105, 215 
macuiaria, Actitis 146 
maculata, Muscicapa 202 

— ,Terenural55 
maculipennis, Larus 69 
magellanicus, Phalacrocorax 69 

— , Scytalopus 146 

— , Spinus 146 

magna quinta, Sturnella subsp. nov. 

major, Cettia 164 
Malaconotus blanchoti 104, 213 
Malimbus ibadanensis 125 
Malurus pulcherrimus 65 
Mandingoa nitidula 105 
mangle, Aramides 153 
manoensis, Nectarinia 104 
Margarornis squamiger 146 
markhami, Oceanodroma 9 
matsudairae, Oceanodroma 9 
Mecocerculus leucophrys 146 

— stictopterus 146 
media, Gallinago 101 
megalotis, Otus 50 
Megapodius reinwarti 65 
Melaenornis edoliodes 214 

— pallidus 104 
melanaetus, Aquila 87 
melania, Oceanodroma 10 
melanocephala, Apalis 13 

, Ardea 208 
melanocephalus, Myioborus 146 
melanogaster, Anhinga 208 
melanogenys, Adelomyia 146 
melanoleucus, Geranoaetus 146 
melanophaius, Laterallus 153 
melanorhynchus, Thripadectes 28 
melanotos, Sarkidiornis 208 
melba, Pytilia 105, 117-119, 215 
meleagris, Numida 5, 101 
Melierax metabates 209 
mennelli, Spermestes 105 

Merganetta armata 146 
Merops albicollis 5 

— apiaster211 

— hirundineus 102 

— nubicus211 

— orientalis 211 

— pusillus 102 
metabates, Melierax 209 
Metallura baroni 143, 144, 146 

— oenocauda 143 
tyrianthina27, 144, 146 
williami 144, 146 

Mexaxenops parnaguae 154, 155 
Micronisus gabar 209, 217 
microptera, Agriornis 76 
microrynchum, Rhamphomicron 146 
migrans, Milvus 101, 209, 217 
milanjensis, Andropadus 103 
Milvago chimachima 144, 146 
Milvus migrans 101, 209, 217 
minor, Batis 122 

— , Chordeiles 147 

— , Indicator 102 

— , Phoenicopterus 101 
minullus, Accipiter 13, 15, 101 
minuta, Euphonia 35 
minutus, Ixobrychus 208 
Mirafral82, 183 

Mirafra africana 102, 182, 183 

— apiata 182 

— collaris 182 

— rufocinnamomea 102, 182, 212 
mississippiensis, Ictinia 149—151 
modesta, Galerida 212 

modestus, Zonibyx 166—169 
moesta, Oenanthe 54, 55 
molitor, Batis 104, 122 
Molothrus bonariensis 78, 79 
monachus, Necrosyrtes 209 
monogrammicus, Kaupifalco 101 
monorchis, Oceanodroma 9, 10 
montagni, Penelope 146 
montana, Agriornis 146 
Monticola 56 

monticola, Oenanthe 54, 55, 58 
morio, Onychognathus 104 
Motacilla alba 8 

— flava8,212 

— striata 106 

■ subflaval09 
mozambicus, Serinus 105, 214 
mulsant, Acestrura 146 
multicolor, Petroica 193 
murina, Notiochelidon 29, 146 
Muscicapa adusta 104, 214 

— aquatica214 

— caerulescens 13, 104 

— capensis 122 

— gambagae 214 

— maculata 202 

— h sandwichensis 202 

— striata 104, 106, 214 
Muscisaxicola alpina 146 
Musophaga violacea 210 

Myadestes 202 

Myiagra azureocapilla 193 

— vanikorensis 193 
Myioborus melanocephalus 146 
Myiophobus cryptoxanthus 29 

— fasciatus 29, 77 
Myiotheretes erythropygius 146 

— fumigatus 146 

— striaticollis 146 
Myrmecocichla 53, 56, 58 
mzimbaensis, Anthus 43-46 

naevia, Coracias 102, 21 1 
namaquus, Thripias 102 
nanum, Glaucidium 69-71, 72 
narina, Apaloderma 13 
nasutus, Tockus 212 
natalensis, Cisticola 104, 213 
■ Cossyphal3,20, 103 
naumanni, Falco 111 
nebularia, Tringa 210 
Necrosyrtes monachus 209 
Nectarinia amethystina 13, 104, 221-223 

— famosa 104 

— fuliginosa 221— 223 

— kilimensis 104 

— manoensis 104 

- olivaceal3,19, 104, 113 
pulchella 214 

— senegalensis 104, 214 

— talatala 104 

— ursulae 114 

— venusta 104 

— veroxii 13, 19 
Nettapus auritus 208 
Nicator chloris 13, 17 

niger, Parus 103, 135, 136, 137 
nigerrimus, Knipolegus 156 
nigricans, Sayornis 34 
nigriceps, Veniliornis 146 
nigrocristatus, Basileuterus 146 
Nilausafer 104, 213,219 
Niltava herioti 50 
nitidula, Mandingoa 105 
niveicapilla, Cossypha 213 
niveoguttatus, Hypargos 105 
Notiochelidon cyanoleuca 146 

— murina 29, 146 
nubicus, Merops 21 1 
Numida meleagris 5,101 
nuna, Lesbia 146 
Nycticorax nycticorax 7 

obbiensis, Calandrella 96, 97 

— ,Spizocorys 97, 99 
obscurus, Turdus 129 
occipitalis, Podiceps 146 
Oceanodroma chapmani 9, 10 

— homochroa 10 

— leucorhoa9, 10, 147 

— markhami 9 

— matsudairae 9 

— melania 10 

— monorchis 9, 10 

Oceanodroma tristrami 9 
ocellata, Leipoa 64 
occulta, Batis 122 
ochrolaemus, Automolus 28 
ochropus, Tringa 127, 210 
Ochthoeca frontalis 146 

— fumicolor28,29, 146 

— rufipectoralis 146 
ocularis, Ploceus 105, 114 
Oena capensis 210 
Oenanthe 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58 
Oenanthe bottae 213 

— deserti 54, 55 

— moesta 54, 55 

— monticola 54, 55, 58 

— oenanthe 6, 213 

— phillipsi 54, 55 

— xanthoprymna 54, 55 
oenocauda, Metallura 143 
olivacea, Nectarinia 13, 19, 104, 113 
olivaceus, Telophorus 104 

— , Turdus 103 
olivea, Tesia 165 

onguabi, Streptopelia 225—227 
onocrotalus, Pelecanus 7 
Onychognathus morio 104 
Oreomanes fraseri 145, 146 
Oreomystis bairdi 202 
Oreotrochilus leucopleurus 72 
orientalis, Merops 211 

— , Psalidoprocne 102 
Oriolus auratus 103, 216 

— larvatus 103 

— oriolus 6 
orix, Euplectes 105 
ornata, Thlypopsis 146 
Ornithion inerme 156 
Otis denhami 5 
Otusleucotis 211 

— megalotis 50 

— senegalensis 102 
ovampensis, Accipiter 101, 110 
Oxylophus jacobinus 210 

— levaillantii 211 
Oxyurajamaicensis 146 

Pachycephala inornata 65 
Pachycephalopsis hattamensis 119, 121 
Pachycephalopsis hattamensis le- 

croyae subsp. nov. 120 
Pachycephalopsis poliosoma 120 
Pachycoccyx audeberti 218 
Pachyptila belcheri 147 

— vittata 147 
pacifica, Certhia 204 

— , Drepanis 204 
pallida, Hippolais40, 213 
pallidipes, Cettia 164, 165 
pallidus, Bradornis 213 

— , Melaenornis 104 
palustris, Acrocephalus 103 
paradisea, Vidua 105, 215 
parnaguae, Mexaxenops 154, 155 

Parula americana 35 
parulus, Anairetes 77, 146 
Parus griseiventris 135, 137 

— leucomelas 135 

— nigerl03,135, 136, 137 

— rufiventris 134— 137 

Parus rufiventris stenotopicus subsp. 

nov. 136 
parvirostris, Colorhamphus 77 
parvus, Cypsiurus 102, 211 
Passer domesticus 104, 196-198 

— griseus215 

— hispaniolensis 196— 198 

— italiae215 
Patagona gigas 144, 146 
pectoralis, Caprimulgus 102 
pecuarius, Charadrius 100 
Pelecanus onocrotalus 7 
pelios, Turdus 213 
peltata, Platysteira 13, 18 
Penelope montagni 146 
peregrinus, Falco 144, 146 
perlatum, Glaucidium 211 
Pernis apivorus 208 
perreini, Estrilda 105 
personata, Calandrella 96, 97 

— , Poephila 65 

■ , Prosopeia 185, 187-194 

— ,Rhipidural93 

— , Spizocorys 97, 100 
personatus, Trogon 146 
Petroica multicolor 193 
Petronia dentata 215 

— superciliaris 104 
petrosus, Ptilopachus 209 
Phaeornis 202 

Phaethornis superciliosus 154 
Phalacrocorax africanus 7, 208 

— atriceps 69 

- carbol01,125 

— gaimardi 69 

— magellanicus 69 
Phalcobaenus carunculatus 146 
Pheucticus chrysopeplus 146 
philippensis, Sturnus 107-108 
Philitarius socius 228-232 
Philitarius socius xericus subsp. nov. 231 
phillipsi, Oenanthe 54, 55 
Philomachus pugnax 8, 128, 210 

phoeniceus, Agelaius 35 
Phoenicopterus minor 101 

— ruber 101 
Phoeniculus aterrimus 212 

— purpureus 13, 16, 212 
Phoenicurus phoenicurus 6, 213 
Phrygilus atriceps 78, 80 

- gayi 78, 80, 81 

— unicolor 146 
Phyllastrephus flavostriatus 103 

poliocephalus 113 

— strepitans 13, 17 

— terrestris 103 
Phylloscopus bonelli 6 

Phylloscopus collybita 6 
• sibilatrix 213 

■ trochilus 103, 213 
Picoides villosus 176 
picta, Ispidina 13, 16, 102 
Piculus rivolii 146 
picumnus, Climacteris 65 
pileatus, Herpsilochmus 154 
Pinarornis plumosus 103 
Pionus seniloides 146 
Piranga ludoviciana 35 
piscator, Crinifer 210 
Pitangus sulphuratus 77 
plancus, Polyborus 144 
platensis, Cistothorus 146 
platurus, Anthreptes 214 
Platycercus 187 
Platycercus elegans 187 

peltatal3, 18 
plebejus, Turdoides 213 
Plocepasser superciliosus 215 
Ploceusbicolorl3, 19,20 

cucullatus 105, 214 


— ocularis 105, 114 

— velatus214 

— xanthops 105 
plumata, Prionops 212 
plumatus, Prionops 104 
plumbea, Ictinia 149-151 
plumbeiceps, Todirostrum 136 
plumosus, Pinarornis 103 
Podiceps occipitalis 146 
poecilochrous, Buteo 29 
Poephila personata 65 
Pogoniulus bilineatus 102 

— chrysoconus 102, 212 
Pogonocichla stellata 103 
Poicephalus 186 
Poicephalus senegalus 5, 210 
poicilotis, Hylophilus 154 
poliocephalus, Phyllastrephus 113 
poliosoma, Pachycephalopsis 120 
Polyboroides typus 101, 209 
Polyborus plancus 144 
polyglotta, Hippolais 213 
polyosoma, Buteo 146 
polysticta, Asthenes 75 

Porphyrio alleni 209 
Porphyrula alleni 101 
Porzana pusilla 127 
prevostii, Anthracothorax 33 
Prinia fluviatilis 108-109 

— robertsi 104 

■ subeaval04, 108-109, 213 
Prionops plumata 212 

— plumatus 104 

— retzii 104 
Prodotiscus regulus 102 
Prosopeia 185-194 
Prosopeia atrogularis 186-194 

— koroensis 187—191 

- personata 185, 187-194 

Prosopeia splendens 187-194 
■ tabuensis 185, 187-194 

- taviunensis 187-191, 194 
provocator, Foulehaio 193 
Psalidoprocne orientalis 102 
Psephotus pulcherrimus 65 
Pseudalaemon 82, 183 
Pseudalaemon fremantlii 82 
Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii 146 
Pseudohirundo griseopyga 102 
Pseudonigrita 228 
Pseudonigrita arnaudi 228 

— cabanisi 228 
Psittacula krameri 5, 210 
Psittacus 186 
Psittrichas 186 
Pterocles exustus 5 

— quadricinctus 210 
Pterophanes cyanopterus 146 
Ptilinopus 188 
Ptilinopus layardi 193 

— luteovirens 193 
Ptilopachus petrosus 209 
Ptilostomus afer 216 

pugnax, Philomachus 8, 128, 210 
pulchella, Nectarinia 214 
pulcher, Spreo 216 
pulcherrimus, Malurus 65 

— , Psephotus 65 
purpurascens, Vidua 105 
purpurea, Ardea 208 
purpureus, Lamprotornis 216 

— , Phoeniculus 13, 16, 212 
pusilla, Eremomela 213 

— , Porzana 127 
pusillus, Merops 102 
Pycnonotus barbatus 103, 212 

— jacosus 200 
Pyriglena atra 155 

— leucoptera 155 
Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea 146 
pyrrhonota, Hirundo 35 

• melba 105, 117-119, 215 

quadricinctus, Pterocles 20 
quadricolor, Telophorus 104 
quadrivirgata, Cercotrichas 13, 17, 20 

— , Erythropygia 103 
quartinia, Estrilda 105 
Quelea erythrops 215 

- quelea 8, 105 
querquedula, Anas 8 

quinta, Sturnella magna subsp. nov. 161 
quitensis, Grallaria 146 

Rallina euryzonoides 49 

— fasciata 127 
ralloides, Ardeola 7, 208 
rapax, Aquila 110 

raytal, Calandrella 96, 97, 99 
razae, Alauda 82—85 

— , Spizocorys 82 
Razocorys 82 

Recurvirostra avosetta 210 
reguloides, Anairetes 77 
regulus, Prodotiscus 102 
reichenovii, Cryptospiza 105 
reinwarti, Megapodius 65 
resplendens, Vanellus 146 
retzii, Prionops 104 
Rhamphomicron micro rynchum 146 
Rhinoptilus chalcopterus 101 
Rhipidura personata 193 

— spilodera 193 
rhodopareia, Lagonosticta 105 
ridibundus, Larus 122—123 
Riparia riparia 8, 129, 212 
rivolii, Piculus 146 

roberti, Cossypha 112 
robertsi, Prinia 104 
roseicollis, Agapornis 189 
Rostratula benghalensis 101 
Rostrhamus sociabilis 33 
ruber, Phoenicopterus 101 
rubetra, Saxicola 53, 55, 213 
rubricata, Lagonosticta 105 
rubriceps, Anaplectes 105 
rubrocristatus, Ampelion 146 
rudis, Ceryle 211 
rufa, Anhinga 7 

— , Cisticola 213 

— , Sarothrura 101 

— , Trichocichla 188 
rufescens, Calandrella 96, 97, 99 

— ,Sylviettal03 
ruficapilla, Grallaria 146 
ruficauda, Histurgops 228 
rufinucha, Atlapetes 146 
rufipectoralis, Ochthoeca 146 
rufipennis, Butastur 209 

— ,Geositta73,74 

rufiventris stenotopicus, Parus subsp. 

nov. 134-137 
rufobrunneus, Thripadectes 28 
rufocinnamomea, Mirafra 102, 212 
rufula, Grallaria 146 
rustica, Hirundo 11, 102, 212 
rutilus, Cypseloides 26, 27 

Saltator coerulescens 35 
sandwichensis, Chasiempis 202 

— , Muscicapa 202 

— , Turdus 202 
saphirina, Geotrygon 26 
Sarkidiornis melanotos 208 
Sarothrura boehmi 101 

— rufa 101 
Saxicola 53, 54 

Saxicola bifasciata 53, 55, 58 

— rubetra 53, 55, 213 

— torquata 53, 55, 103 
Sayornis nigricans 34 
scansor, Sclerurus 155 
Scelorchilus albicollis 76 
scirpaceus, Acrocephalus 36, 37, 40 
Sclerurus albigularis 28 

— guatemalensis 28 

Sclerurus scansor 155 
Scolopax 106 
Scolopax cinerea 106 

— terek 106 
Scopus umbretta 110, 218 
scoresbii, Leucophaeus 69 
scotops, Eremomela 103 
Scytalopus latebricola 146 

— magellanicus 146 

— unicolor 146 
seledon, Tangara 157 
semirufa, Hirundo 212 
semitorquata, Streptopelia 210 
senator, Lanius 6, 212 
senegala, Lagonosticta 105, 215 

— ,Tchagral04, 213 
senegalensis, Burhinus 210 

— , Centropus 102, 211 
, Halcyon 102, 211 

— , Hirundo 212 

— , Nectarinia 1 04, 2 1 4 

— , Otus 102 
.Streptopelia 111, 210 
.Zosterops 104, 214 

senegaloides, Halcyon 13 
senegallus, Vanellus 210 
senegalus, Poicephalus 5 
seniloides, Pionus 146 
sericea, Loboparadisea 139 
Serinus gularis 101, 105 

— leucopygius 214 

— menelli214 

— mozambicus 105, 214 

— sulphuratus 101, 105 
Serpophaga cinerea 146 
serranus, Larus 146 

— Turdus 146 
sibilatrix, Phylloscopus 213 
Sicalis luteola 55 

similis, Anthus 104 

sinensis, Ixobrychus 49 

sitticolor, Conirostrum 146 

sittoides, Diglossa 146 

smithii, Anas 100 

Smithornis capensis 102 

sociabilis, Rostrhamus 33 

socius xericus, Philitarius subsp. nov. 

solitaria, Tringa 146 
solitarius, Cuculus 102 
soloensis, Accipiter 127 
solstitialis, Troglodytes 146 
somalica, Calandrella 96, 97, 99 
sparverius, Falco 146 
Spermestes bicolor 105 

— cucullatus 105 

— fringilloides 105 
Sphenoeacus afer 103 
spilodera, Rhipidura 193 
Spinus magellanicus 146 
Spizocorys 82, 95,98 
Spizocorys conirostris 99 

— fringillaris 99 

— obbiensis 99 

Spizocorys personata 100 

— razae 82 

— sclateri 99 
splendens, Corvus 199-200 

■ , Prosopeia 187-194 
sponsa, Aix 175 
Sporaeginthus subflava 105 
Sporopipes frontalis 215 

— squamifrons 101 
Spreo pulcher 216 
squamata, Drymophila 155 
squamiceps, Urosphena 164, 165 
squamifrons, Sporopipes 101 
squamiger, Margarornis 146 
squamigera, Grallaria 146 
squamulatus, Turdoides 13, 17, 20 
Stactolaema whytii 102 
stagnatalis, Tringa 101 
stanleyi, Chalcostigma 146 
starki, Calandrella 96, 97 

■ , Eremalauda97, 100 
steirlingi, Camaroptera 103 
stellata, Pogonocichla 103 
stenotopicus, Parus rufiventris subsp. 

nov. 136 
Stercorarius longicaudus 148 
Sterna hirundinacea 69 

— trudeaui 69 
stictopterus, Mecocerculus 146 
strepitans, Phyllastrephus 13, 17 
Streptopelia abunda 226 

— capicola 225-227 

— chinensis 49 

— damarensis 225-227 

— hypopyrrha 47^48 

— onguati 225-227 

— semitorquata 210 

— senegalensis 111, 210 

— tropica 226, 227 

— turtur 8, 47 

— vinacea210 
Streptoprocne zonaris 146 
striata, Dendroica 106 

, Motacilla 106 

, Muscicapa 104, 106 
striaticollis, Myiotheretes 146 
striatus, Accipiter 33, 146 

— , Butorides 208 

— , Colius 102 
Strix woodfordii 102 
Struthio camelus 6 

stuartkeithi, Corythornis cristata subsp. 

nov. 159 
Sturnella magna 160 

Sturnella magna quinta subsp. nov. 161 
sturninus, Sturnus 107-108 
Sturnus philippensis 107-108 

— sturninus 107-108 
subflava, Motacilla 109 

.Prinia 104, 108-109,213 

— , Sporaeginthus 105 
subulata, Urosphena 164, 165 
sulfureopectus, Telophorus 104 

sulphuratus, Pitangus 77 
, SerinuslOl, 105 
superciliaris, Hemispingus 146 

— ,Petronial04 

■ , Tesial64, 165 
superciliosa, Drymocichla 109 

— , Eumomota 34 
superciliosus, Centropus 102 

, Phaethornis 154 

— , Plocepasser 215 
sylvatica, Turnix 101 
Sylvia atricapilla 6 

— borin 103 

— communis 6 
Sylvietta 5 

Sylvietta brachyura 213 

— leucophrys 220 

— rufescens 103 

— whytii 103 
Synallaxis azarea 146 

— gularis 146 

tabuensis, Layardiella 186 

, Prosopeia 185, 187, 194 
tachiro, Accipiter 13, 101 
Tachycineta albilinea 34 
- bicolor 34, 171,176 

— cyaneoviridis 170-180 

— euchrysea 176 

— thalassina 176 
taeniata, Dubusia 146 
tahapisi, Emberiza 105, 214 
talatala, Nectarinia 104 
Tangara seledon 157 

— vassorii 146 
taviunensis, Prosopeia 187, 191, 194 
Tchagra australis 104 

— senegala 104, 213 
tectus, Vanellus 210 
Telecanthura ussheri 211 
Telophorus olivaceus 104 

— quadricolor 104 

— sulfureopectus 104 

— zeylonus 101 

temminckii aridus, Calidris subsp. nov. 

temminckii, Cursorius 5, 51-52, 210 
Terathopius ecaudatus 209 
terek, Scolopax 106 
Terenura maculata 1 55 
Terpsiphone atrocaudata 129 

— viridisl3,18, 104, 214 
terrestris, Phyllastrephus 103 
Tesia 162-166 

Tesia castaneocoronata 164, 165, 166 

— cyaniventer 164, 165, 166 

— everetti 164, 165, 166 
■ oliveal64, 165, 166 

— superciliaris 164, 165, 166 
thalassina, Tachycineta 176 
Thamnolaea 56 

Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris 103 
Thlypopsis ornata 146 

thoracica, Apalis 103 
Threskiornis aethiopicus 7 
Thripadectes flammulatus 146 

— melanorhynchus 28 

— rufobrunneus 28 
Thripias namaquus 102 
Thripophaga 75 
Thripophaga humicola 75 
thula, Egretta 33, 67 
tinnunculus, Falco 101, 209, 218 
Tockus alboterminatus 102 

— ery thro rhynchus 212 

— nasutus212 
Todirostrum plumbeiceps 156 
torquata, Saxicola 53, 55, 103 
torquatus, Atlapetes 145 

— , Celeus 154 

— , Lybius 102 
torquilla, Jynx 6 
Trachyphonus vaillantii 104 
traylori, Anthus 3, 46 
Treron calva 102, 210 

— waalia 210 
Trichocichla rufa 188 
Trichoglossus 187 
Tricholaema 180-181 
Tricholaema flavibuccale 181 

— flavipunctata 181 

— hirsuta 180-181 

— lachrymosa 181 

— leucomelaina 181 
tricollaris, Charadrius 101 
Tringa 106 

Tringa cinerea 106, 107 

— nebularia210 

— ochropus 127, 210 

— solitaria 146 

— stagnatalis 101 
tristigma, Caprimulgus 102 
tristrami, Oceanodroma 9 
trivialis, Anthus 104 
trochilus, Phylloscopus 103, 213 
Trochocercus albonotatus 104 

— cyanomelas 13, 18 
troglodytes, Estrilda 215 
Troglodytes solstitialis 146 
Trogon personatus 146 
tropica, Streptopelia 226, 227 
trudeaui, Sterna 69 
turcosa, Cyanolyca 146 
Turdoides plebejus 213 

— squamulatus 13, 17, 20 
Turdus celaenops 93-95 

— chrysolaus 95 

— dissimilis 95 

— fuscater 30, 146 

— libonyanus 103 

— olivascens 103 

— obscurusl29 

— pelias213 

— sandwichensis 202 

— serranus 146 
Turnix sylvatica 101 

Turtur abyssinicus 210 

— alcospilos 13, 15, 102 

— tympanistria 13, 102 
turtur, Streptopelia 8, 47 
tympanistria, Turtur 13, 102 
typus, Polyboroides 101, 209 
Tyranniscus uropygialis 146 
tyrianthina, Metallura 27, 144, 146 
Tyto alba 211 

— capensis 128 

umbretta, Scopus 110, 208 
unicincta, Columba 111 
unicolor, Phrygilus 146 

— , Scytalopus 146 
Upucerthia dumetaria 73 
Upupa epops 6, 212 
Uraeginthus angolensis 105 

— bengalus215 

— granatinus 105 
urbica, Delichon 102, 212 
uropygialis, Tyranniscus 146 
Urosphaena 162—166 
ursulae, Nectarinia 114 
Urosphena squamiceps 164, 165, 166 

— subulatal64, 165, 166 

— whiteheadi 164, 165, 166 
ussheri, Telecanthura 211 

vaalensis, Anthus 104 
vaillantii, Trachyphonus 102 
Vanellus resplendens 146 

— senegallus 210 

— tectus210 
vanikorensis, Myiagra 193 
variegatus, Indicator 13, 20, 102 
vassorii, Tangara 146 
velatus, Ploceus 214 
Veniliornis nigriceps 146 
venusta, Nectarinia 104 
vermivorus, Helmitheros 35 
veroxii, Nectarinia 13, 19 
verrauxi, Leptoptila 146 
verreauxii, Aquila 101 
verticalis, Hemispingus 145, 146 
Vestiaria coccinea 202, 203 
vestitus, Eriocnemis 146 
vexillarius, Macrodipteryx 102 
victoriae, Lamprolia 188 

■ , Lesbia27, 28, 146 
Vidua chalybeata 215 

— macroura 105, 215 

— paradisea 105, 215 

— purpurascens 105 
viduata, Dendrocygna 208 
vilissimus, Zimmerius 34 
villosus, Picoides 176 
vinacea, Lagonosticta 215 

— , Streptopelia 210 
Vini 187 

viola, Heliangelus 144, 146 
violacea, Hyliota 113 

— , Musophaga 210 

violiceps, Amazilia 31, 34 
virginianus, Bubo 146 
viridis, Gymnomyza 193 
— , Laterallus 153 

, Terpsiphone 13, 18, 104, 214 
vitiensis, Columba 128 
vittata, Pachyptila 147 
Vultur gryphus 143, 146 

waalia, Treron 210 
whiteheadi, Urosphena 164, 165 
whytii, Stactolaema 102 

- ,Sylviettal03 
williami, Metallura 144, 146 
woodfordi, Ciccaba 13 
woodfordii, Strix 102 

xanthoprymna, Oenanthe 54, 55 
xanthops, Ploceus 105 
Xenops 155 

Xenopsaris albinucha 156 
Xenus cinereus 106, 107 
xericus.Philitariussociusjwta/). nov. 231 
Xiphocolaptes falcirostris 154 
— franciscanus 154 

zeylonus, Telophorus 101 
Zimmerius vilissimus 34 
zonaris, Streptoprocne 146 
Zonibyx modestus 166-169 
Zonotrichia capensis 146 
Zoothera dauma 50 
Zosterops senegalensis 104, 214 

ISSN 0007-1 595 

Bulletin of the 

British Ornithologists' Club 

Edited by 

\ \ 1990 

Volume 110 No. 1 

March 1990 


Tuesday, 8 May 1990. Dr R. J. Cowie will speak on "The Ecology of 
Tits in Suburban Habitats". 

Those wishing to attend should notify the Hon. Secretary by Tuesday, 
24 April 1990*. 

Dr Cowie is Lecturer in the School of Biology, University of 
Wales, Cardiff. He is working on the ecology of bird populations 
and foraging behaviour. 

Tuesday, 29 May 1990. Mr J. E. Cooper, FRCVS will speak on 
"Birds and Diseases". 

Those wishing to attend should notify the Hon. Secretary by Tuesday, 
15 May 1990*. 

The Chairman will give a short address at the end of dinner on the 
changing face of the Club 1938-1989. 

Mr Cooper is Veterinary Conservator and Senior Lecturer in 
Comparative Pathology at the Royal College of Surgeons of 
England. He is particularly interested in diseases and pathology 
of non-domesticated species and has written and edited several 
books on avian diseases. 

Tuesday, 19 June 1990. Dr Margaret Carswell will speak on "The 
Uganda Atlas of Birds". 

The meeting at which Dr Carswell was to have spoken had to be post- 
poned last year because of transport strikes. Dr Carswell has kindly 
agreed to give her address at this meeting. 

800th Meeting of the British Ornithologists' Club 

The 800th Meeting of the Club will be held in the evening of 
Tuesday, 10 July 1990 at Imperial College. 

The address will be given by the Earl of Cranbrook, PhD, 
"Development of Habitat and Species Protection in the European 

Lord Cranbrook is Chairman of the Environmental Sub- 
Committee of the House of Lords on European Communities. 

Tuesday, 25 September 1990. Dr Michael Rands will speak on "An 
Island Paradise? Ornithology and Conservation in the 

Meetings are held in the Senior Common Room, Sherfield 
Building, Imperial College, London SW7 at 6.15 pm for 7 pm. 

*It is usually possible to take acceptances up to the weekend before a 
meeting, but Members are asked to accept by 14 days before a meeting as 
the numbers attending must be notified. A plan showing Imperial College 
will be sent to members on request. 

If you accept and subsequently find you cannot attend please notify the 
Hon. Secretary, 1 Uppingham Road, Oakham, Rutland LE15 6JB (tel. 
0572 722788) as soon as possible. 

Htttta Woodto&l^ 

Plate 1. The Kilombero Weaver Ploceus burnieri, a male and female in breeding plumage. 
Painted from the holotypes and from photographs of live birds by Martin Woodcock. See 
page 52. 

i od 


3 Bull.B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

Bulletin of the 


Vol. 1 1 No. 1 Published: 1 4 March 1 990 


Meetings. Nine meetings of the Club were held in 1989 and a tenth 
meeting which had been arranged for July had to be cancelled at the last 
moment because of a transport strike. The total attendances of members 
and their guests during the year was 410, which (excluding meetings held 
jointly with the British Ornithologists' Union) is the largest number since 

All the meetings were held in the Senior Common Room, Imperial 
College, London, with a buffet supper. The Committee welcomes views 
and suggestions of members for future meetings. 

The Club was fortunate in having a programme of eminent speakers 
during the year whose subjects between them covered aspects of orni- 
thology in all 5 continents. Amongst the speakers we were pleased to 
welcome Dr Algirdas Knystautas, Dr Werner Suter and Mr Ben King 
during their brief visits to London. 

The Committee met 6 times during the year and the attendance was 
89%. A new projector has been purchased, as it is no longer possible to 
obtain spares to repair the projector presented to the Club in 1969 by Mrs 
B. P. Hall. Reprinting of back numbers of the Bulletin to complete the 
stock held by the Club is being continued. A new membership recruit- 
ment leaflet was produced and copies were enclosed in Ibis of July 

A current list of Members will be printed with the Index to Vol. 109 of 
the Bulletin. 

Deaths. It is with very deep regret that the Committee reports the 
deaths of H. G. Alexander, Sir Hugh Elliott, Bt., OBE (Member 1953- 
1989, Committee 1964-1967, Vice-Chairman 1968-1971, Chairman 
1971-1974, Editor 1974-1975) and Dr P. G. Morris (Member 1986- 

Horace G. Alexander, who became a member of the Club in 1911, 
celebrated his 100th birthday on 8 April 1989 and a card with an illus- 
tration of a Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita, drawn specially and pre- 
sented by Martin Woodcock, had been sent to him with the Club's good 
wishes. An obituary will appear in Ibis. 

Sir Hugh Elliott joined the Club in 1953. He was Vice-Chairman and 
Chairman when the Club was experiencing difficult times and, thanks to 
his wise direction and a great deal of work which he carried out personally, 
he was substantially responsible for the ensuing increasing prosperity of 
the Club. Among his work for the Club he undertook re-organisation of 
the accounts, sorted and catalogued, in very uncomfortable surround- 
ings, the Club's entire stock of Bulletin back numbers, then moved them 
to better accommodation, dealt with orders for sales which had been 

BOC Annual General Meeting 4 Bull. B.O. C. 1990 1 10(1) 

building up, instigated the supplying of separates to Bulletin authors and 
set in train, after a gap of 27 years, the resumption of printing in the 
Bulletin the names of those attending meetings. An obituary will appear 
in Ibis. 

Membership. There was an increase in paid up membership of the 
Club in 1989. By the end of the year there were 621 members, 396 with 
UK addresses and 225 overseas. The Club welcomed 68 new members, 4 
members who had been in arrears became paid up and 8 members 
resigned. The number of members in arrears in 1989 was 18, and 17 
members were struck off under Rule (7) having been in arrears with their 
subscriptions due in 1988. 

Bulletin sales. Non-member subscribers were 142(18 within the U K 
and 124 overseas). We must again record the thanks of the Club to Mrs 
F. E. Warr for the great deal of work she does looking after the stock of 
back numbers of the Bulletin and dealing with back number sales and 
separates for authors. 

Finance. The accounts for 1989 are not yet available. They will be 
circulated at the Annual General Meeting and will be published subse- 
quently in the Bulletin. Members wishing to have a copy before the 
Annual General Meeting are asked to apply to the Hon. Secretary. 

Bulletin. Volume 109 contained an almost unprecedented 247 pages. 
This is due to the healthy finances of the Club and a welcome wealth of 
submissions from a world wide spread of authors. 

Some 45 % of papers related to sy stematics and nomenclature involving 
museum work, but regrettably there has been no amelioration of the 
policy of the Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) to 
abandon research by the staff of the BMNH at Tring. It is difficult not to 
conclude that ornithology at the Museum is continuing to wilt under their 
auspices and it is to be hoped that the Trustees will soon reverse their 
decision of 1988 and restore resources for taxonomic research on birds at 
the Sub-Department of Ornithology at Tring. 


The Annual General Meeting of the British Ornithologists' Club will 
be held in the Senior Common Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial 
College, London SW7 at 6 p.m. on Tuesday, 29 May 1990. 


1 . Minutes of the 1 989 Annual General Meeting (see Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 
109(2): 61). 

2 . Report of the Committee and Accounts for 1989 

3 . The Bulletin 

4. The election of Officers. The Committee proposes that: — 

(i) Mr D. Griffin be elected Vice-Chairman (vice Mr J. H. Elgood, 

who is standing down) 
(ii) Dr J. F. Monk be re-elected Editor, and Dr D. W. Snow be 

elected to succeed him at a date to be decided by the Committee 

Club Notes 5 Bull.B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

(iii) Mrs A. M. Moore be re-elected Honorary Secretary 

(iv) Mr S. J. Farnsworth be elected Honorary Treasurer (vice Mrs 

D. M. Bradley who retired 31 December 1989) 
(v) Cdr M. B. Casement, OBE, RN, Revd T. W. Gladwin and Dr 
A. Tye be elected Members of the Committee (vice Mr S. J. 
Farnsworth and Mr D. Griffin if elected as above, and Mr 
N. H. F. Stone, who is ineligible for re-election). 
5. Any other business of which notice shall have been given in accordance 
with Rule (12). 

By Order of the Committee 
amberley M. MOORE Honorary Secretary 

The seven hundred and ninety-first Meeting of the Club was held in the Senior Common 
Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College, London SW7 on Tuesday, 7 November 1989 
at 7 pm. 

25 Members and 13 guests attended. 

Members present were: R. E. F. Peal (Chairman), M. A. Adcock, Miss H. Baker, A. H. 
Baylis, P. J. Belman, Mrs D. M. Bradley, A. P. E. Cain, P. J. Conder, S. J. Farnsworth, 
Miss C. Fisher, A. Gibbs, B. Gray, D. Griffin, C. Helm, Revd. G. K. McCulloch, Dr 
A. Meldrum, Dr J. F. Monk, Mrs A. M. Moore, R. Morgan, P. Oliver, A. J. Randall, 
V. Sawle, Dr R. C. Self, N. H. F. Stone, A. Tanner. 

Guests present were: P. Robinson (Speaker), Mrs B. Adcock, Dr R. J. Baker, Dr 
J. Bradley, I. Bradley, Mrs F. Farnsworth, R. Gilby, Mrs J. Goffe, Miss K. Hoff, 
S. Jones, Mrs I. McCulloch, P. J. Moore, Mrs M. Oliver. 

After supper Mr Peter Robinson spoke about his work as the Enforcement Officer of the 
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and the very wide field of reference of the Species 
Management Department of the Society. He illustrated examples of deliberate and acciden- 
tal threats to bird populations, of the various methods adopted to combat them and talked 
briefly on some of the problems of bird protection encountered overseas. 

The seven hundred and ninety-second Meeting of the Club was held in the Senior 
Common Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College on Tuesday, 28 November 1989 at 
7 p.m. 34 members and 22 guests were present. 

Members attending were: R. E. F. Peal (Chairman), M. A. Adcock, Dr J. S. Ash, 
Miss H. Baker, B. H. Beck, R. Beecroft, Mrs D. Bradley, Cdr M. B. Casement, RN, 
I. D. Collins, DrH. Crick, J. H.Elgood, S.J. Farnsworth, A. Gibbs, Revd T. Gladwin, 
D. Griffin, C. Helm, R. Kettle, Dr P. Lack, Revd G. K. McCulloch, Dr A. Meldrum, 
Dr J. F. Monk, Mrs A. Moore, R. Morgan, Mrs M. Muller, P. Oliver, Dr R. Pryce- 
Jones, A. J. Randall, V. Sawle, Dr R. C. Self, R. E. Sharland, N. H. F. Stone, 
A. R. Tanner, Dr A. Tye, C. E. Wheeler. 

Guests attending were: Dr P. Jones (Speaker), Mrs B. Adcock, Mrs J. W. Ash, 
Mrs M. E. Baker, Dr R. J. Baker, Mrs G. Bonham, Mr D. Brooks, Mrs W. Brooks, 
Miss J. Edrich, Mrs B. Gibbs, Mrs J. M. Gladwin, Mrs S. Griffin, Ms K. Hoff, Mrs 
I. McCulloch, Dr H. Meldrum, Mr P. J. Moore, Mr W. Peach, Miss D. Ridgley, Mrs 
M. Southgate, Dr V. Southgate, Mrs H. Tye, Professor L. Underhill. 

After supper Dr Peter Jones gave an address "The Migration Strategies of Palaearctic 
Migrants in West Africa in relation to Sahelian Drought". He presented data on migration 
patterns, particularly within Nigeria, collected in recent years and collated with rainfall and 
climatic records of the period. These show that Palaearctic passerines must adapt their 
migration strategies to prevailing local climatic conditions in Africa and they help assess the 
magnitude of the ecological problems confronting the migrants. A stimulating discussion 
followed only curtailed by lack of time. 

R. Y. McGowan & J. S. Pritchard 6 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 1 10(1) 

The seven hundred and ninety-third Meeting of the Club was held in the Senior Common 
Room, Sherfield Building, Imperial College on Thursday, 14 December 1989 at 7 p.m. 30 
members and 18 guests were present. 

Members attending were: R. E. F. Peal (Chairman), Miss H. Baker, B. H. Beck, 
P. Belman, Mrs D. M. Bradley, K. F. Betton, P. Bull, Cdr M. B. Casement, RN, 
I. D. Collins, P. Conder, Dr R. A. F. Cox, S. J. Farnsworth, D. Fisher, A. Gibbs, 
D. Griffin, R. P. Howard, R. Kettle, J. King, Dr J. F. Monk, A. G. Moore, 
Mrs A. M. Moore, R. Morgan, P. Oliver, A. J. Randall, Dr R. C. Self, Dr D. Snow, 
N. H. F. Stone, Dr D. H. Thomas, J. J. Wheatley, M. Woodcock. 

Guests attending were: Dr B. King (Speaker), Dr J. Bradley, Dr R. Chandler, 
Mrs F. Farnsworth, Mrs S. Griffin, D. Harris, Ms C. Hoff, Ms L. Hogan, 
Mrs R. Howard, Dr A. Melland, P. J. Moore, Mrs M. Oliver, R. Ranft, Mrs B. K. 
Snow, Mr I. Thomas, D. Tomlinson, Mrs D. Tomlinson, Mrs B. J. Woodcock. 

After supper Dr Ben King gave an account, illustrated with many of his slides, of 
travelling in Sichuan Province during his expeditions to China since 1980. 

Notes on Philippine birds, 15. 

First record of the Red-breasted Flycatcher 
Ficedula parva for the Philippines 

by R. Y. McGowan &J. S. Pritchard 

Received 6 May 1989 

The Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva is recorded as breeding 
throughout Asia from the Baltic to the Pacific coasts (Medway & Wells 
1976), as a winter migrant to China, the entire Indo-Chinese peninsula, 
Tibet and India (Vaurie 1959, Dement'ev & Gladkov 1968) and as a 
scarce migrant to the Malay Peninsula (Medway & Wells 1976). Smythies 
(1981) describes the species as a rare vagrant in Borneo with most reports 
coming from coastal areas in the north of the island. There is no report of 
this species in duPont's (1971) work on Philippine birds. 

During a faunal survey (carried out by JSP) along the margins of 
primary forests on Palawan Island, Philippines, a specimen of Ficedula 
parva was collected by mist-netting on 8 December 1988. The nets were 
located in the understorey of fragmented, lowland riparian forest by the 
Panitian River between the Nali Dam and Dumalag at c. 70 m above sea 
level. The specimen was provisionally identified as a first winter female, 
this being later confirmed by comparison with reference material in the 
collections of the National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, where it 
is now deposited (specimen no. NMSZ 1989.021.11). The sooty black 
upper tail coverts are diagnostic of the eastern race F. p. albicilla (Vaurie 
1959) and the specimen agrees with others of this race from Burma and 
China held in the NMS. 

Measurements (mm) are: body length 121, wing 68, tail 50, tarsus 17, 
which closely agree with those given by Dement'ev & Gladkov (1968). 
Fresh weight of the bird was 10 g. This is apparently the first record for 
the Philippines. 

E. D.H.Johnson® S.J. Farnsworth 7 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

Although Red-breasted Flycatchers have not so far been recorded from 
Taiwan (King et al. 1975) it would be wrong to conclude that the birds 
from Borneo and Palawan must therefore have crossed the South China 
Sea. It remains a possibility that migration through Taiwan, Palawan and 
Borneo takes place, albeit on a small scale. 

The increased observer effort in the Philippines over the past few years 
(e.g. Kennedy et al. 1986) has resulted in an increase in the number of 
species recorded in these islands; further investigations could well show 
that some of the species currently classed as rare migrants and vagrants 
do, in fact, occur regularly in small numbers. As pointed out by White {in 
White & Bruce 1986) for Wallacea, Palaearctic migrants have generally 
been neglected, since collectors have concentrated on indigenous 
and montane birds, and few residents study the birds or make field 


Dement'ev, G. P. & Gladkov, N. A. (eds.) 1968. Birds of the Soviet Union. Vol. 6. Jerusalem: 

Israel Prog. Sci. Transl. 
duPont, J. E. 1 971 . Philippine Birds. Delaware Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Kennedy, R. S., Glass, P. O., Glass, E. J., Gonzalez, P. C. & Dickinson, E. C. 1986. Noteson 

Philippine Birds, 11. New or important records for the Island of Palaivan. Bull. Brit. Orn. 

CI. 196: 173-179. 
King, B. F., Dickinson, E. C. & Woodcock, M. W. 1975. A Field Guide to the Birds of South 

East Asia. Collins. 
Medway, Lord & Wells, D. R. 1976. The Birds of the Malay Peninsula. Vol. 5. Witherby. 
Smythies, B. E. 1981. The Birds of Borneo. 3rd Edition (Earl of Cranbrook, ed.). Kuala 

Lumpur: Sabah Society and Malayan Nature Society. 
Vaurie, C. 1959. The Birds of the Palearctic Fauna. Passeriformes. Witherby. 
White, C. M. N. & Bruce, M. D. 1986. The Birds of Wallacea. B.O.U. Check-list No. 7. 

British Ornithologists' Union. 

Addresses : R. Y. McGowan, Department of Natural History, Royal Museum of Scotland, 
Chambers Street, Edinburgh EH1 1JF, U.K.; and J. S. Pritchard, 1 Grove Road, West 
Ferry, Dundee DD5 1JL, U.K. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1990. 

On the possible former breeding of the 
Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus in Algeria 

by E. D. H. Johnson <Sf S. J. Farnsworth 

Received 9 May 1989 

Based on his examination of eggs originally in the Tristram Collection 
and now in the British Museum (Natural History), Walters (1988) lends 
support to the statement by Loche (1867) that the Red-footed Falcon 
Falco vespertinus bred in Algeria in the mid- 19th century, an assertion 
dismissed by Heim de Balsac & Mayaud (1962) and ignored by recent 
authors other than Ledant et al. (1 981 ) who draw attention to the formers' 

E. D. H. Johnson & S.J. Farnsworth 8 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 1 10(1) 

While we cannot contribute positive evidence of former breeding we 
can, however, provide supplementary recent information on the data 
accompanying Tristram's specimens for the 2 locations concerned — 
"forest south of Lac Halloula" and "neighbourhood of Air Oosera. Lac 
(illegible)" — adding further circumstantial evidence that the species bred 
in Algeria in the past. 

Lac Halloula was drained for cultivation probably before the end of 
the 19th century but is still indicated on some recent maps as "Ancien 
Lac Halloula". It was situated some 65 km SW of Algiers and c. 2 km 
SE of Sidi Rached (ex Montebello) at an altitude of c. 58 m. The lake is 
not mentioned by Rothschild & Hartert (1912), nor by Ticehurst & 
Whistler (1938). The surroundings of the former lake are described by 
Thos Cook (1926) as "miles of well cultivated farms and vineyards". 
S.J.F. visited the area in 1982, vineyards and orchards still being abun- 
dant there. Modern maps show some forest on the northern slopes 
of Djebel Guerrouat, c. 20 km S of the former lake, but our recent 
inspection of the Djebel shows that the area is now only lightly 
wooded. Tristram's nesting site (ref "W.a." "in the forest south of Lac 
Halloula") would thus be 36°35'N, 2°30'E if located on the N slope of 
Djebel Guerrouat. 

"Air Oosera. Lac (illegible)" undoubtedly refers to Ain Oussera, a 
town some 30 km S of Lac Bougzoul (referred to as Lac Boughzoul by 
some authors) and at an elevation of about 687 m. At 35°27'N, 2°55'E the 
town would be on the route of Tristram's journeys between Algiers and 
Laghouat. The lake and its immediate surroundings are described by 
Francois (1975) and Jacob & Jacob (1980). We have visited the area many 
times before and after those publication dates. The lake's artificial limits 
are augmented to the south by a series of daiet (temporary flood zones). 
Today the area is treeless except for a few Tamarix sp. on some islets and 
the extensive reedbeds surrounding the artificial lake are of recent origin. 
The adjacent steppe between and beyond the daiet supports a scattered 
low herbaceous vegetation partly under nomad or permanent cultivation 
and pasture. It is probable that climatic conditions were more humid in 
Tristram's time. 

Our field notes (notably 1968 69) show that halfa Stipa tenacissima 
steppe begins just S of Ain Oussera, varied by a number of scattered daias 
(shallow depressions containing loose moisture-retaining soil but never 
flooded) (see Plate 2). They support Pistachio Pistachia atlantica trees 
up to 10 m in height, clumps of Jujube Ziziphus lotus and low scrub. Here 
as elsewhere the Pistachia are nesting sites of Spanish Sparrow Passer 
hispaniolensis and Brown-necked Raven Corvus ruficollis. Varying in 
width from 50 to 150 m, these daias and surrounding steppe have 
probably remained substantially unchanged for a very long time. 

The locations of Lac Halloula and Am Oussera (Lac Bougzoul) 
would have provided at least some of the habitat requirements of Falco 
vespertinus as listed by Cramp & Simmons (1980) (e.g. open terrain 
fringed or interspersed with trees, fens or bogs, steppe and forest 
clearings) together with a readily available food supply (insects, small 
amphibians, reptiles and rodents) and old nests of e.g. Ardeidae at Lac 
Halloula and Corvidae near Am Oussera for breeding. 

S.L.Olson 9 Bull.B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 


Cook, Thos. Ltd. (Eds). 1926. The Traveller's Handbook to Algeria and Tunisia. 

Cramp, S. & Simmons, K. E. L. (Eds). 1980. Birds of the Western Palaearctic . Vol. 2. Oxford 

University Press. 
Francois, J. 1975. L'avifaune annuelle du lac de Boughzoul (Algerie). Alauda 43: 125-133. 
Heim de Balsac, H. & Mayaud, N. 1962. Les Oiseaux du Nord-Ouest de I'Afrique. 

Jacob, J. P. & Jacob, A. 1980. Nouvelles donnees sur l'avifaune du lac de Boughzoul 

(Algerie). Alauda 48: 209-219. 
Ledant, J. P., Jacob, J. P., Jacobs, P., Mahler, F., Ochando, B. & Roche, J. 1981 . Mise a jour 

de l'avifaune algerienne. he Gerfaut 71: 295-398. 
Loche, V. 1867. Exploration scientifique de l'Algerie pendant les annees 1840, 1841, 1842. 

Oiseau I. Bertrand: Paris. 
Rothschild, W. & Hartert, E. 1912. Ornithological explorations in Algeria. Novit. Zool. 18: 

Ticehurst, C. B. & Whistler, H. 1938. Autumn impressions in Algeria. Ibis 1938: 717-746. 
Walters, M. 1988. On the possible former breeding of the Red-footed Falcon Falco 

vespertinus in northwest Africa. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 108: 175-176. 

Addresses: E. D. H. Johnson, Crabiere Cottage, Grande Route des Mielles, St Ouen, 
Jersev, Channel Islands, U.K.; S. J. Farnsworth, Hammerkop, Frogmill, Hurley, 
Maidenhead, Berkshire SL6 5NL, U.K. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1990. 

Remarks on the osteology of the Madagascan 
warblers Dromaeocercus and Amphilais 

by Storrs L. Olson 

Received 9 May 1989 

On the basis of external morphology, and to some extent behaviour, Parker 
(1984) considered that the two Madagascan warblers Dromaeocercus 
brunneus and D. seebohmi were only convergently similar in possessing 
long, decomposed tail feathers. He regarded the type species of D. 
brunneus as belonging to the genus Bradypterus, whereas D. seebohmi was 
said to belong with the megalurine warblers and was made the type of a 
new genus, Amphilais. Traylor (1986) evidently was not convinced by 
Parker's arguments and listed Amphilais as a synonym of Dromaeocercus. 
Examination of the cranial osteology of these 2 species fully supports 
Parker's contention that they are not congeneric. Compared to 
Dromaeocercus brunneus, the skull in Amphilais seebhomi is markedly 
narrower, the cranium not nearly so broad, and in dorsal view the frontals 
are much less laterally expanded, in part reflecting the much smaller 
ectethmoid plates. The bill in Amphilais is more slender, with the osseous 
nares proportionately longer; the transpalatine processes are also much 
longer and more slender than in D. brunneus. Unfortunately, the post- 
cranial skeleton was rather badly damaged in the single available skeleton 
of Amphilais seebohmi examined, so no useful comparison could be made 
there. Nevertheless, the cranial differences are greater than would be 
expected among congeneric species of Sylviidae. 

S. L. Olson & J. C. den Hartog 10 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

The only skeletons of Bradypterus at hand were 2 rather poorly 
preserved examples of B. luteoviridis. These differ markedly from 
Dromaeocercus brunneus in that the frontals are not as expanded, the 
ectethmoids are much more inflated, and the posterior margin of the 
nostril is more heavily ossified, thus reducing the aperture of the osseous 
nares. If B. luteoviridis is representative of the genus (it is not typical in 
the nomenclatural sense, being the type of Tribura, a genus now included 
in Bradypterus), then D. brunneus should not be included in Bradypterus. 

As I have noted elsewhere (Olson MS), there is a rather close overall 
similarity in the skull and external morphology between Amphilais 
seebohmi and the New Zealand fernbirds of the genus Bowdleria. How- 
ever, it would be premature, at this point, to speculate on the closest 
relatives of either Dromaeocercus brunneus or Amphilais seebohmi, 
although the evidence is sufficient to justify maintaining these species in 
separate genera. 

The following skeletal material was examined in the above comparisons: 
Bradypterus luteoviridis USNM 318312, USNM 318313; Dromaeocercus 
brunneus MRAC 50616; Amphilais seebohmi USNM 43221 1; Bowdleria p. 
punctata NMNZ 22848. 


In addition to specimens in the Smithsonian collections (USNM), I also obtained skeletons 
on loan from M. Louette, Museum Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium 
(MRAC), and J. A. Bartle and P. R. Millener, National Museum of New Zealand (NMNZ), 
to whom I am most grateful. 


Olson, S. L. MS. Osteology and systematics of the fernbirds {Bowdleria, Sylviidae). 

Submitted to Notornis. 
Parker, S. A. 1984. The relationships of the Madagascan genus Dromaeocercus (Sylviidae). 

Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 104: 11-16. 
Traylor, M. A., Jr. 1986. [African Sylviidae] In E. Mayr & G. W. Cotrell, eds. Check-list of 

Birds of the World. Volume 11. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative 


Address: Dr Storrs L. Olson, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, USA. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1990. 

Former breeding of Sula dactylatra in the Cape 

Verde Islands* 

by Storrs L. Olson and J. C. den Hartog 

Received 9 May 1989 

Palaeontological investigations on oceanic islands nearly always produce 
fossils of extinct or extirpated species of birds. Episodes of extinction are 

*CANCAP Contribution No. 79 [Canarian-Cape Verdian Region of the North Atlantic 
Ocean project.] 

S.L.Olsen&y.C.denHartog 11 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 1 10(1) 

usually strongly correlated with the arrival of Homo sapiens and the conse- 
quent disruption of insular ecosystems (e.g. Olson 1975, Olson & James 
1982, Steadman 1986). The depauperate nature of the avifauna of the 
islands of the eastern North Atlantic (Macaronesia) and the relative 
scarcity of strongly differentiated endemic species there, suggest that 
these islands are not exceptional and have probably been subject to con- 
siderable man-caused extinction, as already suggested by fossil discover- 
ies in Madeira (Pieper 1985) and the Canary Islands (Alcover & Florit 
1987). To date there has been no concerted effort to locate vertebrate 
fossils in the Cape Verde Islands, but we report here on a small sample of 
bones obtained incidental to zoological observations on the island of Cima 
in August 1986, during the CANCAP VII expedition (den Hartog, in 

Cima is one of the Rombos Islets, which are uninhabited, waterless 
rocks, nearly barren of vegetation, in the southwestern corner of the 
archipelago. It was first explored ornithologically in 1897 by Boyd 
Alexander (Alexander 1898), who noted great numbers of breeding sea- 
birds, mainly Procellariiformes and Brown Boobies Sula leucogaster. The 
fossils discussed here, now in the National Museum of Natural History, 
Smithsonian Institution (USNM), came from a deposit of sand at the 
northeastern tip of the island, where severe erosion had exposed numer- 
ous bird bones, some eggshells, and shells of the gastropod snail Zonotecus 
insularis. These deposits have not been dated, but the bones do not appear 
to be mineralized and are probably relatively recent in age, certainly 
Quaternary and most likely Holocene. 

As would be expected, the sample obtained is dominated by Procellarii- 
formes: Puffinus assimilis boydi (minimum number of individuals 12, 
based on right humeri); Bulweria bulwerii (mni 5, left humeri); and 
Pelagodroma marina (mni 5, distal ends of left tarsometatarsi). All of these 
breed on the island today. Included in the collection is the sternal end of a 
right coracoid of a medium-sized duck (Anatidae), much too fragmentary 
for specific or even generic identification. What a duck might have been 
doing in such an environment is quite enigmatic. 

The most interesting find is a complete left tarsometatarsus (USNM 

440959) and the proximal and distal ends of a right humerus (USNM 

440960) of a juvenile sulid, quite possibly from a single individual. Both 
specimens are quite porous and the humerus is so poorly developed as 
certainly to be from a bird that had not fledged, thus indicating breeding 
on the island. The tarsometatarsus is nearly fully formed, with a configur- 
ation of the hypotarsus like that of Sula rather than Morus. Despite being 
from a juvenile, it measures 53.6 mm in length, which is greater than in 
any skeletal specimen of Sula leucogaster (maximum for S. I. leucogaster 
47.1 mm, for S. I. plotus 52.5 mm), which is the only species of Sulidae 
known to breed in the Cape Verde Islands (see e.g. Bannerman & 
Bannerman 1968). In addition, it has the straight profile of the lateral 
(external) edge of the bone characteristic of S. dactylatra, whereas in 
other boobies the external cotyla and outer trochlea are more laterally 
expanded. Thus this specimen may be confidently identified as having 
come from a Masked Booby Sula dactylatra, the Atlantic form of which 
(S. d. dactylatra) breeds in the West Indies and on various islands of 

S.L.Olsen&Jf.C. den Hartog 12 Bull.B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

the Caribbean, and in the South Atlantic at Ascension, Fernando de 
Noronha, and formerly Trindade. 

Sula dactylatra would not be unexpected in the Cape Verdes. Because 
it requires fiat, open areas of ground for nesting, the Masked Bobby 
appears to be more susceptible to the depredations of man and other 
mammalian predators than is either the Brown Booby <S. leucogaster, 
which may nest on cliff faces and small offshore stacks, or the Red-footed 
Booby Sula sula, which usually nests in trees. 

There is ample evidence that Sula leucogaster once bred more widely 
and abundantly in the Cape Verdes than at present, the observations for 
Cima by Alexander (1898: 95-96), Correia (as quoted by Murphy 1924: 
219), and Bourne (1955: 519-520) being particularly elucidating. In 1922, 
Correia still recorded thousands of birds, and mentioned that "the fisher- 
men slaughter great numbers for food". Bourne, in 1951, also mentioning 
depredations by fishermen, found only some 250 pairs. At present the 
population consists of less than 100, possibly no more than some 50 
individuals, and fishermen still take any chick they can lay their hands on 
(den Hartog, in press). Presumably such exploitation exterminated Sula 
dactylatra on Cima, and probably elsewhere in the Cape Verdes, before 
ornithologists arrived in the archipelago. It would be of interest to 
learn which other species of birds may have been similarly eliminated 


We are grateful to Kenneth I. Warheit, University of California, Berkeley, for supplying 
quantitative and qualitative osteological data from his pending revision of the living and 
fossil Sulidae, in the course of which he has measured most existing skeletal specimens of the 


Alcover, J. A. & Florit, F. 1987. Una nuevaespecie de Carduelis (Fringillidae) de LaPalma. 

Vieraea 17: 75-86. 
Alexander, B. 1898. An ornithological expedition to the Cape Verde Islands. Ibis ser. 7 (4): 

Bannerman, D. A. & Bannerman, W. M. 1960 . History of the Birds of the Cape Verde Islands. 

Birds of the Atlantic Islands vol. 4. Oliver & Boyd. 
Bourne, W. R. P. 1955. The birds of the Cape Verde Islands. Ibis 97: 508-556. 
Hartog, J. C. den. In press. Birds of the Cape Verde Islands: notes and speculations on 

species observed (9 August-5 September 1 986), distribution, migration, status, origin, 

and conservation. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg. 
Murphy, R. C. 1924. The marine ornithology of the Cape Verde Islands, with a list of all the 

birds of the archipelago. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 50: 21 1-278. 
Olson, S. L. 1975. Paleornithology of St Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean. Smithsonian 

Contr. Paleobiol. 23: 1^19. 
Olson, S. L. & James, H. F. 1982. Fossil birds from the Hawaiian Islands: evidence for 

wholesale extinction by man before Western contact. Science 217: 633—635. 
Pieper, H. 1985. The fossil land birds of Madeira and Porto Santo. Bocagiana 88: 1-6. 
Steadman, D. W. 1986. Holocene vertebrate fossils from Isla Floreana, Galapagos. 

Smithsonian Contr. Zool. 413: 1-103. 

Address: Dr. Storrs L. Olson, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A. J. C. den Hartog, Rijksmuseum van 
Natuurlijke Historie, Postbus 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1990. 

J. F.R. Colebrook-Robjent 13 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

The nest and eggs of Bannerman's Blue-headed 
Sunbird Nectarinia bannermani 

by J. F. R. Colebrook-Robjent 

Received 22 May 1989 

A nest of Bannerman's Blue-headed Sunbird Nectarinia bannermani was 
discovered on 27 September 1988 at the Kasomsombu stream, a tribu- 
tary of the Isombu River in Chief Mwinimalambo's area, Mwinilunga 
District, North-Western Province, Zambia at 11°16'S, 24°06'E, altitude 
4100 ft a.s.l. The owner of the nest was not seen during the day, but at 
2 1 00 hrs the incubating bird was captured with a hand net placed over the 
entrance. It was a $ with wing measuring 66 mm and it weighed 14.1 g. 

The nest site was near the ground in narrow gallery forest along the 
Kasomsombu stream. The nest was suspended from a drooping, leafy 
vine 1.2 m above sluggish, knee-high water in deep shade and well hidden 
under overhanging vegetation. Nearby was an old wooden footbridge 
leading from an abandoned garden with banana trees. The nest was bulky 
and broad, with a porch over the entrance. It was externally adorned with 
curled strips of banana bark on each side, and large leaves, especially at 
the rear. Rather long and coarse grass stems were also used in the con- 
struction, much of this extraneous material hanging well below the 
bottom of the nest chamber. The porch consisted of fine twisted stems, 
the roof of fine, black fibrous stems. Cobwebs were not used to bind the 
nest. Internally, it was lined throughout with soft, fine twisted stems. The 
distance from the attachment to the vine to the base of the nest was 1 8 cm, 
but some external material reached 34 cm below the vine. The nest proper 
was 10 cm wide at the face and 9 cm from front to back; the extraneous 
material extended the width to 19 cm. The entrance was 42 mm in 
diameter, the lower lip being 84 mm above the base of the chamber. 
Internal dimensions were approximately 9 cm high and 4 cm wide. 

The nest contained 2 eggs (small to medium-sized embryos), their 
combined weight being 3.9 g. The eggs measure 19.6x13.9 and 
18.3 x 13.6 mm, and are regular ovals, without gloss. Rather beautiful, 
they are difficult to describe. The ground is a warm, pinky-brown, 
densely marked all over by irregular streaks of a darker shade of 
purplish-brown. The general appearance is smudgy puce or dull claret. 
These eggs are not strictly erythristic as they lack the bright pink or rosey 
hues usually apparent in eggs so described. 


N. bannermani was formerly considered as conspecific with the Green- 
headed Sunbird N. verticalis (e.g. Chapin 1954, Mackworth-Praed & 
Grant 1963, 1973); according to Hall & Moreau (1970) these 2 sunbirds 
together with N. oritis and N. alinae constitute a superspecies. 

The present record appears to be the first description of the nest and 
eggs of N. bannermani. N. verticalis has been recorded breeding in 

D.W.Buden 14 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 1 10(1) 

Zambia from December to May (R. J. Dowsett), but previously, the only 
indications of breeding dates for N. bannermani have been birds with 
active gonads in March and September (Benson et al. 1971). Descriptions 
of the nests and eggs for the other 3 species are to be found in Mackworth- 
Praed & Grant (1973). Nests of N. verticalis found by Sir Frederick 
Jackson and G. L. Bates are more fully described in Bannerman (1948) 
where, not surprisingly, they differ little from the present record. The 2 
montane forest species, on the other hand, N. oritis and N. alinae, use 
moss (with other materials) in the construction of their nests 
(Mackworth-Praed & Grant 1973), a feature which is lacking in those 
built by N. verticalis and N. bannermani. 


Bannerman, D. A. 1948. The Birds of Tropical West Africa. Vol. 6. The Crown Agents for 

the Colonies: London. 
Benson, C. W., Brooke, R. K., Dowsett, R. J. & Irwin, M. P. S. 1971. The Birds of Zambia. 

Chapin, J. P. 1954. The Birds of the Belgian Congo. Pt 4. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 75 B. 
Hall, B. P. & Moreau, R. E. 1970. An Atlas of Speciation in African Passerine Birds. Trustees 

of the British Museum (Natural History). 
Mackworth-Praed, C. W. & Grant, C. H. B. 1963. Birds of the Southern Third of Africa : 

African Handbook of Birds. Vol. 2. Birds of West Central and Western Africa: 1973. 

African Handbook of Birds. Vol. 2. Longmans. 

Address: Major J. F. R. Colebrook-Robjent, Musumanene, P.O. Box 630303 Choma, 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1990. 

Report on the birds collected during the 
Armour- Utowana West Indian Expeditions 

by Donald W. Buden 

Received 24 May 1989 

During the early 1930s, the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
University (MCZ) acquired specimens (chiefly molluscs, reptiles and 
birds) collected in the West Indies during cruises of the research yacht 
Utowana. Thomas Barbour, then Director of the MCZ, was present on 
some of the cruises as a guest of the ship's owner Allison V. Armour. 
Barbour (1945) remarked that more than 22 published reports had been 
based on collections from Utowana expeditions. 

Ornithological material from these voyages includes fossils obtained by 
Froelich Rainey in the Bahamas for Yale University. These have been 
reviewed by Wetmore (1 938) and by Olson & Hilgartner (1 982). No study 
skins from the Utowana expeditions are among specimens of Bahaman 
birds at the Yale Peabody Museum, and there is no record indicating that 
any accompanied the Rainey material (E. Stickney). However, 221 study 
skins taken in 1933 and 1934 largely by James C. Greenway, Jr. were 
deposited in the MCZ. One Calliphlox evelynae lyrura and 2 Mimus 

D. W. Buden 


Bull.B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 


\: s 



200 KM 







Figure 1 . Map showing islands in the Bahamas and the Hispaniolan region mentioned in the 

gundlachii gundlachii subsequently were sent to the Paris Museum. The 
1 69 Bahaman-Hispaniolan specimens, which, for the most part, have not 
been reported on previously are the main subject of the present study. 
Collecting localities are shown in Fig. 1. 

The 134 specimens collected in 1933 by J. C. Greenway, Jr (MCZ 
157689-822) include 66 (16 species) taken in the Bahamas (17-26 
February) on San Salvador, Crooked I., Fortune I. ( = Long Key), 
Mayaguana and Great Inagua, along with 16 (6 species) from Haiti at 
Kenscoff (1 March) and near Fond Parisien (3 March) and 52(10 species) 
from the Colombian islands Providencia ( = 01d Providence) and San 
Andres ( = St Andrews). Greenway (1933) described Dendroica petechia 
armouri from specimens collected on Providencia. Bond & Meyer de 
Schauensee (1944), reviewing the avifauna of both Providencia and San 
Andres, reported briefly on all of Greenway's material from these 2 
islands, relying apparently on data furnished by James L. Peters. 

Among the 87 specimens collected in 1934, 57 representing 23 species 
were taken in the Bahamas (7 February-28 March) on Grand Bahama, 
Great Abaco (written Abaco I. on labels and in the catalogue), Eleuthera, 
Long I., Conception I., San Salvador ( = Watlings I.), Green Cay (north 
of San Salvador), Rum Cay, Crooked I., Guana Cay (in the Bight of 
Acklins), and on Great Inagua. The 30 others (18 species collected 6-12 
April) are from Hispaniola (San Lorenzo at Samana Bay) and the satellite 
islands Saona, Beata and Ile-a-Vache. MCZ catalogue numbers for this 
collection are 160921-964 (specimens from the Hispaniola and satellite 

D.W.Buden 16 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

islands, from Grand Bahama on 23 March, and from Green Cay), 269642 
(Pandion haliaetus from Long I.) and 331727 (Loxigilla violacea from 
Eleuthera). Barbour & Shreve (1935) give an itinerary of this cruise. 
The Bahaman birds were collected by J. C. Greenway Jr, and Helen 
Greenway and Thomas Barbour. The Greenways were not present on the 
Hispaniolan leg of the 1934 voyage and no specific collector is named for 
those specimens, the museum labels and catalogue bearing the notations 
"Utowana Exp. 1934" and "skinned by MCZ staff". 

The names and sequences of species in this account follow the 
American Ornithologists' Union (1983) Check-list. Museums and collec- 
tions are abbreviated as follows: AS = Albert Schwartz Collection (now 
at LSUMZ); FMNH = Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; 
LSUMZ = Louisiana State University Museum of Zoology; UMRC = 
University of Miami Reference Collection; USNM = National Museum 
of Natural History, Washington. Many of the museum labels on the 
Utowana specimens have information on reproductive condition and 
these data are available from the author on request. Locality records for 
specimens collected in the Bahamas are summarized in Table 1 and those 
from Hispaniola and its satellite islands are in Table 2. The more 
noteworthy records are discussed in greater detail below. 

audubon's shearwater Puffinus Iherminieri 

A male collected on Green Cay in March (presumably when the 
Utowana was at San Salvador on 27 and 28 March) is the first record for 
the island. Olson et al. (in press) report fossils of this species from San 
Salvador. The species is known to breed on small cays widely in the 
Bahamas (Brudenell-Bruce 1975, Buden 1987a, b), though no breeding 
sites have been reported for either Green Cay or San Salvador (see Sprunt 

west Indian whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea 

One downy-young, $, (total length of skin 215 mm from tip of bill to 
rump) collected in March on the 1934 expedition is the only record for 
Crooked Island. The Utowana was in the Crooked-Acklins area 1-6 

osprey Pandion haliaetus 

All the specimens are examples of the resident subspecies P. h. ridgwayi 
(Maynard). One $ collected on Long Island (the back of the museum label 
reads "E. Booby Cay"), 23 February 1934, was on a nest containing one 
egg. One $ taken on Mayaguana 24 February and another on 25 February 
1933 are the first records for that island. A $ was collected on Crooked 
Island on 20 February and another on 21 February 1933, the only earlier 
record being a bone fragment reported on by Wetmore (1938). 

American kestrel Falco sparverius 

One labelled "[dT' was collected on Saona on 8 April 1934. The breast 
is white throughout in this specimen (MCZ 166706), thus resembling 
that of pale-phase F. s. sparveroides Vigors from Cuba more closely than 
that of F. s. dominicensis Gmelin from Hispaniola. In 10 MCZ pale-phase 

D. W. Buden 


Bull.B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 


Birds collected in the Bahamas on the Utowana expeditions. Numerals indicate numbers of 
specimens; an asterisk (*) indicates specimens collected in 1933, all others are 1934. Islands 
are listed in geographic sequence, roughly northwest to southeast and abbreviated as 
follows: GB = Grand Bahama, GA = Great Abaco, EL = Eleuthera, LG = Long island, 
CN = Conception Island, RM = Rum Cay, SS = San Salvador (including also the satellite 
islet Green Cay for one record of Puffinus Iherminieri) , CR = Crooked Island (including 
also the satellite islet Guana Cay for one record of Zenaida aurita), FO = Fortune Island, 
MA = Mayaguana, GI = Great Inagua 













Tachybaptus dominicus 


Puffinus Iherminieri 

l a 

Dendrocygna arborea 


Pandion haliaetus 




2 * 

Rallus longirostris 


Haematopus palliatus 

l b 


Zenaida aurita 




Tyto alba 


Athene cunicularia 


Chlorostilbon ricordii 



Calliphlox evelynae 






Melanerpes superciliaris 



Picoides villosus 


Contopus caribaeus 


Tachycineta cyaneoviridis 


Polioptila caerulea 



Mimus polyglottos 




Mimus gundlachii 






Margarops fuscatus 



Vireo crassirostris 



Dendroica petechia 




Geothlypis trichas 


Geothlypis rostrata 


Coereba flaveola 






Spindalis zena 


Tiaris bicolor 







Loxigilla violacea 



.Green Cay, a tiny islet about 2 km off the northwestern coast of San Salvador. 

Guana Cay, a tiny islet in the Bight of Acklins, on the Crooked-Acklins Bank and south of 
Crooked Island. 

$$ from Cuba, the breast is completely white or has one or more small 
patches of buff colour, whereas all 8 MCZ $3 from Hispaniola have some 
buff colour on the breast, and this usually richer and more extensive than 
in those from Cuba. A dark ( = rufous) morph is common in Cuba, but all 
specimens reported from Hispaniola are pale-phase, though Bond (1980) 
remarked that "a rufous morph has been observed once or twice in Haiti 
and Jamaica". The specimen from Saona is slightly paler on the dorsum 
(more yellowish-brown, less reddish-brown) than are most of the Cuban 
and Hispaniolan specimens. 

The Saona specimen wing measures 181 .0 mm, the tail 1 12.4 mm. For 
the 10 %% from Cuba, the mean ±1 SD wing length is 179.3 ±3.8 (176.0- 
187.0), and mean tail length is 113.6±2.8 (109.8-118.0) mm; the 8 $$ 

D. W. Buden 


Bull.B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 


Birds collected on Hispaniola and satellite islands on the Utoivana expeditions. Numerals 

indicate numbers of specimens; an asterisk (*) indicates specimens collected in 1933, all 

others are 1934. F = near Fond Parisien, K = Kenscoff, L = San Lorenzo at Samana Bay. 



Saona Beata 


Falco sparverius 


Sterna maxima 


Zenaida aurita 


Colnmbina passerina 


Coccyzus minor 


Crotophaga ani 


Anthracothorax dominicus 


Todus subulatus 

2 S 

Melanerpes striatus 


Myiarchus stolidus 


Tyrannns dominicensis 



Corvus palmarum 


Mimus polyglottos 


Margarops fuscatus 


Setophaga ruticilla 


Coereba flaveola 


Microligea palustris 

1 S 

Phoenicophilns palmarum 

1 S 

Tiaris olivacea 


Ouiscalus niger 


Icterus dominicensis 


from Hispaniola measure 184.9 + 4.2 (180.0-192.0) and 118.7 + 2.4 
(1 1 5.1-122.6) mm, respectively. 

Mensurally and chromatically, the specimen from Saona is closer to 
sparveroides than to dominicensis; however, as it is near or at the extremes 
in variation of Hispaniolan dominicensis in both size and coloration, and in 
view of the close proximity of Saona to Hispaniola and the much greater 
distance to any known population of sparveroides, I believe this specimen 
is better treated as a variant of dominicensis than as a vagrant of 

barn-owl Tyto alba 

A $ collected on Crooked Island, 20 February 1933, almost certainly is 
the specimen in the photograph selected as a frontispiece by Barbour 
(1943). I know of no other firsthand report of T. alba from Crooked, 
except that I collected one there (LSUMZ 71160, sex unknown) on 8 
April 1972. 

Bond (1956) included all the Bahaman populations of Barn-Owl under 
the name Tyto alba lucayana Riley. According to Ridgway (1914), 
lucayana differs from T. a. pratincola (from eastern, continental North 
America) in having more ochraceous buff and less distinctive white 
specks on the dorsum, smaller dusky spots on inner webs of outermost 
primaries, and larger feet. But these are at best slight and average differ- 
ences if evident at all. I found no appreciable differences in size of feet 

D.W.Buden 19 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 1 10(1) 

between Bahaman and continental samples, neither visually nor in the 
measurement length of hind claw. In my samples, Bahaman birds aver- 
aged slightly smaller than the supposedly larger continental birds — 4 33 
and 4 ?2 from the Bahamas, 19.7 and 20.4 mm, respectively; 7 33 and 5 
9? from North Carolina, Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida (all LSUMZ 
and MCZ), 20.2 and 21.1 mm, respectively. 

The Bahaman birds tend to be paler (on tail, wings, dorsum and border 
of facial disc), on the average, than do those from the continent. But 
among 8 33, 6 99 and 5 unsexed specimens from Florida (4 MCZ, 15 
UMRC), at least 4 33 and one 9 match extremely well 4 33, 4 9? and 2 
unsexed specimens from the Bahamas (3 AS, 1 FMNH, 2 LSUMZ, 2 
MCZ, 2 USNM). Two 33 from Louisiana (LSUMZ 2404, 32233) are 
paler even than most of the specimens from the Bahamas. Also, Bangs 
(1900) reported that in a letter pertaining to the identification of 2 Barn- 
Owls taken on New Providence in 1897, Ridgway wrote "We can match 
your two Bahama specimens exactly with some in our [USNM] series 
from Washington, Arizona, etc.; we also have a Bahama skin very much 
resembling yours". 

In the absence of any demonstrable mensural differences between the 
Bahaman and continental birds, and as the differences in coloration are 
slight and are not constant, I recommend merging T. a. lucayana Riley 
with T. a. pratincola (Bonaparte). 

west-indian red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes superciUaris 

3 33 of M. s. bahamensis (Cory) were collected on Grand Bahama, 23 
March 1934. Short (1982) claimed M. s. nyeanus (Ridgway) from San 
Salvador "are a trifle longer billed and a bit paler below, averaging less 
black on the head of the males but otherwise seem identical with Grand 
Bahama specimens, and the latter do not merit separate status nomen- 
claturally (as 'bahamensis'y^. But among M. superciUaris in the MCZ 
collection, those I examined from San Salvador (3 33, 2 33?, 2 99) have 
more and brighter yellow on the venter, more white (less grey) on the head, 
and brighter red nasal tufts than do those from Grand Bahama (7 33, 16*?, 
4 99), and are eminently distinct from the Grand Bahama birds. 


For their assistance in obtaining information on the Utowana expeditions, I thank David 
Backus, Kenneth Boss, James C. Greenway Jr, Greg Mayer, Ruth Turner and Ernest 
Williams. I am grateful to Raymond A. Paynter Jr. and Alison Pirie for access to MCZ bird 
collections and catalogues, and to Eleanor Stickney for searching the collections at the Yale 
Peabody Museum. For making comparative material available, I thank the curators and 
supporting staff of the museums and collections mentioned in the introduction. 


American Ornithologists' Union. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. 6th edition. 

American Ornithologists' Union. 
Bangs, O. 1900. Notes on a collection of Bahama birds. Auk 17: 283-293. 
Barbour, T. 1943. Naturalist at Large. Little, Brown and Co. 
. 1945. Allison Armour and the Utowana. Privately printed. The Cosmos Press, 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Barbour, T. & Shreve, B. 1935. Concerning some Bahamian reptiles, with notes on the 

fauna. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 40: 347-366. 
Bond, J. 1956. Check-list of Birds of the West Indies. 4th edition. Acad. Nat. Sci. 


G. R. Graves & R.L.Zusi 20 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

Bond, J. 1980. Twenty-third Supplement to the Check-list of Birds of the West Indies (1956). 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 
Bond, J. & Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1944. The Birds. Pp. 7-45 in 'Results of the fifth 

George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941)'. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Monograph No. 6. 
Brudenell-Bruce, P. G. C. 1975. The Birds of New Providence and the Bahama Islands. 

Buden, D. W. 1987a. The Birds of the Southern Bahamas. B.O.U. Check-list No. 8. British 

Ornithologists' Union. 
Buden, D. W. 1987b. Birds of the Cay Sal Bank and Ragged Islands, Bahamas. Florida Sci. 

Greenway, J. C. Jr. 1933. A name for the Golden Warbler of Old Providence Island. Proc. 

New England Zool. CI. 13: 63 bis-64 bis. 
Olson, S. L. & Hilgartner, W. B. 1982. Fossil and subfossil birds from the Bahamas. Pp. 

22-60 in S. L. Olson Ed., 'Fossil vertebrates from the Bahamas'. Smithsonian Contrib. 

toPaleobiol. 48. 
Olson, S. L., Pregill, G. K. & Hilgartner, W. B. (in press). Studies on fossil and extant 

vertebrates from San Salvador (Watling's Island), Bahamas. Smithsonian Contrib. to 

Ridgway, R. 1914. The birds of North and Middle America. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. No. 50, 

Pt. 6. 
Short, L. L. 1982. Woodpeckers of the World. Delaware Mus. Nat. Hist., Monograph Series 

No. 4. 
Sprunt, A. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds of the Bahama Islands. Pp. 

157-168 in J. P. Croxall, P. G. H. Evans & R. W. Schreiver (Eds) 'Status and Conser- 
vation of World's Seabirds'. Internat. Coun. Bird Pres. Tech. Publ. No. 2. 
Wetmore, A. 1938. Bird remains from the West Indies. Auk 55: 51-55. 

Address: Dr D. W. Buden, Department of Natural Sciences, Northern State College, 
Aberdeen, South Dakota 57401, U.S.A., and New England Science Center, 
Harrington Way, Worcester, Massachusetts 01604, U.S.A. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1990. 

Avian body weights from the lower Rio Xingu, 


by Gary R. Graves & Richard L. Zusi 

Received 6 June 1989 

From 13 August to 30 September 1986, we surveyed the avifauna of the 
east bank of the lower Rio Xingu (3°39'S, 52°22'W) from an encampment 
52 km SSW of Altamira, Para, Brazil, as part of a biological survey of the 
region sponsored by the Academia Brasileira de Ciencias. The purpose of 
this paper is to present data on the body weights of birds sampled from 
populations at this locality. Some data of this type from eastern Amazonia 
are scattered among recent publications (e.g. Oren 1987), but most of 
these deal only with selected species. None of the older works on birds of 
the lower Rio Xingu mentions body weights (Snethlage 1913, Griscom & 
Greenway 1941). 

Three major terrestrial habitats occur naturally along the lower Rio 
Xingu: (1) seasonally flooded forest; (2) terra firme forest; (3) successional 
island scrub . A fourth habitat type, agricultural clearing and man-caused 
secondary growth, was restricted to small scattered patches near the river 

G. R. Graves & R.L.Zusi 21 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

on the east bank. We used mist-netting as well as straight observation, and 
collected some specimens. A network of trails (10+ km) radiating from 
the base camp was cut through virgin forest and secondary growth. Mist- 
nets (12 m) were set using standard techniques in selected sites in all 
'mainland' habitat types. 12-30 mist-nets (x = 22) were maintained 
throughout the survey period, for a total of 1 056 net/days. More than two- 
thirds of the field observation time (288 hrs) was spent in seasonally 
flooded and terre firme forest. 263 species were recorded during the 
survey. Based on the cumulative curve of species added over 48 survey 
days, we estimate that from 300—310 species were resident within 10 km 
of our base camp. 

Below we present body weight data by sex for 750 individuals of 201 
species. For reference, 62 species observed but not collected are listed in 
the Appendix. Voucher specimens were deposited in the National 
Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) and the Museum 
of Zoology, University of Sao Paulo. Weights of birds (including gut 
contents) were taken soon after death with Pesola spring scales for 5,10, 
30, 50, 100 and 300 g and with a 10 kg spring scale. Weights up to 10 g 
were rounded to the nearest 0.1 g, those from 10 to 300 g to the nearest 
1 .0 g, and those above 300 g to the nearest 5.0 g. Because our spring scales 
measure weights but read in grams (unit of mass), we use the familiar term 
'weight' while presenting the figures in grams. 

These weight data include species that have small geographic ranges 
(e.g. Penelope pile ata, Gypopsitta vulturina, Pyrrhura perlata , Neomorphus 
squamiger , Lophornis gouldii) or are rare and poorly known (e.g. Synallaxis 
cherriei, Simoxenops ucayalae, Hylopezus berlepschi, Conopophaga melano- 
gaster, Taeniotriccus andrei). Also noteworthy are data for large-bodied 
species that are rarely weighed in the field (e.g. Phalacrocorax olivaceus, 
Cathartes melambrotos , Leucopternis schistacea, Psophia viridis). Notes 
on the taxonomy and distribution of selected species will be published 

Taxonomy of the species arrangement below follows Morony et al. 
(1975). Numbers in parentheses equal sample size for a particular weight 
class. a Collectedon the east bank of the Rio Iriri near the confluence of the 
Rio Xingu and Rio Iriri (Iriri Camp, 85 km SW Altamira, 3°50'S, 

Tinamus major: $ 1050 
Crypturellus variegatus: rJc? 310, 365 
Phalacrocorax olivaceus: cJc? 1400, 1450 
Ardea cocoi: 5 2 1 00 
Cathartes melambrotos: $ 1650 
Harpagus bidentatus: <$ 165 
Accipiter super ciliosus: $ 67 
Leucopternis schistacea: 9 455 
Daptrius americanus: $ 510 
Falco rufigularis: ■■£ 125 
Ortalis motmot: £ 345 
Penelope pileata: $ 1 100; ? 1420 a 
Craxfasciolata: 5 2280 
Odontophorus gujanensis: rj 380 
Psophia viridis: $ 1 1 70 a , 1 200 a 
Ar amides cajanea: $ 420; $350 

G. R. Graves &R.L.Zusi 22 Bull.B.O.C. 1990110(1) 

Vanelhis cayanus: $ 72, 73; $ 79 

Phaetasa simplex: $ 240 

Columba plumbea: $ 132; $126 

Columbina passer ina: $($ 24 (2); $ 28 

Leptotila verreauxi: $ 140 

Leptotilaruf axilla: SS 115, 135, 162, 167; 99 122, 128, 137, 145 

Geotrygon montana: $$ 86, 105 

/Jra ararauna: 9 995 

Aramacao: 9 1040 

Ara severa: 9 285 

Aratinga leucophthalmus: 99 145, 148 

Aratinga aurea: $ 94 

Pyrrhura perlata: 3$ 70, 80 

Pyrrhurapicta: SS Ab,Al , 51; $48 

Brotogeris chrysopterus: SS 68, 72; 9? 58, 59 

Gypopsitta vulturina: SS 138, 150; 9 142 

Pionus menstruus: c? 21 5 

Amazona ochrocephala: $ 535; 9 505 

Piaya cayana: $ 92 

Crotophaga major: <$& 1 70, 200 

Neomorphus squamiger: £ 340" 


Otuswatsonii: SS 115(2), 116, 122; 99 127, 141 

Ciccaba virgata: $ 240 

Lurocalis semitorquatus: <$ 60 

Nyctiprogne leucopyga: SS 23, 24 (2), 27; 99 23 (2), 26 

Nyctidromus albicollis: $$ 49, 53, 54 

Nyctiphrynus ocellatus: <$ 35; 9 39 

Caprimulgus nigrescens: 99 33, 38, 40 

Hydropsalis climacocerca: c?c?39, 41, 54, 55; 99 35, 47 

Glaucis hirsuta: <$($ 5.6, 6.0, 6.3, 6.5 

Threnetes leucurus: 3^4.8, 5.4 

Phaethornis super ciliosus: £<$ 4.5, 4.6 (2), 4.8, 4.9, 5.0 (3), 5.5; 99 4.2, 4.5, 5.6 

Phaethornis ruber: <$ 2.3; 9 2.3 

Campylopterus largipennis: 9 7.0 

Lophornis gouldii: 9 2.4 

Thaluramafurcata: SS 4.0, 4. 1 (2), 4.3; 99 3.3, 3.4, 3.8, 4.1 , 4.2 

Polyplancta aurescens: <$ 6.0 

Heliothryx aurita: <$ 4.5 

Trogon viridis: $ 81 ; 9 87 

Chloroceryle amazona: c?116;9105 

Chloroceryle americana: $ 24 

Chloroceryle inda: ^^41, 51;?50 

Chloroceryle aenea: <$\\ 

Momotus momota: <$ 148 

Ga/Wa albirostris: JS 20, 21 (2), 23 (3), 24 (2); 99 21 (2), 22 

Galbula ruficauda: <S 22 (2); 99 20, 22 

Galbuladecr.dd 30,39 

Jacamerops aurea: £ 73 

Notharchus tectus: 9 30 

Malacoptila rufa: S<S 39, 44; 99 40, 43 

Monasa nigrifrons: SS 68 (2), 71 , 75; 99 75, 77 

Monasa morphoeus: $ 77; 9 87 

Chelidoptera tenebrosa: cJcJ 34, 36 

Pteroglossus bitorquatus: 9 1 20 

Pteroglossus aracari: $$ 237, 272 

Ramphastos vitellinus: 9 317 

Ramphastos tucanus: SS 555, 570 

Picumnus aurifrons: c? 9.1 

V eniliornis affinis: <$ 30 

Piculusflavigula: SS 64, 68; 9 63 

Celeusflavus: $$ 105, 114 

G. R. Graves & R.L.Zusi 23 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

Dryocopus lineatus: c? 174 

Campephilus rubricollis: $ 207 

Dendrocinclafuligmosa: <?<? 37, 43 (3), 44 (3); ?? 29, 35, 36 

Dendrocincla merula: &? 28, 31, 32 (2), 35, 36, 38, 43; $? 29, 33, 34 

Deconychura stictolaema: 2 13 (2) 

Sittasomus griseicapillus: $ 17; ? 11 

Glyphorhynchus spirurus: <$ 14, 15, 16 (2), 17 (4), 20; $? 13, 15, 21 (2) 

Xasica longirostris: unsexed 82 

Xiphocolaptes promeropirhvnchus: $ 111; $ 102 

Dendrocolaptes concolor: SS 50, 52, 58, 62; ?$ 52 (2), 64, 66, 67 

Dendrocolaptes picumnus: <$ 77 

Xiphorhvnchus picus: <$$ 34, 35, 36; $? 34, 35, 38 

Xiphorhvnchus obsoletus: £<$ 27, 30; $$ 24, 26, 30 (2) 

Xiphorhxnchus spixii: <$ $ 30 (2); $? 30, 31, 32 

Xiphorhynchus eytoni: $<$ 61 (3), 64, 65; $$ 45, 50, 53, 55 

Campy lorhamphus procurvoides: ?$ 38 (2) 

Furnarius figulus: o 28 

Svnallaxis gujanensis: <J19 

Synallaxis rutilans: <$ 14; ?? 17 (2), 19 

Svnallaxis cherriei: $ 1 6 

Simoxenops ucavalae: eJ 39 (placed in Philydor by Morony e£ a/. 1975) 

Philydor erythrocercus: SS 24 (2); ?$ 18, 20, 21 (2), 22 

Philydor pyrrhodes: q 33; ? 24 

Automolus infuscatus: $$ 35, 36, 37, 41; ?? 32, 34 

Automolus rufipileatus: o3 36, 38 (3); ? 31 

Xewops minutus: ££ 9.3, 10.0 (2), 11 (2); $? 8.8, 9.0, 9.9 

Sclerurus mexicanus: ^S 20, 21, 22 (2); $$ 21, 27 

Sclerurus caudacutus: cftj 34, 35; $ 35 

Cymbilaimus lineatus: ,^q 31, 36 

Tar aba major: ^ 57 

Sakesphorus luctuosus: S£Z\, 34 (2); $$ 28 (2), 32, 33 

Thamnophilus schistaceus: 30 19, 20; ? 21 

Thamnophilus amazonicus: SJ 15, 19 (3), 22; $9 17 (2), 21 

Pvgiptila stellaris: $3 19, 23; $? 21, 23, 24 

fhamnomanes caesius: $$ 13 (4), 14, 15 (2), 16(4); 9? 13 (3), 14(2), 15 (3), 18 

Myrmotherula brachyura: 5 7.5 

Myrmotherula surinamensis: $$ 7.2, 8.0, 8.2; ?? 7.8, 8.0 

Myrmotherula hauxzvelli: $$ 8.4 (3), 9.0, 9.5; ?$ 8.7, 9.2 (2), 9.6 

Myrmotherula leucophthalma: $ 9.6; ?$ 8.0, 10.2 

Myrmotherula ornata: $<$ 8.6, 9.0, 9.5 (2); ? 9.3 

Myrmotherula axillaris: $$ 6.1, 6.6, 7.0, 7.2; ?? 7.0, 7.3 

Myrmotherula longipennis: $ 8.0; ?$ 7.4, 8.4, 8.6 

Myrmotherula menetriesii: $£ 8.6, 9.0; $ 9.0 

Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus: £ 10.0; $ 11 

Cercomacra nigrescens: SS 15, 16 (5), 18, 19, 21; ?$ 14, 15, 16 

Pyriglena leuconota: $£ 26 (3), 29 (2), 30, 31, 34, 36; ?$ 24, 27 (2), 28 (2), 30 

Myrmoborus leucophrys: ££ 18, 21; $ 17 

Myrmoborus myotherinus: $d 15 (2), 16, 18; $ 17 

Hypocnemis cantator: <$<$ 10 (2), 11 (2), 12; $$ 10, 1 1 

Hypocnemoides maculicauda: cTcT 11,12 (4), 13; $ 12 

Sclateria naevia: $ 22 

Percnostola leucostigma: SS 22, 24, 25 (2), 26; 9? 21, 22, 23 

Hylophylax naevia: $$ 9.5, 11 (4), 12; $? 10, 11, 13 

Hylophylax punctulata: $$ 9.4, 9.8, 11; $? 12, 13 

Hvlophylax poecilonota: 3$ 14, 16 (2); ?? 14 (2), 15, 16 (2), 17 

Phlegopsis nigromaculata: JS 40, 42, 46, 48, 49; ?? 36 (2), 37, 41, 43 (2) 

Formicarius colma: &J 38, 39, 40 (2), 46, 47; $$ 41 , 44, 48 

Formicarius analis: $<$ 45, 50, 57; $ 54 

Grallaria varia: ^ 121; $ 98 

Hylopezus berlepschi: $39 

Conopophaga aurita: $$ 22, 25; ?? 20, 24 

Conopophaga melanogaster: $ 42 

G. R. Graves & R.L.Zusi 24 Bull. B.O.C. 19901 1Q(1) 

Lipaugus vociferans: $$ 68, 80; 99 75, 77 

Pachyramphus marginatus: <$ 18 

Pachvramphus minor: 9 32 

Ceplialopterus ornatus: <$ 705; $9 380, 405 

Pipra rubrocapilla: $10 

Pi>ra/fli«icaMrfa: c J(Jll,12(3),13(4),14(5),15(3),16(3),17(3);$?ll,12(3),13(5),14(5) l 

15(7), 16(4) 
Heterocercus hnteatus: 99 16, 20 
Knipolegus orenocensis: <$($ 19, 21; 9 18 
Megarhynchus pitangua: $ 63 
Myiarchus ferox: <$<$ 22, 24; 9 17 
Attila spadiceus: 9 33 
Attila cinnamomeus: $ 38; 9 35 
Rhytipterna simplex: 9 29 
Empidonax euleri: cJ 1 2 
Terenotriccus erythrurus: cJcJ 6.0, 6.3, 6.5 
Onychorhynchus coronatus: $<$ 12, 13 (2), 14(2) 
Platyrinchus platyrhynchos: $<$ 11, 12; 9 H 
Tolmomyias sulphur escens: $ 11; 99 12, 13 
Tolmomyias poliocephalus: $$ 10, 1 1 
Tolmomyias flaviventris: $$ 9, 10, 11; 9 11 
Rhynchocyclus olivaceus: $<$ 21 , 22; 99 18, 22 
Todirostrum maculatum: $ 6.8; 9 7.5 
Snethlagea minor: SS 6.0, 6.9, 7.0, 7.6; 99 6.0, 6.8, 7.0 
Taeniotriccus andrei: SS 8.0, 8.6, 8.8, 9.6 
Myiornis ecaudatus: £ 4.3; 9 4.8 
Capsiempis flaveola: <$ 8.0 
Inezia subflava: S<S 6.0, 7.3; 9 7.0 
Camptostoma obsoletum: <$ 7.5; 9 8.0 
Tyranniscus gracilipes: $ 8.0 

Pipromorpha oleaginea: Jd 7.6, 8.5, 9.0, 9.5, 9.9; 99 7.1, 8.0, 8.3, 9.6 
Pipromorpha macconnelli: <$$ 11 (3), 12, 13 (2); 911 

Corythopis torquata: 913 (placed in Formicariidae by Morony et al. 1975) 
Campy lorhynchus turdinus: unsexed 38 
Thryothorus coraya: $ 19; 9 19 
Thryothorus leucotis: <SS 16 (2), 18, 19; 9 16 
Microcerculus marginatus: £ 17; 99 14, 17 
Turdus fumigatus: $<$ 60, 67; 99 53, 59, 72 
Turdus albicollis: SS 36, 39, 47; 99 39, 46 
Ramphocaenus melanurus: <$ 7.6; 99 7.8, 8.4, 8.6 
Polioptila plumbea: 9 6.8 
Oryzoborus angolensis: <£$ H (2), 12; 9 10 

Arremon taciturnus: SS 21 (2), 22 (2), 23, 24, 25, 26; 99 18, 23, 25 
Paroaria gularis: SS 22, 23; 99 19, 25, 27 
Saltator maximus: $$ 33, 38, 40, 41; 99 35, 41 , 43, 45 
Pitylus grossus: S6 22, 23; 99 19, 25, 27 

Passerina cyanoides: S<S 21 (2), 22, 23 (4), 25 (2); 99 22, 24, 25, 26 
Hemithraupis guira: £<$ 11 (2), 12 
Tachyphonus cristatus: £ 23 
Tachyphonus rufus: 9 36 
Habia rubica: $ 32 

Ramphocelus carbo: £$ 20, 21 , 22, 24 (2), 25; 99 20, 22, 23, 25, 26 
Thraupis palmar um: $ 32 
Euphonia violacea: $ 14; 9 14 
Tangara mexicana: $ 21 
Phaeothlypis rivularis: unsexed 1 1 
Granatellus pelzelni: 911 
Coereba flaveola: 9 8.8 
Hylophilus brunneiceps: SS 8.0, 1 1 ; 9 8.0 
Psarocolius decumanus: £ 232 

Gymnostinops yuracares neivae x G. bifasciatus: <$$ 290, 385, 445; 99 184, 210, 215 
Cacicus cela: <$ 98 

G. R. Graves & R. L. Zusi 


Bull.B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 


Field work was facilitated and supported by the Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, through a 
grant from Electronorte administered by P. E. Vanzolini. Transportation to and from Brazil 
was provided by the Smithsonian's I.E.S.P. Neotropical Lowland Research Program. 

We thank Mike Carleton, Ron Crombie, Louise Emmons and Linda Gordon for collect- 
ing specimens, and P. E. Vanzolini and Bea Ribeiro for providing logistical support on the 
Xingu and in Sao Paulo. 


Griscom, L. & Greenwav, J. C. Jr 1941. Birds of Lower Amazonia. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 

Morony, J. J., Jr, Bock, W. J. & Farrand, J., Jr 1975. Reference List of the Birds of the World. 

American Aluseum of Natural History, New York. 
Oren, D. C. 1987. Cherrie'sspinetai\(Synallaxischerriei Gyldenstolpe) (Aves: Furnariidae) 

in Carajas and Gorotire, Para, Brazil. Bol. Mus. Paraense Emilio Goeldi, nov. ser. Zool. 3: 

Snethlage, E. 1913. Uber die Verbreitung der Vogelarten in Unteramazonien. J. Orn. 61: 


Addresses : Gary R. Graves & Richard L. Zusi, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National 
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1990 


Species recorded on the east bank of the Rio Xingu from 13 August to 30 September 1986 
but not collected. 

Tinamus guttatus 
Anhinga anhinga 
Butorides striatus 
Egretta thula 
Pilherodius pileatus 
Mycteria americana 
Mesembrinibis cayennensis 
Cairina moschata 
Sarcoramphus papa 
Coragyps atratus 
Cathartes aura 
Elanoides forficatus 
Ictinia plumbea 
Buteo magnirostris 
Leucopternis albicollis 
Buteogallus urubitinga 
Pandion haliaetus 
Daptrius ater 
Polyborus plancus 
Mitu mitu 
Heliornis fulica 

Actitis macularia 
Sterna superciliaris 
Rynchops niger 
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus 
Ara chloroptera 
Graydidascalus brachyurus 
Amazona farinosa 
Crotophaga ant 
Pulsatrix perspicillata 
Nyctibius griseus 
Chaetura cinereiventris 
Panyptila cayennensis 
Anthracothorax nigricollis 
Hylocharis cyanus 
Trogon melanurus 
Trogon violaceus 
Ceryle torquata 
Bucco capensis 
Piculus chysochloros 
Campephilus melanoleucos 
Cranioleuca gutturata 

Cotinga cayana 
Tityra semifasciata 
Tityra inquisitor 
Tyrannus melancholicus 
Myiozetetes similis 
Pitangus sulphuratus 
Pitangus lictor 
Myiobius sp. 
Tachycineta albiventer 
Progne chalybea 
Atticora melanoleuca 
Volatinia jacarina 
Dacnis cayana 
Dacnis flaviventer 
Cyanerpes sp. 
Tachyphonus luctuosus 
Thraupis episcopus 
Cyclarhis gujanensis 
Molothrus bonariensis 
Icterus cayenensis 

J.Fjeldsa 26 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

Geographic variation in the Rufous-webbed 
Tyrant Polioxolmis rufipennis, with description 
of a new subspecies 

by Jon Fjeldsa 

Received 22 June 1989 

The Rufous-webbed Tyrant Polioxolmis rufipennis (previously in 
Myiotheretes or Xolmis — see Smith & Vuilleumier 1971, Tray lor 1977, 
Lanyon 1986) is a large and conspicuous tyrant flycatcher inhabiting the 
high Andes of Bolivia and Peru. Although recorded only from few and 
widely scattered localities, no geographic differentiation has been noted. 
Zimmer (1937), in his review of Peruvian fluvicoline flycatchers, did not 
comment on this species, and it is currently recognized as monotypic 

In connection with a general study of the population structures of bird 
species associated with high-elevation remnant woodlands in Peru and 
Bolivia I examined the great majority of museum specimens of the 
Rufous-webbed Tyrant, and was surprised to find a clearcut geographic 
differentiation. This pattern is described here, together with a few 
biological data on this poorly known bird. 


This study is based on the field experience from travels together with 
Niels Krabbe and others in 1983/84 and 1987, and on studies of museum 
specimens by myself. 

Examined specimens were birds collected in 1983, -87, -89 for the 
Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen (ZMUC), and study 
skins from: the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (ANSP); 
American Museum of Natural History, New York (AMNH); British 
Museum of Natural History, Tring (BMNH); Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh (CMP); Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago 
(FMNH); Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles 
(IRSNB); Louisiana State University Museum of Zoology, Baton Rouge 
(LSUMZ); Musee de Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MHNP); Museo de 
Historia Natural de la UNMSM, "Javier Prado", Lima (MHNJP); and 
the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (SMNH). (This 
species was lacking in some other institutions visited.) Altogether 74 
specimens were examined. Measurements taken were exposed culmen, 
tarsus, wing length (cord), tail length and width of the dark distal tail-bar 
(measured from the narrowest point, parallel with the shaft, to the distal 
feather edge, and on the outer rectrix). The wing formula and outline of 
the dark pattern on the outer tail-feathers were recorded. Capitalized 
colour names refer to a direct comparison with the colour standards of 

J. Fjeldsa 27 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 1 10(1) 

Distribution and habitat requirements 
In Peru, specimen records are from the West Andes in Cajamarca (Hua- 
craruco, Hacienda Taulis, Sendamal and near Celendin), La Libertad 
(Huamachueo, Quirivilca), Ancash (above Huaylas, Quebrada Pucavado, 
Rio Pumamarca), Lima (upper Santa Eulalia Valley and Hortical in the 
Cahete drainage) and Ayacucho (Pampa Galeras, Quebrada Quehua); in 
the Central Andes in Amazonas (Atuen), La Libertad (Tayabamba), 
Pasco and Junin (Huanuco mountains, Chipa, east of Concepcion above 
Huariaca), Huancavelica (Huancavelica) and in Apurimac (Pomayaco, 
Runtacocha, Chipimarca); and in the East Andes in Cuzco (Cachupata, 
Abra Malaga, Patallacta) and Puno (Checayani). Sight records from other 
places in Lima, western Ayacucho and Puno are given in Fjeldsa (1987). 
R. A. Hughes has a sighting as far south as Cruz de Condor in Arequipa. 

Bolivian specimen records are from western Oruro (Carangas near 
Nevada Sajama), in the Cordillera Real of La Paz (4 road km W Pongo, 
10 miles N Viloca) and Cochabamba (Choro in Ayopaya), in sheltered 
valleys along the watershed of the Tunari range in Cochabamba and in the 
rainshadow of central Cochabamba (Cochabamba, Cerro Blanco, above 
Tutimayo, Colomi, Salto Pampa, Tiraque, Incachaca, Parrasco near 
Lopez Mendoza, Cuchacancha) and Samaipata in adjacent Sta Cruz. The 
species is also recorded in Potosi (Finca Salo, Oploca). 

Typically in Peru it occurs at around 4000 m on slopes with light 
Polylepis woodlands surrounded by puna grassland and rocky terrain 
with occasional cacti, scrubs and Puyas. Often the territory includes high 
rock-walls and narrow rocky ridges adjacent to Polylepis patches. In the 
breeding season, the species seems to be narrowly restricted to the edges 
of Polylepis woods or to areas with scattered, park-like Polylepis 
vegetation, sometimes with the giant bromeliad Puya raimondii admixed. 
In most of Peru, these woodlands are isolated well above the cloud and 
elfin forests. On the Pacific slope, the Polylepis habitats usually lie near the 
upper fringe of the zone of frequent mists, but well above the relict 
patches of true cloud forest and also somewhat isolated from shrub- 
steppe habitats. This isolation of the breeding habitat may be a main 
reason for the apparent specialization of the Rufous-webbed Tyrant to 
Polylepis woodlands (see Vuilleumier's (1986) view of the evolution of 
specialization to Polylepis in birds). 

In Cochabamba in Bolivia most records of Rufous-webbed Tyrants are 
at 3000-3800 m, from places where the Polylepis grows interspersed in 
a more varied scrubby vegetation, with small acacia-like trees and 
Barnadesia scrub. The valleys in this southern part of the range have a 
vegetation continuum from lower-temperate thorny scrub mixed with 
Polylepis to pure Polylepis shrub on the edge of the Altiplano. The 
Rufous-webbed Tyrant may hardly reach elevations with pure Polylepis 
stands, maybe because these habitats are, in general, biologically very 

The only nest of the Rufous-webbed Tyrant found (15 February 1987, 
with 2 fledglings) was in a tiny patch of Polylepis trees in a small stream 
ravine on a puna slope. It was a rather flimsy and open cup of stalks and 
thin twigs placed just below the top of a 5 m-tall tree overhanging the 

J. Fjeldsa 28 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

The Rufous-webbed Tyrant hunts hovering, like a kestrel, or using 
hanging hover on aerial updraughts (Fjeldsa & Krabbe in press). A bird 
may also watch from a conspicuous perch in a bush-top or a projection on 
a rocky slope or rock-wall, to glide down to take prey from the ground. In 
open country it sometimes watches from hummocks and makes short 
runs and sallies. The need for updraughts and elevated hunting posts may 
be a main determinant of its selection of rocky walls and ridges in the 
rolling grasslands and semideserts characterizing the high Andes. How- 
ever, it is difficult to see how Polylepis trees as such can have any signifi- 
cance in relation to the feeding ecology. Thus, although the species seems 
to have developed a very strong (if not total) attachment to Polylepis 
stands for breeding, it probably roams some distance away from these 
woodlands when not breeding. Many specimen records from the dry non- 
breeding season are from places with fields, xeric stream valleys and from 
humid treeline habitat around 3000 m — in Peru at Huacraruco, Atuen, 
Pomayaco and Cachupata, and in Bolivia where there are records from 
humid montane forest habitat at Aduana above Incachaca. 

The sparse records of the Rufous-webbed Tyrant to a considerable 
extent may be a result of a paucity of observations in its steep and difficult 
habitat. Even in the most suitable habitat, the species holds large territor- 
ies, and has a very low population density. Many Polylepis patches are 
isolated by tens of kilometers from the next patch. However, the long 
wings and good flying powers of the Rufous-webbed Tyrant (Fitzpatrick 
1985), and its ability to leave the core habitat at least seasonally, should 
permit some gene-flow contact between local populations. The species 
must be expected to have been much more widespread previously than 
today, since the patchiness of forest habitats in part results from human 
activity, from pre-Incaic times up to the present (Ansion 1986, Fjeldsa 

Character variation 

Measurements. The sexual dimorphism in measurements is slight 
through Peru, but increases southwards. For the West Andes from 
Cajamarca to Lima, the mean wing length of 7 <$<$ is 131.9, of 6 ?? 
128.9 mm; 15 Bolivian $$ have the mean 124.1, 15?? 116.3 mm; for the 
isolated southernmost site, Oploca, 2 ?? have wings 101.5 and 104 mm, 2 
cJc£ 124 and 125 mm. A similar variation is found in other measurements, 
males being slightly larger than females, a difference that is most pro- 
nounced furthest south. The material is insufficient for a sex-separated 
analysis of character variation; however, it is worth noting that the male: 
female ratio of museum specimens examined is 0.65 for the Peruvian 
material, 1.36 for Bolivian material. 

The local variation in wing- and tail-length is given in Table 1 . Other 
measurements show a similar pattern of differentiation. Clearly, birds 
from the northern part of the range average largest (despite the low frac- 
tion of males in the data), those from the East Andes zone of Bolivia small. 
There is much individual variation in southern and central Peru. 

Omitting 4 specimens from near the borderline (3 from Puno, 1 from 
Oruro), the average wing-length, with standard deviation, is 129.1, 

jf. Fjeldsa 29 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

Local variation in wing and tail length (mm), and width of the tail bar (mm), in the Rufous- 
webbed Tyrant Polioxolmis rufipennis 




Tail bar 

Cen. Andes of Amazonas + Libertad 


131, 133 



W. Andes of Cajamarca+ Libertad 





Ancash to W Ayacucho 





Pasco, Juin + Huancavelica 




















W. Oruro 





E. Cordilera of N. Bolivia 





Tunari area 





Lower Cochabamba 










s.d.±3.5 mm for Peru, 120.5 + 6.2 mm for Bolivia. The calculated joint 
non-overlap for the 2 series is 82% for the wing-length (82% for 33, 87% 
for $$), 90% for tail length. Comparing birds from the West Andes with 
those from the East Andes of Bolivia, there is no overlap at all. The wing 
formula did not show clearcut regional differences. 

Colours. Bill and feet are black (gape pale olive towards flesh), the eyes 
brownish white to pale grey-brown (unlike the dark-eyed Myiotheretes 
and Cnemarchus, though a fledgling had dark brown eyes, with yellow 
mouth and cutting edges of both mandibles). The plumage is generally 
dark sooty grey, lightest below, becoming pinkish buffon the central belly 
and vent; the underside of wings and tail are extensively cinnamon- 
rufous, except for a dark distal bar and dark central pair of tail-feathers. 
The juvenile plumage (3 specimens, January-February) is slightly 
warmer hued, the throat less clearly streaked, but the breast appearing 
slightly spotted, owing to a faint buffy tinge on the feather edges. 

There is an absolutely constant geographic difference. Peruvian birds 
(and the one from western Oruro) were deep neutral grey above, giving a 
very uniform, smooth, bluish slaty impression. All Bolivian birds and 
specimens from Puno Peru (Azangaro) are slightly lighter and duller 
grey, as if slightly tinged brownish, and the feathers of the breast often 
have definitely lighter, more buffy feather-sides causing faint streaking. 
This state is approached only in juvenile birds from Peru. 

The tail-bar (as defined in the introduction) is 17.5-30 mm wide (mean 
22.0, s.d.±3.0mm) in most of Peru, against 6-16 (18) mm (mean 
12.1 ±2.9 mm) in Puno and Bolivia (Table 1). Variations in the outline of 
the bar (e.g. whether the dark colour curves up along the shaft or inner 
edge of the feather, or not) do not follow a geographic pattern. 


The character expression is fairly constant in northern Peru and south- 
wards in the West Andes, while birds from the East Andes zone of Bolivia 
show other character states (with a greater variance owing to more marked 

J.Fjeldsa 30 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

sexual dimorphism). Birds from Apurimac to Puno in southern Peru 
show somewhat variable size; however, if also the colouration is con- 
sidered, the differentiation is very abrupt. Regarding the width of the tail- 
bar, only one bird from Cordillera Real in La Paz (bar 1 8 mm wide) causes 
overlap with birds from north of the Raya pass between Puno and Cuzco. 
Three birds from Puno are transitory by size, but have narrow tail-bars. 
Birds from Cuzco show slightly narrower tail-bars than those from 
further north. Gene flow could be expected to take place easily all the way 
along the East Cordillera from La Paz to Cuzco. 

The variation is not simply correlated with climate, as both morpho- 
logical groups range from semi-humid to arid climates. Considering the 
dispersal potential and lack of particularly large range disjunctions in 
southern Peru (except probably on the Pacific slope), the pattern of differ- 
entiation is difficult to explain. As the habitat was clearly more wide- 
spread in the past than today, there is no obvious explanation in the near 
past. Maybe the topography and climatic oscillations, in combination, 
caused larger disjunctions sometimes in the far past than today. This is 
suggested by the phytogeographic patterns with some Polylepis species 
typical of the Peruvian cordilleras (P. subsericans , incana and racemosa), 
and other species typical of Bolivia and the altiplanos and southern Peru 
(P. besseri, tarapacana and tomentella) (see Simpson 1986 and new distri- 
butional records in Fjeldsa 1987). However, a specific scenario of differ- 
entiation is difficult to hypothesize before the population structure has 
been worked out for additional Polylepis-adapted birds. 

I will classify the populations as follows: 

Polioxolmis rufipennis rufipennis Taczanowski, 1874 Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London: 134 Maraynioc, Peru. Type formerly Warshaw Museum, 
now lost. 

Diagnosis. Large (wing 120— 135 mm, mean 129.1, s.d.±3.5mm), 
above Deep Neutral Grey to Slate Colour, slightly lighter below, but on 
the whole appearing very uniform dark, almost bluish. Dusky tail-bar 
wide, 17.5-30 mm on the outer rectrix. 

Range. Locally distributed in the temperate zone of the West and 
Central Cordilleras of the Andes from Lambayeque, Cajamarca and 
Amazonas in the north to Cordillera Vilcabamba in Cuzco, and on the 
west slope very locally south of Lima to Arequipa, Peru, and at Carangas 
near Nevada Sajama in western Oruro, Bolivia. 

Polioxolmis rufipennis bolivianus subsp. nov. 

Type. SMNH Stockholm A561808, leg. 13 June 1938 by A. M. Olalla, 
on Cerro Blanco (3800 m), Cochabamba, Male. 

Diagnosis. Generally small (wing 101.5—131 mm; mean 120.5, s.d. 
±6.12 mm), dull grey, appearing buff- or brown-tinged rather than 
bluish, and with the dark bar on the outer rectrix only 6-16 mm wide 
(measured where the bar is narrowest). The individual colour variation is 
slight, although some birds have conspicuously paler (more buffy) 
feather-edges on the breast, which gives a suggestion of spots or streaks. 

Description of the type. Above Hair Brown, but remiges showing Light 
Drab outer webs, and thin whitish edges distally. Becomes slightly paler 

J. Fjeldsa 31 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

below, with Pallid Drab-Grey supralore and streaks on the Light Mouse 
Grey throat; darkest zone of breast Mouse Grey, with indications of 
lighter and buffier feather-edges centrally, lower belly and vent buffy 
white. Under wing-coverts Pinkish Buff, remiges and rectrices Cinna- 
mon (inclining towards Avellaneous) with dusky distal bar, which is c. 
11.5 mm wide on the right outer rectrix, but diffusely demarcated (the left 
outer rectrix has a malformation distally). Culmen 19.4 mm, tarsus 
27.8 mm, wing cord 124.3 mm, tail 90.6 mm. 

Other specimens examined. 12 in AMNH, 6 in ANSP, 5 in CMP, 6 in 
MHNP, 3 in LSUMZ, 3 in MHNP, 3 in SMNH. Compared with 43 
specimens of the nominate subspecies in AMNH, ANSP, BMNH, CMP, 

Range. Puno in southeastern Peru and into Bolivia, along the East 
Cordillera of La Paz to the Tunari Range of Cochabamba; also in semi- 
arid central Cochabamba and into adjacent Sta Cruz, and by Oploca in 


I wish to thank the staff members of all museums visited for their courtesy, and Olavi 
Gronwall in Stockholm for a loan. The field work and museum visits in the Andes were 
sponsored especially by the Danish National Research Council (grants 11-4043, 11-5958, 
1 1-), which also supported museum visits in the U.S. in 1988 (grant 1 1-7173). 


Ansion, J. 1986. El arbol y el bosque en la sociedad Andina. Inst. Nac. Forestal Fauna — FAO: 

Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1985. Form, foraging behavior, and adaptive radiation in the Tyrannidae. 

Pp. 447-470 in Buckley et al. (Eds) Neotropical Ornithology. Ornithological 

Monograph Xo. 36. A.O.U., Washington. 
Fjeldsa, J. 1 987. Birds of Relict Forests in the High Andes of Peru and Bolivia. Technical report 

from the polylepis forest expedition of the Zoological Museum , 1987 , with some preliminary 

suggestions for habitat preservation. Zool. Mus.: Copenhagen. 80 pp. 
Fjeldsa, J. & Krabbe, X. in press. Birds of the High Andes — a manual to the birds of the 

temperate zone of the Andes and Patagonia. Zool. Mus.: Copenhagen, c. 850 pp. 
Lanyon, W. E. 1 986. A phylogeny of the thirty-three genera in the Empidonax assemblage of 

tyrant flycatchers. Am. Mus. Novit. 2846: 1-64. 
Ridgway, R. 1912. Color Standards and Color Nomenclature. Washington D.C. 
Simpson, B. B. 1986. Speciation and specialization of Polylep ism the Andes. Pp. 304-316 in 

F. Vuillieumier & M. Monasterio (eds.): High Altitude Tropical Biogeography. Oxford 

Univ. Press. 
Smith, W. J. & Vuilleumier, F. 1971. Evolutionary relationships of some South American 

Ground Tyrants. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 141: 179-268. 
Travlor, M. A., Jr. 1977. A classification of the tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae). Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool. 148: 129-184. 
Traylor, M. A., Jr. 1979. Subfamily Tyranninae. Pp. 186-229 in M. A. Traylor (ed.): 

Check-list of Birds of the World. Vol. VIII. Mus. Comp. Zool.: Cambridge, Mass. 
Vuilleumier, F. 1986. Origins of the tropical avifaunas of the high Andes. Pp. 586-622 in 

F. Vuillieumier & M. Monasterio (eds.): High Altitude Tropical Biogeography. Oxford 

Univ. Press. 
Zimmer, J. T. 1937. Studies of Peruvian birds. XXXVI. Notes on the genera Agriornis, 

Muscisaxicola , Myiotheretes, Colonia, Knipolegus, Phaeotriccus , Fluvicola and 

Ramphotrigon. Am. Mus. Novit. 930: 1-27. 

Address: Dr J. Fjeldsa, Zoologisk Museum, Universitetsparken 15, DK 2100 Kobenhavn, 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1990. 

N.Stronach 32 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

Habitat and distribution of the Rock-loving 
Cisticola Cisticola aberrans in Serengeti 
National Park, Tanzania 

by Neil Stronach 

Received 26 June 1989 

The Rock-loving Cisticola Cisticola aberrans has a wide range in Africa 
(Hall & Moreau 1970). It has specialized habitat requirements and 
consequently is local within much of its known range (Britton 1980, 
Mackworth-Praed & Grant 1960). Schmidl (1982) traced only 2 pub- 
lished records of the species in Serengeti National Park (SNP), Tanzania, 
but between 1985 and 1987 I found it to be quite common in its preferred 
habitat there. This paper describes its status and aspects of its habitat 
preferences in SNP. Descriptions of the natural features of SNP have 
been reviewed by Sinclair & Norton-Griffiths (1979). 

All parts of SNP were visited. Observations were made opportunisti- 
cally and no formal survey was undertaken. C. aberrans was easily located 
and identified by its call. Most individuals could be approached closely 
enough to be identified by plumage characters, but the combination 
of call and habitat was usually sufficient. SNP is within the range of 
C. a. emini as shown by Hall & Moreau (1970). 

Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1960) and Britton (1980) emphasize the 
scantiness of vegetation in the rocky habitat of C. aberrans in East Africa. 
On the contrary, observations in SNP indicate that the species is confined 
to rocky places where the vegetation usually is rather plentiful. Most 
records were from rocky hills, but in northwestern SNP and near 
Seronera it was found among kopjes. The kopjes referred to in this paper 
are also known as boulder inselbergs, or tors, as defined by Gerrard 
(1988), though some include features resembling domed inselbergs and 
castle kopjes. C . aberrans was also noted in extensive thickets of Croton 
dichogamus and Acacia brevispica on the eastern scarp of the Magogwa 
Hills after fire had removed grass from the rock outcrops that are its usual 
habitat in that area. 

On hills, C. aberrans occupied extremely broken ground, with boulders 
forming a scree on steep slopes, or rock outcrops and cliffs, more or less 
overgrown with grass, bushes and small trees. Even very small rock out- 
crops or cliffs were suitable. It preferred areas where there was grass 
growing between the boulders. The grass was usually Loudetia sp. with 
the leaf canopy 0.5 m to 0.75 m high, and flowering culms extending to 
above 1 m in height. 

The steep slopes of hills in SNP are more or less covered with 
woody vegetation. Characteristic species of tree are Combretum molle, 
Commiphora trothae and C. africana, Acacia spp. (particularly A. 
gerrardii and A. nilotica), Dombeya rotundifolia and Lonchocarpus 
eriocalyx. In many places these form open woodland, particularly on the 
steepest slopes where the effects of fire and browsing animals have been 
less severe. Around rock outcrops Cordia ovalis, Ziziphus mucronata, 
Euclea divinorum, Grewia spp. and Rhus natalensis form small thickets. 

A*. Stronach 


Bull.B.O.C. 1990 110(1; 

Fig. 1. Map of Serengeti National Park, showing the distribution of hills. Hills on which 
C . aberrans was recorded are shaded black. Kopjes on which C. aberrans was recorded 
are marked + . 

Near Seronera C. aberrans was found on kopjes with steep screes of 
large boulders. Tall Loudetia grew between the boulders but there were 
few bushes or trees. In northwestern SNP C. aberrans occupied kopjes on 
ridgetops, with tall Loudetia and Hy perihelia dissoluta growing thickly 
between the large boulders at their bases. Large trees of Ficus sp., 
Combretum molle and Terminalia mollis, and thickets of Grewia sp., Rhus 
natalensis and other shrubs were prominent on and around the kopjes. 

C. aberrans was observed to use all strata of the vegetation from bare 
rock surfaces to mature tree canopies. It spent most time in the grass layer 
and among bushes, particularly Commiphora trothae, which was usually 

N.Stronach 34 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

conspicuous in the hills. After fires had burnt most of the herb layer in the 
dry season, C. aberrans moved to small remnants of cover that had 
escaped burning, usually around rock outcrops or on cliffs. Such rem- 
nants are found on most hills in SNP, even after the most severe fires, and 
were seen to be used as refuges by C. aberrans. 

C. aberrans' habitat in SNP approximates to that occupied by the 
species in Zambia (Benson et al. 1973) and Malawi (Benson 1944), in 
contrast to other East African populations (Mackworth-Praed & Grant 
1960, Britton 1980), which occupy areas of bare rock with scant veg- 
etation, and for the species in South Africa (McLachlan & Liversidge 
1978), where it inhabits rank vegetation along streams. 

Fig. 1 shows the localities where C. aberrans was located. Most of the 
hills in southwestern SNP have steep escarpments, often with a line of 
rock outcrops and clifTs near their summits. On these hills C. aberrans was 
common, its habitat being linear in distribution and in some cases more or 
less continuous for several kilometres. On other hills, including some in 
the Western Corridor, there are no steep escarpments and there are fewer 
outcrops of rock. In these hills small populations of C. aberrans may be 
present but remain unrecorded. On the lower slopes of escarpments, the 
woodland was occupied by the Rattling Cisticola C. chiniana. In the open 
woodland and scattered tree grassland of the flatter hilltops C. chiniana 
and the Croaking Cisticola C. natalensis were characteristic. Some small 
hills are rocky to their summits and there C. aberrans dominated. The 
Issuria Escarpment, on the northwestern boundary of SNP, was not 
investigated. The habitat there appears ideal for C. aberrans and Finch 
(1987) recorded the species a short distance along the escarpment in 


I thank the Director of Tanzania National Parks, the Coordinator of the Serengeti Wildlife 
Research Institute and the Director-General of the Tanzania National Scientific Research 
Council for permission to live and work in Serengeti National Park. I also thank Nigel Collar 
and Simon Stuart for criticising a draft of this paper. 


Benson, C. W. 1944. Notes from Nyasaland. Ibis 86: 445-480. 

Benson, C. W., Brooke, R. K., Dowsett, R. J. & Irwin, M. P. S. 1973. The Birds of Zambia. 

Britton, P. L. (ed.) 1980. Birds of East Africa. East Africa Natural History Society, Nairobi. 
Finch, B. W. 1987. Rock-loving Cisticola C. aberrans near Kichwa Tembo, Maasai Mara, 

south-western Kenya. Scopus 1 1: 44—46. 
Gerrard, A. J. 1988. Rocks and Landforms . Unwin Hyman. 
Hall, B. P. & Moreau, R. E. 1970. An Atlas of Speciation in African Passerine Birds. British 

Museum (Nat. Hist.), Tring. 
Mackworth-Praed, C. W. & Grant, C. H. B. 1960. Birds of Eastern and Northeastern Africa. 

Vol. 2. Longmans, Green and Co. 
McLachlan, G. R. & Liversidge, R. 1 978. Roberts' Birds of South Africa (4th edn). Trustees 

of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town. 
Schmidl, D. 1982. The Birds of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. British Ornithologists' 

Union Checklist No. 5. B.O.U. 
Sinclair, A. R. E. & Norton-Griffiths, M. (Eds) 1979. Serengeti, Dynamics of an Ecosystem. 

Univ. of Chicago Press. 

Address: Neil Stronach, Knockroe, Delgany, Co. Wicklow, Ireland. 
© British Ornithologists' Club 1990. 

C. B. & D. W. Frith 35 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

The nest of the Mountain Firetail Oreostruthus 
fuliginosiis Estrildidae) in Papua New Guinea 

by Clifford B. Frith & Dawn W. Frith 

Received 26 June 1989 

The Mountain Firetail Oreostruthus fuliginosus is a large (13 cm long) and 
stout olive-brown estrildid finch with the sides of its breast, flanks, lower 
rump and upper tail coverts blood red and a bill colour that is variable but 
is basically blackish-red above and dull reddish below. It is found in the 
high mountains of the Central Ranges of the island of New Guinea at 
altitudes between 2200 and 3650 m, more usually above 2800 m, where it 
occurs singly or in pairs and sometimes in small groups in gaps in mon- 
tane forest, along road edges and at the timberline. A bulky, domed, nest 
containing 2 young of this species was found in mid-April above 2700 m 
on Alt Albert Edward (Donaghey 1 968), but almost no details were given. 
Nothing else of the biology of this interesting monotypic species is known 
save that it eats grass seeds, fruits and insects and may occur deep in forest 
as well as at its edge (Rand & Gilliard 1 967, Goodwin 1 982, Beehler et al. 
1986). For detailed descriptions of morphology and distributions the 
reader is referred to the above sources. 

Our incidental observations were made during other ornithological 
research in the Tari Gap forests (05°57'S, 143°10'E) of the Southern 
Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea at an altitude of c. 2650 m 
during the periods 8 September-29 October 1986, 14 October— 5 
December 1987 and 19 December 1988-10 February 1989 (Frith & Frith 
1987, 1988a,b,c, 1989). The habitat here is mossy mixed beech forest 
(Saunders 1 965) with abundant Pandanus Palms Pandanus tectorius in the 
canopy and subcanopy (see plate in Frith & Frith 1988c). 

At 09.10 on 1 1 September 1986 a Mountain Firetail was seen flying 
with a piece of long fine nest material in its bill into the 10.7 m high (out of 
reach) crown centre of a Pandanus Palm situated on a steep ridge well 
within undisturbed dense forest. 

At 08.00 on 22 October 1 987 a Mountain Firetail was seen flying with a 
dead leaf in its bill from the forest/grassland edge into a 6.7 m high 
Pandanus Palm crown centre to add it to a globular nest, which could be 
seen to have a mossy top, but which could not be more closely examined. 

On 31 December 1988 at 13.30 a nest was found placed between the 
frond bases of a Pandanus Palm crown 6.1 m above ground, the palm 
being 10 m into undisturbed forest from the edge of adjacent subalpine 
grassland. This nest contained the dried, mummified, body of a nestling 
with wing flight feathers and rump feathers out of pin, enabling us to 
identify it as a Mountain Firetail. The condition of green ferns on the 
outside of this nest indicated that it had been disused for no more than 
several weeks. Plate 3a shows the left side of this nest relative to the 
entrance, with the mummified nestling placed outside the entrance, and 
Plate 3b shows the side, or end, of the nest with the entrance hole (50 mm 

C.B.& D.W. Frith 36 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

diameter). Plate 4a shows the nest viewed from vertically above (note that 
the left side is only sparsely covered by external 'decoration' (see below) 
because it was built hard up against the broad palm frond bases); Plate 4b 
is the same view but the nest roof has been cut through its length from 
above the entrance hole to the far end of the chamber and then pulled 
apart to show the composition of the roof in section and the egg chamber 
floor. The rear of the nest chamber roof was 50 mm thick, and just above 
and within the entrance hole it was 35 mm thick. The bulky and sub- 
stantial rugby football-shaped nest consists of 2 fairly discrete parts, a 
dense and compact inner nest and a looser, sparser outer covering of 
predominantly green 'decoration'. The inner nest structure consists of 
numerous long grass blades, which were dry and broad, with a few dry 
leaves (up to 130 x 52 mm in size) and dry, long and narrow ginger plant 
leaves (up to 210 x 35 mm). The lining of the egg chamber floor consisted 
simply of smaller and finer grass blade pieces. There were no feathers or 
feather traces at all, but it is possible that any feather lining had been 
removed, though unlikely, since the presence of the mummified nestling 
rather excludes any disturbance of the nest. Immediately on the outside of 
the inner nest were numerous large pieces of dry Pandanus Palm fronds 
and dry leaves and fern frond pinnae with dry, long lengths of straw-like 
grass blades loosely and sparsely woven about the entire structure. 
Immediately outside this layer was the external 'decoration' of much 
fresh, green 'comb-toothed' fern fronds, some small filmy-fern fronds, a 
few bits of green moss and a good deal of fine and supple brown-yellow 
epiphytic orchid stems, one or two of which still had a few small fresh 
green leaves attached. The word 'decoration' is not used literally, as the 
external fresh green vegetation may be cryptic in function or have some 
other significance. 

The above nest of the Mountain Firetail is unlike those of its closest 
relatives the firetail finches of the genus Emblema, including Zonaeginthus 
(Goodwin 1982), in being much more substantial, more elongate than 
round, of far larger and coarser materials and, in addition, covered exter- 
nally with fresh green ferns and mosses common to its nesting habitat. 
The nest entirely lacks an entrance tube, unlike all other firetails except 
the divergent Painted Finch E. picta (Immelmann 1 982, Goodwin 1 982), 
and was not built into surrounding branches and foliage but was built 
upon and between the bases of Pandanus Palm fronds, with which tree the 
Mountain Firetail appears to have a close nesting association, at least in 
the Tari Gap area. 


We thank Brian Coates and Derek Goodwin for kindly commenting on a draft of this note. 


Beehler, B. N., Pratt, T. K. & Zimmerman, D. A. 1986. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton 

University Press. 
Donaghey, R. H. 1968. Letter to members. Papua New Guinea Bird Soc. Newsl. 32: 3. 
Frith, C. & Frith, D. 1987. The Logrunner, Orthonyx temminckii (Orthonychidae), at Tari 

Gap, Southern Highlands, Papua New Guinea. Muruk 2: 61-62. 
Frith, C. & Frith, D. 1988a. The Chestnut Forest-Rail, Rallina rubra (Rallidae), at Tari 

Gap, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea, and its vocalizations. Muruk 

3: 48-50. 

D.F.Stotz 37 Bull.B.O.C. 1990110(1) 

Frith, C. B. & Frith, D. W. 1988b. Nests and eggs of Papuan Scrub- wren Sericornis papuen- 

sis (Acanthizidae) and Grey-streaked Honeyeater Ptiloprora perstriata (Meliphagidae). 

Anst. Bird Watcher 12: 168-170. 
Frith, C. B. & Frith, D. W. 1988c. Discovery of nests and the egg of Archbold's Bowerbird 

Archboldia papuensis (Ptilonorhynchidae). Aust. Bird Watcher 12: 251-257. 
Frith, C. B. & Frith, D. W. 1989. Nesting biology and relationships of the Lesser 

Melampitta Melampitta lugubris. Emu 90. 
Goodwin, D. 1982. Estrildid Finches of the World. British Museum (Natural History). 
Immelmann, K. 1982. Australian Finches in Bush and Aviary . Angus & Robertson, Sydney. 
Rand, A. L. & Gilliard, E. T. 1967 '. Handbook of New Guinea Birds. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 
Saunders, J. C. 1965. Forest resources of the Wabag-Tari area. In General Report on Lands 

of the Wabag-Tari Area. Territory of Papua and New Guinea, 1960-61 . Land Research 

Series 15, CSIRO, Melbourne. 

Address: C. B. Frith & Dr D. W. Frith, "Prionodura", Paluma via Townsville, Queensland, 
Australia 4816. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1990. 

First specimens of Drymophila devillei from 


by Douglas F. Stotz 

Received 28 July 1989 

Hilty & Brown (1986) note the occurrence of the Striated Antwren 
Drymophila devillei in northern Ecuador and suggest that it might occur 
in adjacent Colombia in Putumayo or Amazonas. The Field Museum of 
Natural History contains 2 unpublished specimens of D. devillei from 
Putumayo that confirm this prediction. One, a male, was collected by 
Arturo Pazos on 7 October 1967 at Guascayaco. This locality was not 
located by Paynter & Tray lor (1981), but was thought to be close to 
Mocoa (1°09'S, 76°37'W). The other specimen is a female collected by 
Kjell von Sneidern. The tag now accompanying the bird gives no date and 
only 'Putumayo' as a locality. Based on the collector's number and the 
specimen's presence in a collection of birds that are otherwise all from San 
Antonio Guamuez, it appears that this specimen was probably obtained at 
San Antonio Guamuez (0°31'N, 76°45'W) on 30 October 1969. Inciden- 
tally Fitzpatrick & Willard (1982) reported other significant records in 
von Sneidern's collection from San Antonio Guamuez, including other 
first records from Colombia of Deconychura stictolaema , Rhegmatorhina 
melanosticta and Ramphotrigon fuscicauda. 

D. devillei is primarily a bird of bamboo thickets (Parker 1982). It is 
therefore not surprising that von Sneidern obtained several other 
bamboo-favouring species at this site, including Monasa flavirostris , 
Automolus melanopezus , Neoctantes niger and Ramphotrigon fuscicauda. 


I thank the Bird Division of the Field Museum of Natural History, in particular David 
Willard, Scott Lanyon and John Fitzpatrick, for allowing me to use the collection. Tom 
Schulenberg and Debby Moskovits provided useful comments on this paper. I also 

P. Alstrom & U. Olsson 38 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

acknowledge financial support provided by the Field Museum Scholarship Committee 
through the Lester Armour Graduate Fellowship. 


Fitzpatrick, J. W. &Willard, D. E. 1982. Twenty-one bird species new or little-known from 

the Republic of Colombia. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 102: 153-158. 
Hilty , S. L. & Brown, W.L.I 986. A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princeton Univ. Press. 
Parker, T. A., III. 1982. Observations of some unusual rainforest and marsh birds in 

southeastern Peru. Wilson Bull. 94: 477-493. 
Paynter, R. A. Jr. & Traylor, M. A. 1981. Ornithological Gazetteer of Colombia. Harvard 

Univ. Press. 

Address: D. F. Stotz, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 7172, 
Sao Paulo, S. P. CEP 01051 , Brazil. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1990. 

Taxonomy of the Phylloscopus proregulus 


by Per Alstrom & Urban Olsson 

Received 28 July 1989 

Pallas's Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus is usually divided into 3 

(1) proregulus (Pallas) breeding in Siberia, northern Mongolia and 
northeastern China (Manchuria), and wintering mainly in south- 
eastern China; 

(2) chloronotus (Gray) breeding in central China and in the Himalayas 
west to central Nepal, where it intergrades with 

(3) simlaensis Ticehurst, which occurs in the western Himalayas. The 
latter 2 are mainly altitudinal migrants (see Ali & Ripley 1973, 
Cheng 1987, Harrison 1982, Mayr & Cottrell 1986, Ticehurst 
1938, Williamson 1967; Fig. 1). 

Another form, kansuensis Meise (northern Gansu Province, China), 
has been described, but was regarded by Vaurie (1954) as synonymous 
with proregulus; Mayr & Cottrell (1986) follow Vaurie in this respect. 
Cheng (1987), on the other hand, treats it as a synonym of chloronotus. 
Judging from the only specimen of this form that we have seen (at the 
British Museum (Natural History) (BMNH), Tring; BM No. 
1938.5.16.21), we agree with Cheng that it is best synonymised with 
chloronotus; Peter Colston (BMNH), who has also studied this specimen, 

Cheng and Mayr & Cottrell state that proregulus intergrades with 
chloronotus in the eastern part of Qinghai Province, China, a statement for 
which we have found no support. Accordingly, we believe that the breed- 
ing range of nominate proregulus is geographically well separated from 
chloronotus I simlaensis (Fig. 1). 

We have studied all 3 forms on their respective breeding grounds: 
proregulus in Siberia in 1 984 and 1 986 and in Manchuria in 1 987 and 1 988; 

P. Alstrom & U. Olsson 


Bull.B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

Figure 1 . Distribution of (nominate) Phylloscopus proregulusWW and P. (p.) chloronotus (see 
text) (including simlaensis) ////. Based on Cheng (1987), Harrison (1982) and personal 

chloronotus in Nepal in 1983 and in China in 1986, 1987 and 1989; and 
simlaensis in Kashmir in 1983. We are subsequently of the opinion that P. 
proregulus (sensu lato) should be divided into 2 species, P. proregulus 
(monotypic) and P. chloronotus (with subspecies chloronotus and 
simlaensis). Alstrom, Colston & Olsson (1990) indicate the likelihood of a 
new species, which has possibly been overlooked because of its close 
similarity to sympatric chloronotus. 

Morphological differences between proregulus and chloronotus I 

Morphologically, proregulus and chloronotus j simlaensis are extremely 
similar. In fresh plumage, the supercilium and median crown-stripe and 
often also the ear-coverts, chin, throat and wing-bars are much more 
yellow in proregulus. Especially in front of and above the eye, the super- 
cilium is generally bright yellow in proregulus, while it is very pale yellow- 
ish, generally looking off-white or pale huffish, in chloronotus j simlaensis. 
The supercilium also tends to be slightly broader in front of the eye in 
proregulus. Moreover, proregulus is slightly greener, less brownish- 
tinged, on the mantle when fresh, especially compared to chloronotus, 
which is also darker. In fresh plumage, simlaensis is more buffish below 
than the other 2 forms. In worn plumage the differences in colouration 
between the 3 forms are less obvious. 

There are only slight on-average differences in the wing-formula; 
proregulus has marginally shorter 10th primary 5.5-9.0 mm > primary 
coverts, as opposed to 6-12.5 mm in chloronotus j simlaensis; in proregulus 
the 9th falls between 2nd and 4th, but in chloronotus} simlaensis between 
the tips of the secondaries and the 3rd primary, most often between the 1 st 
and 2nd primaries (primaries numbered descendantly) (Williamson 1967 
and personal measurements). 

P. Alstrbm & U. Olsson 


Bull.B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

a i 2. 3 


'*i* ill! ill! 
■1/ ' AA 

1 F J" 1 1 , . 

: ■.;M , : ta w 

a •• !,iiHll 
-AS ■ ill 

A , 

I I 




Figure 2. Parts of continuous song of 
(nominate) Phylloscopus proregulus (a-e), 
Heilongjiang Province, China, June 1987. 
Complete type A song (/), and part of type 
B (subtype 1) song (g) of P. (p.) cholorono- 
tus (see text), Sichuan Province, China, 
May 1987. Call of proregulus (h), Heilong- 
jiang Province, China, June 1988. Call of 
chloronotus (i), Sichuan Province, China, 
May 1989. 

All tape recordings by Per Alstrom; 
sonograms made by Richard Ranft, 
British Library of Wildlife Sounds. Band 
width 369 Hz. Horizontal scale gives time 
in seconds; vertical scale gives KHz 0-8. 

P. Alstrom & U. Olsson 41 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 1 10(1) 

Response of (nominate) Phylloscopus proregulus and P. (p.) chloronotus (see text) to playback 
of song of each other and of P. (p.) chloronotus with one type of song to playback of the other 
type of song. A and B refer to the different types of song and a-f indicate different individ- 
uals. — = not played. The slow 'first approach' by c and e to the Type A song is explained by 
the long intervals in the recording used — in fact, both individuals responded the second time 
the song was heard. See text. 

First approach/time spent within 5 m of speaker (seconds) 
Songtvpe plaved chloronotus proregulus 

for 2 minutes a(A) b(A) c(B) d(B) e(B) f(A) g 

proregulus 8/85 

chloronotus (songtvpe A) 5/95 7/92 24/71 5/113 24/72 — 
chloronotus (songtvpe B) — — 6/96 8/102 6/98 

Vocal differences between proregulus and chloronotus I 

The song of proregulus is very loud, rich and varied, consisting of clear 
whistles and trills — somewhat reminiscent of the song of the Canary 
Serinus canaria (Figs 2a-e). 

chloronotus / simlaensis has at least 2 different basic types of song. One 
type (A) is a drawn-out thin rattle immediately followed by a rapid series 
of hammering notes of the same pitch (Fig. 2f). It can be transcribed 
The duration is only 3—4- seconds, and it is repeated at intervals of 5-10 
seconds or more. The second type (B), which is somewhat variable, is(l)a 
stuttering, 'endless' series of notes of alternating pitch, e.g. "tsi tsi-tsi tsi- 
tsi tsii-tsu tsi-tsi tsii-tsu tsi-tsi tsi-tsi tsi-tsi-tsi tsirrp tsi-tsi tsii- tsii tsii-tsu tsi- 
tsi tsii-tsu-tsii . . ." (Fig. 2g); or (2) "tsi-tsi tsi-tsi tsii-tsu tsi-tsi tsii tsi-tsi 
tsididididididi tsi-tsi tsii- tsii tsi tsii-tsu-tsii tsi-tsi tsi-tsi tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi- 
tsi-tsi tsi-tsi . . .", or similar. Sometimes a rattling '"tsirrrrrrr" is admixed 
in both forms. Another variant on this theme is (3) " tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi- 
tsi-tsi . . . tsi-tsi . . . tsitsi-tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi . . . tsitsitsitsitsi . . . tsi- 
tsi. . .". Type A has been recorded throughout the range. Of type B, (1) is 
the most common 'subtype' heard in China, (2) can also be heard in China 
but is perhaps more frequent in the western Himalayas (tape recorded 
by John Eames in Pakistan), and (3) has been tape recorded by Steve 
Madge in Darjeeling, India. Sonograms of chloronotus, which appear to 
be variants of type B, are found in Martens (1980). 

Our observations of chloronotus in China showed that one individual 
male usually sings only one of the 2 types. In fact, although we strongly 
suspect that any male is capable of singing both types, we have no firm 
proof of this. However, males singing the type A song respond as 
vigorously to a playback of type B as to its own song and vice versa 
(Table 1). 

The call of proregulus (Fig. 2h) is a rather faint, soft, slightly nasal "dju- 
ee" or, differently transcribed il duee" . The call of chloronotus I simlaensis is 
very different, a high-pitched "uist" (Fig. 2i). 

P. Alstrom & U. Olsson 42 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 1 10(1) 

Playback experiments 

In 1987 and 1989 we carried out a series of playback experiments in 
China in order to test the reactions of chloronotus to the song of proregulus 
and vice versa. Unfortunately, proregulus proved to be exceptionally diffi- 
cult to test; only one out of some 10 singing males responded to proregulus 
song. The reason for this is perhaps that we were unable to elevate the 
speaker to anywhere near the height at which the birds were perched 
when singing — generally in the tops of 20-30 m high conifers. 

A powerful speaker was placed 1-2 m above the ground below a tree 
where a territory-holding male was singing. The tape recorder was oper- 
ated and the bird watched by P. A. from 10 m away from the speaker and 
by U.O. from approximately 25 m away. Care was taken so that P. A., who 
was nearer to the speaker, would not be easily seen by the bird. The tape 
was not played until the bird was clearly visible. 

Four chloronotus (designated ad), 2 at Lijiang, Yunnan Province (c. 
27.5°N, 100.5°E) on 4 April 1987 and 2 on Emei Shan, Sichuan Province 
(29°31'N, 103°20'E) on 18 May 1987 and 10 May 1989 respectively were 
tested in the following way: — 

(1) proregulus song was played for 2 minutes. 

(2) This was followed by chloronotus song, played also for 2 minutes. 
The 2 males at Lijiang both sang a type A song and were exposed to 
this type. The individuals on Emei Shan both sang type B. To the 
one in 1987 type A was played, and to the one in 1989 both types 
were played. 

(3) Immediately after chloronotus song, proregulus song was played for 
another 2 minutes. 

A different chloronotus (e) with type B song on Emei Shan was tested on 

14 May 1987 as follows:— 

(1 ) First chloronotus type B song was played for 2 minutes. 

(2) Then chloronotus type A was played for 2 minutes, 

(3) immediately followed by proregulus for 2 minutes. 

A further chloronotus (f ) with type A song on Emei Shan was tested on 

1 5 May 1 987 in the following way: — 

(1) chloronotus type B was played for 2 minutes, 

(2) immediately followed by proregulus for 2 minutes. 

One proregulus (g) on Changbai Shan, Jilin Province (c. 42°N, 127°E) 
in June 1987 was tested as follows: — 

(1) chloronotus type B was played for 2 minutes. 

(2) This was followed by proregulus song for 2 minutes, 

(3) which in turn was immediately followed by chloronotus for 2 
minutes, and 

(4) finally another round of proregulus. 


None of the 6 chloronotus (a-f ) showed any response at all to the song 
of proregulus, whereas they all showed strong aggressive behaviour 
towards the song of chloronotus — vigorously searching for the aggressor, 
flying back and forth over the speaker, usually calling frequently and 
occasionally singing. The single proregulus (g) did not respond to the 

P. Alstrom, P. R. Colston & U. Olsson 43 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 1 10(1) 

song of chloronotus, but very stronglv to the song of its own form. (See 
Table 1.) 


The morphological differences between proregulus and chloronotus j sim- 
laensis do not in themselves warrant separating them from each other. 
However, the very marked differences in both song and calls would seem 
to act as reproductively isolating mechanisms if there was any sympatry. 
This assumption is strongly supported by playback experiments, 
although a longer series of tests on proregulus is desirable. 


We are most grateful to Peter Colston for much help in connection with studies of skins at 
the BMXH, Tring, to Richard Ranft and the British Library of Wildlife Sounds for making 
the sonograms, and to John Eames, Steve Madge and T. J. Roberts for supplying tape 


Alstrom, P., Colston, P. R. & Olsson, U. 1990. Description of a possible new species of leaf 

warbler of the genus Phvlloscopus from China. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 1 10(1): 43^-7. 
Ali, S. & Ripley, S. D. 1973." Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Vol. 8. Delhi. 
Cheng, T-s. 1987. A Synopsis of the Avifauna of China. Beijing, Hamburg and Berlin. 
Harrison, C. 1 982. An Atlas of the Birds of the Western Palaearctic. London. 
Martens, J. 1980. Lautdusserungen , verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen und Verbreitungs- 

geschichte asiatischer Laubsdnger (Phvlloscopus) . Berlin, Hamburg. 
Mayr, E. & Cottrell, G. W. (eds.). 1986. Check-list of Birds of the World. A continuation of the 

Work of James L. Peters. Vol. XI. Cambridge, Mass. 
Ticehurst, C. B. 1938. A Systematic Review of the Genus Phvlloscopus. Trustees of the 

British Museum. 
Vaurie, C. 1954. Systematic notes on Palearctic birds. No. 9. Sylviinae: the genus Phyllos- 

copus. Amer. Mus. Nov. 1685. 
Williamson, K. 1967. Identification for Ringers. The Genus Phylloscopus. British Trust for 


Addresses: Per Alstrom, Marholmsvagen 105, S-436 45 Askim, Sweden. Urban Olsson, 
Gamlestadstorget 22, S-415 03 Goteborg, Sweden. 

© British Ornithologists' Club 1990. 

Description of a possible new species of leaf 
warbler of the genus Phylloscopus from China 

by Per Alstrom, Peter R. Colston <Sf Urban Olsson 

Received 28 July 1989 


On 16-17 April 1986 on Emei Shan, Sichuan Province (29°31'N, 
103°20'E), U.O. noted one individual of a Phylloscopus warbler with a 
peculiar song, which reminded him of the song of Prinia criniger. The 
bird was only seen well very briefly, but it appeared to be P. (proregulus ) 
chloronotus — with a previously unrecorded type of song (see Alstrom & 
Olsson 1990). 

P. Alstrom, P. R. Colston & U. Olsson 44 

Bull.B.O.C. 1990 110(1) 

Figure 1. Heads of (Left) P. (proregulus) chloronotus, (Centre) 'Ph.sp.' , and (Right) P. 
inornatus. Drawing by Per Alstrom. 

On 15 June 1988, at Western Hills, Beijing, Hebei Province (c. 40°N, 
115.5°E), P. A. and U.O. observed a bird which alternated between a 
series of loud whistles and the Prinia-like song U.O. had heard on Emei 
Shan. This individual was also seen very poorly, but it also seemed to be 
chloronotus, which was then believed to have 4 different types of song (cf. 
Alstrom & Olsson 1990). 

On 9 June 1989, P. A. and P.R.C. found a bird with the Prinia-like song 
in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan Province (33°10'N, 104°18'E). It also had the 
same series of whistles that had been heard in Beijing the previous year. 
The bird was seen very well, and it was almost immediately realised that it 
was in fact not chloronotus, but probably an undescribed species, hereafter 
referred to as 'Ph.sp.'. During the same and the following day, it was 
found to be rather common in one part of the area, and we heard at least 1 5 
individuals, of which excellent views were obtained of 5. The morpho- 
logical differences (see below) from chloronotus that we had noticed on the 
first individual were found to be constant. We also carried out a few vocal 
playback tests, which confirmed the distinctness from chloronotus. Unfor- 
tunately, we were unable to obtain a specimen, but it is planned to return 
in 1990. 


Basically, Ph.sp. is very similar to chloronotus and shares chloronotus' 
main features: small size; distinct head pattern, with dark lateral crown- 
stripes and pale median crown-stripe; distinct pale yellow rump; con- 
trastingly dark-centred greater coverts with broad pale tips, forming a 
prominent wing-bar (a second, narrower wing-bar is formed by pale tips 
to the median coverts); and pale edges to the tertials. 

However, Ph.sp. differs from chloronotus in the following respects: 
Ph.sp. is slightly larger, seemingly the same size as the Yellow-browed 
Warbler P. inornatus. Although this was apparent without direct com- 
parison, it was confirmed when one individual Ph.sp. was seen together 
with a chloronotus on several occasions. The shape is also more like that of 
inornatus, i.e. slightly more elongated than chloronotus, with proportion- 
ately slightly longer bill and, perhaps as a result of this, a slightly less 
rounded-looking head. 

The lower mandible shows a distinct pale base — in one individual the 
lower mandible was pale with only a small dark tip; chloronotus shows very 
little pale colouring. 

The head patterns differ significantly (Fig. 1). In Ph.sp. the anterior 
part of the median crown-stripe is clearly more poorly marked, and when 
seen head-on, the crown often looks unmarked, and in one individual, the 

P. Alstrom, P. R. Colston & U. Olsson 45 Bull. B.O.C. 1990 1 10(1) 

stripe itself was very faint, except posteriorly, where it formed a con- 
trastingly pale patch. In this respect, the head pattern is reminiscent of 
P. reguloides for example. Moreover, the lateral crown-stripes are 
marginally paler in Ph.sp. The dark eye-stripe is not quite so dark as in 
chloronotus, and this in combination with slightly darker rest of the ear- 
coverts makes the stripe less contrasting. None of the 5 Ph.sp. showed the 
slight downward extension of the eye-stripe posteriorly as is often seen in 

In Ph.sp. there is no trace of a dark shade at the bases of the second- 
aries. However, this is sometimes very indistinct in chloronotus. 

Without specimens, it is not known whether Ph.sp. has a different wing 

If the pale median crown-stripe and yellow rump cannot be seen, the 
bird is more similar to inornatus than to chloronotus. 

Apart from chloronotus, there is only one other Phylloscopus which 
closely resembles Ph.sp., namely P. subviridis from Afghanistan and the 
westernmost Himalayas. However, amongst other features, this lacks a 
yellow rump. There is some resemblance to the sympatric P. pulcher, but 
pulcher shows a less distinct median crown-stripe and largely white 3 
outer pairs of rectrices, and other differences. 


The song (Fig. 2) is a monotonous, dry "tsiridi-tsiridi-tsiridi-tsiridi- 
tsiridi-tsiridi-tsiridi-tsiridi-tsiridi-. . .", which can go on for a minute or 
so. It resembles the song oiPrinia criniger and is very different from the 
song of presumably all other Phylloscopus species on mainland Asia and 
Japan. We have field experience with the song of all those except neglectus, 
fuligiz enter , maculipennis , subviridis and cantator, but we have listened to 
tape recordings by T. J. Roberts of subviridis and seen sonograms of all the 
others except fuligiventer (Martens 1980), and they all have very different 
songs from Ph.sp. The song of chloronotus is described by Martens (1980) 
and Alstrom & Olsson (1990). The song of Ph.sp. is usually delivered 
from the top of a tall spruce Picea/ Abies. 

The bird also gives a varied, irregular series of loud, clear, scolding 
whistles (Fig. 2), e.g. " l tueet-tueet-tueet tueet-tueet tueet-tueet-tueet-tueet 
. . .", "tueet tUEE tuee-tuee-tuee-tuee-tuee-tuee-tuee-tuee-tuee-tuee-tuee- 
tuee", or a hammering "tueet tuee-tee-tee-tee-tee-tee-tee-tee-tee-tee-" . 
These series of whistles seem to be delivered only when the bird is agi- 
tated, and it therefore appears that this may be some sort of alarm call 
rather than song. These 'calls' are also different from probably all 
Phylloscopus species on mainland Asia and Japan. We did not hear any 
other c